Glory Road Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Glory Road College Essay Examples

Title: Glory road movie

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3828
  • Bibliography:9
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: GLORY ROAD Movie

I. Introduction
a. Basic Story Line
b. Setting
c. What did you personally get from the movie?

Identify 4 Major Themes of the Movie (My 4 Themes are 1.Whiteness in Sport, 2.White Privilege 3.Racism & sport 4.Stereotypes & athletes
II.
a. What are the main themes of the movie?
b. How do the main themes of the movie relate to the topics of our class? (All)
c. Explain how your faith relates to the major themes in the movie

III. Integrate current literature surrounding the main themes of the movie – at least 4 pages
a. Identify themes and how they relate to the various topics in the field of sport sociology
b. Describe how each journal article relates to each of major themes from the movie and give examples

IV. Conclusions
a. Your overall interpretation of the movie and themes
b. What specifically could the producers have improved upon in the movie?

V. Future Recommendations
a. From current literature/journal articles
b. From your own input


Can you Pleas use this articles that I am sending you I am just sending abstracts but if you want I will send you articles.

Title: PEER ATTITUDES TOWARDS ADOLESCENT PARTICIPANTS IN MALE- AND FEMALE-ORIENTED SPORTS.
Author(s): Alley, Thomas R. email: Hicks, Catherine M.
Source: Adolescence Summer2005, Vol. 40 Issue 158, p273 8p.
Subject Terms: *SPORTS
HIGH school students
GENDER stereotypes
STEREOTYPES (Social psychology)
PEER review in psychology
Abstract: This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
ISSN: 00018449
Document Information: Publication Type: Journal Article Update Code: 20050719


Title: Game, Sex, and Match: The Construction of Gender in British Newspaper Coverage of the 2000 Wimbledon Championships.
Author(s): Vincent, John1
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal 2004: Vol. 21 Issue 4. p. 435-456 22p.

English
Country of Publication: United States
Subject Terms: *TENNIS
*WIMBLEDON Tennis Tournament
*MASS media & sports
SEX
COMPARATIVE studies
NEWSPAPERS
RACE
SEXISM
Geographic Terms: GREAT Britain
Keyword(s): CONTENT ANALYSIS; OCCURRENCE; STEREOTYPING
Abstract: This study compared British newspaper coverage of female and male tennis players competing in the 2000 Wimbledon Championships. Content analysis methodology was used to compare the amount of coverage in The Times, Daily Mail, and The Sun. Drawing on Connell's (1987, 1993, 1995) theory of gender power relations, textual analysis was used to examine recurring themes in the gendered coverage and analyze how the themes intersected with race. Although few discrepancies were found in the amount of coverage, qualitative comparisons revealed that the predominantly male journalists generally devalued the athletic achievements of female tennis players by using cultural and racial stereotypes, trivialization, and sexual innuendo. In comparison, the journalists frequently expressed their reverence for male tennis players' athleticism, reproducing and legitimizing hegemonic masculinity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Title: Style Matters: Explorations of Bodies, Whiteness, and Identity in Rock Climbing.
Author(s): Erickson, Bruce
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal Sep2005, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p373 24p.
Subject Terms: *ROCK climbing
*MOUNTAINEERING
*DISCRIMINATION in sports
*OUTDOOR life
PSYCHOANALYSIS
DEBATES & debating
Abstract: The concern for style in climbing has been a long-standing debate in the climbing community, ranging from discussions around the politics of bolting routes to what exactly constitutes a first ascent. These debates, when read through Lacanian psychoanalysis, illustrate a larger concern for the construction of identity within rock climbing. Style becomes a strategy of differentiation that works through the signifier of whiteness to promise wholeness to the identity of the climber. Descriptions of the events in August of 2000 when four American climbers on a North Face expedition in Kyrgyzstan were taken hostage by members of the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan illustrate that whiteness only covers up deficiencies in the subject and creates a constant state of insecurity. Through the concept of whiteness as a logic of difference, it is possible to understand how this event illustrates the construction of whiteness, and specifically, the moments when whiteness fails to provide being to the subject. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Title: Venus, Serena, and the Women's Tennis Association: When and Where "Race" Enters.
Author(s): Douglas, Delia D.
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal Sept 2005: Vol. 22 Issue 3. p. 256-282 27p.
Publisher:
Language: English
Country of Publication: United States
Subject Terms: *TENNIS
*SPORTS tournaments
*SPORTS spectators
*LIFE style
*ATHLETES
CAUCASIAN race
SOCIOCULTURAL factors
WOMEN
Keyword(s): RACISM; PROFESSIONAL
People/Teams: WILLIAMS, V.
WILLIAMS, S.
Abstract: By 2002 Venus and Serena Williams were the top two women players on the women^D>'s professional tennis tour. Nevertheless, despite their spectacular success, there has been a decidedly ambivalent tenor toward their accomplishments. Applying Raymond Williams' concept of "structures of feeling," this essay considers how dominant cultural meanings and values are taken up and expressed through the atmosphere produced at a sport event. Drawing on the insights offered by critical race scholarship and critical whiteness studies, the following discussion examines the character and significance of the atmosphere produced at two tournaments (Indian Wells, CA, in 2001 and the French Open in 2003) in order to understand how white racial subjectivities are conceived and communicated in daily life. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Title: Mapping Whiteness and Sport: Introduction to the Special Issue.
Author(s): McDonald, Mary
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal Sep2005, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p245 11p.
Subject Terms: *DISCRIMINATION in sports
*RACISM in sports
ENDOWMENT of research
LEARNING & scholarship
ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY
ETHNOCENTRISM
Abstract: This introductory essay maps a context from which to understand the explosion in the analysis of whiteness, white identities and white privilege in the 1990s and 2000s. The current proliferation—including this special issue devoted to the study of whiteness and sport—is not a new phenomenon because people of color have long critiqued and challenged the mythologies perpetuating racism and white supremacy. Contemporary interdisciplinary scholarship works within and against this legacy suggesting that the articles in this special issue constitute an epistemologically divided knowledge project that is further implicated in contemporary power relations, racial performances, and struggles over meaning. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Title: Policing the Race: U.S. Men's Distance Running and the Crisis of Whiteness.
Author(s): Walton, Theresa A.; Butryn, Ted M.
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal Mar2006, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p1 28p.
Subject Terms: *MARATHON running
*ATHLETES
*MASS media
*SPORTS
*PHYSICAL fitness
*SPORTS personnel
*ATHLETICS
RACE
Geographic Terms: UNITED States
Abstract: In this article, we examine the complex relationship between whiteness and men's U.S. distance running. Through a critical examination of over 700 print and electronic sources dealing with distance running in the U.S. from the 1970s through the present, we present evidence that distance running has been framed as a “White space” that is threatened by both external factors (dominance of male international distance-running competition by athletes from African nations) and internal factors (lack of U.S. White male success in conjunction with the success of U.S. citizens of color, born within and outside of the U.S.). We also examine several forms of backlash against these perceived threats, including the media focus on a succession of next White hopes, the rise of U.S. only prize money in road races, and the marginalization of African-born U.S. runners. Our analysis reveals how the media works to normalize whiteness within the larger narrative of U.S. distance running and suggests the need for future work on whiteness and sport. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Title: Mapping Whiteness and Sport: Introduction to the Special Issue.
Author(s): McDonald, Mary
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal Sep2005, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p245 11p.
Subject Terms: *DISCRIMINATION in sports
*RACISM in sports
ENDOWMENT of research
LEARNING & scholarship
ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY
ETHNOCENTRISM
Abstract: This introductory essay maps a context from which to understand the explosion in the analysis of whiteness, white identities and white privilege in the 1990s and 2000s. The current proliferation—including this special issue devoted to the study of whiteness and sport—is not a new phenomenon because people of color have long critiqued and challenged the mythologies perpetuating racism and white supremacy. Contemporary interdisciplinary scholarship works within and against this legacy suggesting that the articles in this special issue constitute an epistemologically divided knowledge project that is further implicated in contemporary power relations, racial performances, and struggles over meaning. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR
Rumbles in the jungle: boxing, racialization and the performance of masculinity.
Author(s): Woodward, K.1 email:
Conference: Race, Nation, Sport (2d: 2002: London)
Source: Leisure Studies Jan 2004: Vol. 23 Issue 1. p. 5-17 13p.
Publisher:
Language: English
Country of Publication: United Kingdom
Subject Terms: *BOXING
MASCULINITY
RACE
AFRICAN Americans
GENDER identity
Geographic Terms: SHEFFIELD (England)
ENGLAND
Keyword(s): RACISM
Abstract: Men's boxing is a sport with successful, high profile and affluent participants and one that includes many of the very much less well off. It has traditionally involved high participation by men from black and minority ethnic backgrounds. The sport is beset by contradictions, between racism and opportunity, discipline and excess, beautiful bodies and those that are fractured and damaged, and between traditional and alternative presentations of masculinity. The negotiation and presentation of raced and gendered identities have a strong presence, especially in terms of the ways in which hegemonic masculinity might be enacted. This paper is about racialized masculinities in boxing and links ethnography at a Sheffield gym that has produced some very well-known boxers, with an exploration of popular, media narratives about this particular performance of masculinities and the discursive location of boxing as a sport. It looks at the enactment of masculinities at a site that might appear to offer particularly essentialized and polarized versions of masculinity, race and class. It examines the ways in which men participate in boxing at a variety of levels and the interconnections between the public and the private stories that are told about men and boxing.
Coaching difference: a case study of 4 African American women student-athletes.

Source: Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research May 2004: Vol. 18 Issue 2. p. 242-251 10p.

Language: English
Country of Publication: United States
Subject Terms: *COACHING (Athletics)
*SPORTS
*UNIVERSITIES & colleges
*ATHLETES
WOMEN -- Sociological aspects
CASE studies
WOMEN
AFRICAN Americans
INTERPERSONAL relations
Geographic Terms: UNITED States
Keyword(s): RACISM; STEREOTYPE
Abstract: The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the experiences of African American women student-athletes and the role that coaches play in those experiences. This study profiles 4 women who participated in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I cross-country, crew, track and field, and volleyball. Using data gathered through the qualitative methods of document analysis, background questionnaires, focus groups, grounded surveys, and indepth individual interviews, the results of the study are focused on how coaches affect individual student-athletes and, most specifically, a particular segment of the athletic world that tends to be overlooked: the African American woman. Results are organized according to the following themes that emerged through the collection of data: (a) the involvement of coaches in African American women student-athletes' exposure to racism through stereotypes, (b) coaches as significant influences on African American women becoming involved and remaining involved in sport, and (c) power structures in sport and society affecting African American women as a form of institutional racism. A practical applications section follows the results.
Related Records: Parent Item: SPHP6162
Number of References: Print references: 32
General Notes: Original research.
Author Affiliations: 1 Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269
Title: Coaching difference: a case study of 4 African American women student-athletes.
Author(s): Bruening, J.E.1 email
Source: Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research May 2004: Vol. 18 Issue 2. p. 242-251 10p.
Publisher:
Language: English
Country of Publication: United States
Subject Terms: *COACHING (Athletics)
*SPORTS
*UNIVERSITIES & colleges
*ATHLETES
WOMEN -- Sociological aspects
CASE studies
WOMEN
AFRICAN Americans
INTERPERSONAL relations
Geographic Terms: UNITED States
Keyword(s): RACISM; STEREOTYPE
Abstract: The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the experiences of African American women student-athletes and the role that coaches play in those experiences. This study profiles 4 women who participated in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I cross-country, crew, track and field, and volleyball. Using data gathered through the qualitative methods of document analysis, background questionnaires, focus groups, grounded surveys, and indepth individual interviews, the results of the study are focused on how coaches affect individual student-athletes and, most specifically, a particular segment of the athletic world that tends to be overlooked: the African American woman. Results are organized according to the following themes that emerged through the collection of data: (a) the involvement of coaches in African American women student-athletes' exposure to racism through stereotypes, (b) coaches as significant influences on African American women becoming involved and remaining involved in sport, and (c) power structures in sport and society affecting African American women as a form of institutional racism. A practical applications section follows the results.
Related Records: Parent Item: SPHP6162
Number of References: Print references: 32
General Notes: Original research.
Author Affiliations: 1 Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269
Title: Mapping Whiteness and Sport: Introduction to the Special Issue.
Author(s): McDonald, Mary
Source: Sociology of Sport Journal Sep2005, Vol. 22 Issue 3, p245 11p.
Subject Terms: *DISCRIMINATION in sports
*RACISM in sports
ENDOWMENT of research
LEARNING & scholarship
ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY
ETHNOCENTRISM
Abstract: This introductory essay maps a context from which to understand the explosion in the analysis of whiteness, white identities and white privilege in the 1990s and 2000s. The current proliferation—including this special issue devoted to the study of whiteness and sport—is not a new phenomenon because people of color have long critiqued and challenged the mythologies perpetuating racism and white supremacy. Contemporary interdisciplinary scholarship works within and against this legacy suggesting that the articles in this special issue constitute an epistemologically divided knowledge project that is further implicated in contemporary power relations, racial performances, and struggles over meaning. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

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References
Alley, T. R. (2000). Peer Attitudes Towards Adolescent Participants in Male-
and Female Oriented Sports. Adolescence Summer2005, 40, 273-281.

Douglass, D. D. (2005). Venus, Serena, and the Women's Tennis Association:
When and Where "Race" Enters. Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 256-282.

Erickson, B. (2005). Style Matters: Explorations of Bodies, Whiteness, and
Identity in Rock Climbing. : Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 373.

Harrison, C. K., & Lawrence, S. M. (2004). College Students' Perceptions,
Myths, and Stereotypes about African American Athleticism: A
Qualitative Investigation. Sport, Education, and Society, 9, 33-52.

McDonald, M. M. (2005). Mapping Whiteness and Sport: Introduction to the
Special Issue. Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 245-256.

Race, nation and performance: footballing nationalism in colonial India.
(2005). Soccer & Society Summer/Autumn, 6, 158-162.

Vincent, J. (2004). Game, Sex, and Match: The Construction of Gender in
British Newspaper Coverage of the 2000 Wimbledon Championships.
Sociology of Sport Journal, 21, 435-456.

Walton, T. A., & Butryn, T. M. (2006). Policing the Race: U.S. Men's
Distance Running and the Crisis of Whiteness. Sociology of Sport
Journal, 23, 1-29.

Woodward, K. (2004). Rumbles in the jungle: boxing, racialization and the
performance of masculinity. Leisure Studies, 23, 5-17.

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Title: Authentic Leadership

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1808
  • Sources:6
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: In your opinion, what does it take to become an authentic leader who people want to follow? Does every manager need to be a leader? Why is leadership portrayed in terms of how managers manage people? How can you be said to lead people when you have the authority to tell them what to do?

Paper must include:
1. APA format
a. Formatted correctly
b. In APA everything is double spaced.

2. Abstract

3. An introduction of the problem or question at hand (what your paper is about)

4. Literature review
a. What experts think or have said about the subject ( literature reviews)
b. DO NOT use the same author twice in your paper. There are many experts that you can use. Do some research!!!!!
c. It is important to leave yourself out of any research paper. Keep yourself out of the paper until the conclusion. The conclusion is the only place where it is proper to voice your thoughts or opinions. Do not use "I". Only use this researcher feels, this researcher thinks etc.....
d. Clear concise writing
e. Do not make paragraphs too long, 5 to 6 sentences max
f. Watch your grammar and spelling. My suggestion let someone read your work before you turn it in. Also read aloud that may help you clear up many grammatical mistakes.
g. Indent paragraphs (except abstract)
h. Be non-judgmental, or objective in the content of your paper
i. Proper citing of an author ( see below)

5. A conclusion
a. A must!!!!
b. What your final thoughts were on the subject or what the experts might have said.
c. Start out the last paragraph with: In conclusion..............

6. The reference page is always on a separate page.
a. Formatted correctly


Citing an Author

• I encourage that you use many different authors to enhance what you think or your opinion on the subject.
• Do NOT limit yourself to the same authors, do some research.
• Do not use the same author more than twice in the ENTIRE paper.
• What do other experts think?
• Every instructor has their own opinion on how to cite an author.
• THIS IS WHAT I PREFER: I expect to see the author(s) cited to be at the BEGINNING of a sentence or paragraph!!!!
• I prefer and DO NOT WANT to see an author’s name at the end of a paragraph.
• Hogan (2008) stated, “the United States is a safer place because of our criminal justice system." p.231. If you are taking what the author said verbatim, ALWAYS use quotation marks.
• If you are paraphrasing an author, it can look like this Hogan (2008) believes that the United States is a much better and safer place to live because of the well trained police officers.
• The year of the publication appears in parenthesis following the identification of the author(s).
• Always include the page number at the end of the sentence when you quote an author. It is a good habit to get into.
• Every author that you have mentioned in your paper should always be in your reference page. (In APA style, in alphabetical order, last name first and double spaced.)
• When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. Burke, Canes, Davis, Grier and Smith(2009) said, “ the sea of life is eternal.” p.19
• When that source is cited again, the first authors’ surname and “et al.” are used.
Burke et al. (2009) stated, “The world is a delight.” p.189.
• When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are cited every time.
• When citing 2 authors, in the context of your paper, use “and” between both authors names. Smith and Jones (2007) said………………….
• In the reference page use the “&” sign between the two authors names.
Smith, J. & Jones K., The Glory Road, Prentice Hall Publishers, New York, 2007.

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Bibliography

Ayers, R. (2004). Leading by Example. NEI Associates. Retrieved from: http://www.neiassociates.org/leadbyexample.htm

Fox, L (2003). Enron the Rise and Fall. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

McKee, A. (2008). Becoming a Resonant Leader. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Northouse, P. (2011). Introduction to Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Rosenberg, A. (2009). 101 Ways to Stand Out at Work. Avon, MA: Newton Abbott.

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Title: Grant and Lee A Study in Contracts

  • Total Pages: 1
  • Words: 378
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Compose a response to the following questions at the end of the Comparison story, Bruce Catton, Grant and Lee: A study in Contracts...

Bruce Catton (1899-1978) was a Civil War specialist whose early career included reporting for various newspapers. In 1954 he received both the Pulitzer Prize for historical work and the National Book Award. He served as director of information for the United States Department of Commerce and wrote many books, including Mr. Lincoln?s Army (1951), Glory Road (1952), A Stillness at Appomattox (1953), The Hallowed Ground (1956), America Goes to War (1958), The Coming Fury (1961), Terrible Swift Sword (1963), Never Call Retreat (1966), Waiting for the Morning Train: An American Boyhood (1972), and Gettysburg: The Final Fury (1974). For five years, Catton edited American Heritage.

"GRANT AND LEE: A STUDY IN CONTRASTS"
by Bruce Catton
?Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrast? was written as a chapter of The American Story, a collection of essays by noted historians. In this study, as in most of his other writing, Bruce Catton does more than recount the facts of history: he shows the significance within them. It is a carefully constructed essay, using contrast and comparison as the entire framework for his explanation.

When Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee met in the parlor of a modest house at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, to work out the terms for the surrender of Lee?s Army of Northern Virginia, a great chapter on American life came to a close, and a great new chapter began.
These men were bringing the Civil War to its virtual finish. To be sure, other armies had yet to surrender, and for a few days the fugitive Confederate government would struggle desperately and vainly, trying to find some way to go on living now that its chief support was gone. But in effect it was all over when Grant and Lee signed the papers. And the little room where they wrote out the terns was the scene of on of the poignant, dramatic contrasts in American History.
They were two strong men these oddly different generals, and they represented the strengths of two conflicting currents that through them, had come into final collision.
Back of Robert E Lee was the notion that the old aristocratic concept might somehow survive and be dominant in American life.
Lee was tidewater Virginia, and in his background were family, culture, and tradition? the age of chivalry transplanted to a New World which was making its own legends and its own myths. He embodied a way of life that had come down through the age of knighthood and the English country squire. America was a land that was beginning all over again, dedicated to nothing much more complicated than the rather hazy belief that all men had equal rights and should have and equal chance in the world. In such a land Lee stood for the feeliong that it was somehow of advantage to humans society to have a pronounced inequality in the social structure. There should be a leisure class, backed by ownership of land; in turn, society itself should be keyed to the land as the chief source of wealth and influence. It would bring fourth (according to this ideal) a class of men with a strong sense of obligation to the community; men who lived not to gain advantage for themselves, but to meet the solemn obligations which had been laid on then by the very fact that they were privileged. From them the country would get its leadership? to them it could look for higher values ? of thought, of conduct, or personal deportment ? to give it strength and virtue.
Lee embodied the noblest elements of this aristocratic ideal. Through him, the landed nobility justified itself. For four years, the Southern started had fought a desperate war to uphold the ideals for which Lee stood. In the end, it almost seemed as of the Confederacy fought for Lee; as if he himself was the Confederacy? the best thing that the way of life for which the Confederacy stood could ever have to offer. He had passed into legend before Appomattox. Thousands of tired, underfed, poorly clothed Confederate soldiers, long since past the simple enthusiasm of the early days of the struggle, somehow considered Lee the symbol of everything for which they had been willing to die. But they could not quite put this feeling into words, If the Lost Cause, sanctified by so much heroism and so many deaths, had a living justification, its justification was General Lee.
Grant, the son of a tanner on the Western frontier, was everything Lee was not. He had come up the hard way and embodied nothing in particular except the eternal toughness and sinewy fiber of the men who grew up beyond the mountains. He was one of a body of men who owed reverence and obeisance to no one, who were self-reliant to a fault, who cared hardly anything for the past but who had a sharp eye for the future.
These frontier men were the precise opposites of the tidewater aristocrats. Back of them, in the great surge that had taken people over the Alleghenies and into the opening Western country, there was a deep, implicit dissatisfaction with a past that had settled into grooves. They stood for democracy, not from any reasoned conclusion about the proper ordering of human society, but simply because they had grown up in the middle of democracy and knew how it worked. Their society might have privileges, but thy would be privileges each man had won for himself. Forms and patterns meant nothing. No man was born to anything, except perhaps to a chance to show how far he could rise. Life was competition.
Yet along with this feeling had come a deep sense of belonging to a national community. The Westerner who developed a farm, opened a shop, or set up in business as a trader could hope to prosper only as his own community prospered ? and his community ran from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Canada down to Mexico. If the land was settled, with towns and highways and accessible markets, he could better himself. He saw his fate in terms of the nation?s own destiny. As its horizons expanded, so did his. He had, in other words, and acute dollars-and-cents stake in the continued growth and development of his country.
And that, perhaps, is where the contrast between Grant and Lee becomes most striking. The Virginia aristocrat, inevitably, saw himself in relation to his own region, He lived in a static society which could endure almost anything except change. Instinctively, his first loyalty would go to the locality in which that society existed. He would fight to the limit of endurance to defend it, because on defending it he was defending everything that gave his own life its deepest meaning.
The Westerner, on the other hand, would fight with an equal tenacity for the boarder concept of society. He fought so because everything he lived by was tied to growth, expansion, and a constantly widening horizon. What he lived by would survive of fall with the nation itself. He could not possibly stand by unmoved on the face of an attempt to destroy the Union. He would combat it with everything he had, because he could only see it as an effort to cut the ground out from under his feet.
So Grant and Lee were in complete contrast, representing two diametrically opposed elements in American life. Grant was the modern man emerging; beyond him, ready to come on the stage was the great age of steal and machinery, of crowded cities and a restless burgeoning vitality. Lee might have ridden down from the old age of chivalry, lance in hand, silken banner fluttering over his head. Each man was the perfect champion for his cause, drawing both his strengths and his weaknesses from the people he led.
Yet it was not all contrast, after all. Different as they were ? in background, in personality, in underlying aspiration ? these two great soldiers had much in common. Under everything else, they were marvelous fighters. Furthermore, their fighting qualities were really very much alike.
Each man had, to begin with, the great virtue or utter tenacity and fidelity. Grant fought his way down the Mississippi Valley in spite of acute personal discouragement and profound military handicaps. Lee hung on in the trench at Petersburg after hope born fighter?s refusal to give up a long as he can still remain on his feet and lift his two fists.
Daring and resourcefulness they had, too: the ability to think faster and move faster than the enemy. These were the qualities which gave Lee the dazzling campaigns of Second Manassas and Chancellorsville and won Vicksburg for Grant.
Lastly, and perhaps greatest of all, there was the ability, at the end, to turn quickly from the war to peace once the fighting was over. Out of the way these two men behaved at Appomattox came the possibility of peace of reconciliation. It was a possibility not wholly realized, in the year to come, but which did, in the end, help the two sections to become one nation again? after a war whose bitterness might have seemed to make such a reunion wholly impossible. No part of either man?s life became him more than the part he played in their brief meeting in the McLean house at Appomattox. Their behavior there all succeeding generations of Americans in their debt. Two great Americans, Grant and Lee ? very different, yet under everything very much alike. Their encounter at Appomattox was one of the great moments of American history.

Cited info Stragies for Successful Writing:A Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader and Handbook, 6th Edition by James A. Reinking, Andrew W. Hart, and Robert von der Osten


*** QUESTIONS 3-4
3. Why do the differences between Grant and Lee recieve more extended treatment than the similarities? Why are the similarities discussed last?
4. How would you characterize Catton's attitude towards the two men? Refer to specific parts of the essay when answering.

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