Geology Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Geology College Essay Examples

Title: Consideration of Lignite Strip Mining Project

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 2703
  • Works Cited:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay



You are a member of a multidisciplinary Federal Commission, charged with the
responsibility of making decisions on whether a consortium of mining companies will
be permitted to develop and use extensive, near-surface deposits of lignite in an
unspecified rural area, very similar in climate and physiography to southeastern
Saskatchewan, near the borders with Manitoba and North Dakota.

The lignite occurs in four main seams, each up to several metres thick, separated in
vertical sequence by weakly consolidated siltstones and/or fine-grained sandstones of
similar thickness; all strata are more-or-less horizontal over a wide area. The land
surface is flat-lying to gently undulating. Some lignite seams are exposed at the
surface over short distances at a few locations. In general, the thickness of the
overburden ranges from a few metres to 20 metres; it comprises a relatively thin soil
layer, resting on glacial sands and clays. The mining consortium intends to employ
area strip-mining techniques to develop the lignite deposits. The consortium also has
plans to construct and operate a power station in the area, where the lignite would be
used in the generation of electricity for a wider area of the province.

Potential conflicts are foreseen in the area with regard to land use, particularly with
respect to the allocation of water resources and the maintenance of good water
quality. At present, the mainstay of the local economy is cattle ranching, with the
production of cereal crops largely restricted to the more flat-lying parts of the area.
The surface water from two main river channels and ground water from relatively
shallow aquifers are widely utilized for domestic purposes in scattered, small
settlements and for irrigation and consumption by livestock.

Opponents of the strip-mining operation and power plant say that valuable
agricultural land and rangeland would be damaged irreparably by the mining, that soil
erosion would be intensified to produce useless tracts of badlands in time, and that
mine drainage of acid water would pollute all water resources. They say that the
mining operation and power plant would deplete water resources to the extent that
local ranchers and farmers would be hard pressed to survive. They say that renewable
approaches to the generation of electricity are preferable for protection of the
environment, compared to the use of lignite.

Those in favour of the mining operation and power plant say that the systematic
reclamation of the mined area would permit eventual reuse for agriculture that the
claims about the sensitivity of the land are greatly exaggerated, and that jobs will be
created for 250 local people. They say that the escape of acid mine water from the
mining operation would be minimal or non-existent and that surface water and ground
1 2
water would not be in jeopardy. They take the view that the potential conflict about
water use can be resolved through the wide employment of water-conservation
practices, appropriate for dry areas.

The Commission Chair requires you to submit a short (10 pages of double-spaced
typing, not counting summary, references, tables, and diagrams) report on your
assessment of the probable, environmental effects of the proposed project under
consideration and possible alternatives to it, including the ?do-nothing? option.


Chapter headings should be as follows, in the precise order given:
1 / Summary (250-300 words only);
2/ Structuring the Problem (problem definition, background
information, objectives/ measures of effectiveness of the project);
3 / Alternative Solutions (explain in detail what each option for land use will involve);
4 / Analysis of Alternative Solutions (what are the positive and negative consequences of each
possible solution to the problem, in terms of the objectives/ measures of
5 / Evaluation (which of the possible solutions is most acceptable and
6 / and References (an alphabetical listing by author of all of the published
works, including Web documents, cited by you).

Do not use footnotes. Tables and diagrams should be located at the end of the report
in an Appendix.

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Works Cited:


EIA. (2014, June 23). Coal. EIA Energy Kids. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from

WSGS. (2014, June 23). Wyoming State Geological Survey. Wyoming State Geological

Survey. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from

WVC. (2014, June 23). 2013. Coal Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from

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Title: The Geology around Little Killary

  • Total Pages: 21
  • Words: 5866
  • Bibliography:30
  • Citation Style: Harvard
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: The Geology of Little Killary, Killary Harbour, Galway, Ireland

I will provide the references.
I have 30 references downloaded in PDF format which I will email.

A geological map of my area, showing beds, strikes and dips and faults.
which was drawn out using illustrator. (my fieldwork)

1 cross section and stratigraphic log columns
And 2 past students thesis's of the area.

I need a rough draft emailed by 5 Dec 2011 (absolutely fixed), and the completed thesis sent
by 8 Dec 2011

I would be helpful if you could send me any images you wish use as you find them so I can use illustrator to re-draw them

There are faxes for this order.

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Archer, J.B. 1984, December. Clastic intrusions in deep-sea fan deposits of the Rosroe

Formation, Lower Ordovician, Western Ireland. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 54(4),


Archer, J.B. 2007. Llanvirn stratigraphy of the Galway-Mayo border area, western Ireland.

Geological Journal, 12(1), 77-98.

Chew, D.M. 2001, Basement Protrusion Origin of Serpentinite in the Dalradian. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences, 19, 23-35.

Clift, P.D. & Ryan, P.D. 1994. Geochemical evolution of an Ordovician island arc, South

Mayo, Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 151, 329-343.

Farrell, U. 2003, Regional geology of Little Killary. unpublished dissertation.

Friedrich, A.M., Hodges, K.V., Bowring, S.A. & Martin, M.W. 1999, Geochronological

constraints on the magnetic, metamorphic and thermal evolution of the Connemara

Calonides, western Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 156, 1217-1230.

Jeppsson, L. & Aldridge, R.J. 2000. Ludlow (late Silurian) oceanic episodes and events. Journal of the Geological Society, 157, 1137-1148.

Jolly, R.J. & Longergan, L. 2002, Mechanisms and controls on the formation of sand intrusions.

Journal of the Geological Society, 159, 605 -- 617.

Keegan, B.F. & Mercer, J.P. 1986. An Oceanographical Survey of Killary Harbour on the West

Coast of Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological,

Geological, and Chemical Science, 86B, 1-70.

Kilroe, J.R. 1906/1907. The Silurian and Metamorphic Rocks of Mayo and North Galway

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science, Vol. 26, pp. 129-160.

Kinahan, G.H. 1878. Manual of the geology of Ireland. C.K. Paul & Co.

Laird, M.G. & McKerrow, W.S. 1970, The Wenlock sediments of north-west Galway, Ireland.

Geological Magazine, 107, 297-317.

Leake, B.E. & Tanner, P.W.G. 1994, The geology of the Dalradian and associated rocks of Connemara - A report to accompany the 1:63,360 geological map and cross section of Connemara.

MacGabhann, Breandan. 2003. The geology of Little Killary Bay and Lough Fee, County

Galway, Ireland.

McClaren, D.J. & Miller, T.G. 1948. Notes on the Geology of Killary Harbour. Geological Magazine, 85, 217-221.

McKerrow, W.S. 1959. The Southern Upland Fault in Ireland. Geological Magazine, 96, 347-

McKerrow, W.S. 1971. Palaeontological prospects the use of fossils in stratigraphy. Journal of the Geological Society, 127, 455-464.

McKerrow, W.S. 1979, Ordovician and Silurian changes in sea level. Journal of the Geological

Society, 136, 137-145.

McKerrow, W.S. & Campbell, C.J. 1959. The stratigraphy and structure of the Lower

Palaeozoic rocks of north-west Galway. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin

Society, A, 1, 27-52.

Menuge, J.F., Williams, D.M. & O'Connor, P.D. 1995, Silurian turbidites used to reconstruct a volcanic terrain and its Mesoproterozoic basement in the Irish Caledonides. Journal of the Geological Society, 152, 269-278.

Mohr, P. 1990, Late Caledonian dolerite sills from SW Connacht, Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 147, 1061-1069.

Nealon, T. 1989, Deep basinal turbidites reinterpreted as distal tempestites; the Silurian

Glencraff formation of North Galway. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences, 10(1), 55-59.

Piper, D.J. 1970, September, A Silurian Deep Sea Fan Deposit in Western Ireland and Its

Bearing on the Nature of Turbidity. The Journal of Geology, 78(5), 509-522.

-. 1972, Sedimentary environments and palaeogeography of the late Llandovery and earliest

Wenlock of North Connemara, Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 128, 33-51.

Tanner, P.W. 1990, Structural age of the Connemara gabbros, western Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 147, 599-602.

Trench, A., McKerrow, W.S., Torsvik, T.H. & McCracken, S.R. 1991, Ordovician

magnetostratigraphy: a correlation of global data. Journal of the Geological Society,

148, 949-951.

-. 1993, The polarity of the Silurian magnetic field: indications from a global data compilation.

Journal of the Geological Society, 150, 823-831.

Wellings, S.A. 1998, Timing of deformation associated with the syntectonic Dawros

Currywongaun -- Doughruagh Complex, NW Connemara, western Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 155, 25 -- 37.

Williams, D.M. & Harper, A.T. 1988, A basin model for the Silurian of the Midland Valley of Scotland and Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 145, 741-748.

Williams, D.M. & Nealon, T. 1986, The significance of large-scale sedimentary structures in the Silurian succession of western Ireland. Geological Magazine, 124(4), 361-366.

Williams, D.M., O'Connor, P.D. & Menuge, J. 1992, Silurian turbidite provenance and the closure of Iapetus. Journal of the Geological Society, 149, 349-357.

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Title: The Geology of Long Island

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 728
  • Sources:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This an extra credit report for a Geoscience course. The idea is to explain the geology of how Long Island, New York came about. This includes talking about the pre-glacier era, glacier era and post-glacier era. It is important to have a lot of information and terms on geology and Long Island. Anything cool current features of the geology on long island are acceptable, why it is shaped the way it is and most importantly how did long island form. The minimum amount of words is 600 and important to have an intro body and conclusion.

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Works Cited

"Formation of Lake Ronkonkoma." Web. 11 Dec. 2011.

"Geologic History of Long Island Sound" Long Island Sound Resource Center - Home.

Web. 11 Dec. 2011.

"Geology of Long Island." Garvies Point Museum and Preserve. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.

Lewis, Ralph, and Sally Needell. "USGS OFR 02-002: Summary Report - Eastern Long

Island Sound" USGS Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Located in Woods Hole, MA. Web 12 Dec. 2011.

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Title: Geology of California

  • Total Pages: 7
  • Words: 2676
  • References:10
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I need a paper about wine production in California. But specifically it needs to talk about what geological aspects of the state itself impact the wine production in California. Why does it make it a good place to produce wine, and things such as that.I have posted my teachers term paper guide below.

Geology 168

Research Paper Guide

1. The minimum length is 2000 words (upper limit is 3000 words!). Please report your word total on the last page of the paper (using the “Word Count” utility in your word processor software). The final copy should be 1.5 spaced, with a small but legible font (10-11 Times New Roman or similar), with 1-inch margins. Place a title page with the necessary information such as name, class, semester, etc at the front.

The paper will be due somewhere in the first week of December (date to be set). Please submit it online, through the Digital Dropbox facility in Blackboard (look in Tools, or Course Tools; make sure you upload and send the file as uploading alone won’t send it). Late papers will receive heavy penalties.

2. Please prepare your paper using word-processing software on a computer (e.g. Microshaft Word). Hand-written papers will not be accepted.

3. The minimum standard for source material is 10 references, of which no more than 5 can be references directly sourced from the Internet. However, journals and books accessed on the web (rather than procuring the printed version) are not included in this 5 web source limit. It is important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of electronically accessible material from the Internet. Books/journals are primary references, and usually the material has been reviewed for accuracy by experts in the field. In contrast, anyone can post anything on the Internet, and there is not necessarily a review process. Beware–“ was on the Internet..!” is a lame excuse for inaccurate material.

4. The overall grade will be based on an assessment of Research Quality and Presentation, weighted roughly equally. Presentation includes careful organization (including tight structuring and balance among the parts of the paper), correct formatting, and effective writing (clear and concise expression, correct spelling, grammar (word choice) and syntax (organization of words)).

5. Tight and transparent organization is the key to achieving full credit for Presentation. Use an outline to organise your writing, especially in deciding how and when to cover each piece of information, idea, concept, etc. Use headings and subheadings to show your organization.

Begin by clearly stating your purpose, objectives, and plan of attack in a brief Introduction. You can also introduce peripheral background material that may not fit later in the paper.

Next, present the Information you located in your references. The information section is the most important part of the paper and is usually the longest. Use graphics (e.g. maps, pictures, numerical tables, graphs, explanatory diagrams, etc) presented as a series of numbered figures to supplement your written presentation of the information. Experience shows that it is easier to organise a paper and tell the story using illustrations, instead of just an outline. Including figures will contribute to the Research and Presentation grades, and ensure you refer to them properly in the text, and accompany them with captions. Moreover, make sure you cite the original source of the figure (i.e. where you got it from). Note that captions, tables, etc will not contribute to the overall word count.

Generally, the next section is where you discuss and analyse the information, compare it with other examples or histories, discuss its meaning and significance, draw inferences, make generalisations, or derive models. In this section, the “facts” (information, data, results) are explained. Without it, the supporting data in the Information section would be meaningless. However, for a paper like this, where you are not necessarily presenting data or results, you can incorporate this discussion into the main text.

Finally, in a brief section called Conclusions, present/summarise the principal findings or outcomes of your research and analysis.

7. Attach a list of references cited, with complete bibliographic entries in an approved format. You are free to use whatever styles you like, so long as the important information is presented (e.g. title, author, year, journal/book, publisher, etc). Do not plagiarise chunks of text from references; believe me, I will know (hmm, suddenly your writing sounds much more polished…? and I will look at your primary refs). Take their information, and put it in your own words; this is a talent you will need for your career.

8. Research quality is the second major evaluation category. To maximise credit for this component, you should choose a narrowly defined topic, and find specific, primary reference materials for it.

9. Make sure you proof read your paper before submission; preferably, by getting someone else to read it. This will cut down on repetition, tighten organization, correct typographical and spelling errors, and generally fix other rough spots. Make sure you use the spelling/grammar checker provided with your word processor! I will bust you like a cheap plate if your spelling and grammar are bad.

10. The ability to write effectively is one of the most important skills that you will learn at school. Although I plan to do my best to help you learn more, teaching you how to write is beyond the scope of this class. Writing competence comes with practice, supported by a serious commitment of time and energy, and the development of self-assessment and critical thinking abilities. There is no other way! Therefore, I will only make corrections to your paper if you specifically request it (and I will withhold your grade until you collect your paper). I do not have time to make numerous corrections if you are uninterested in seeing them.

Things I will look for in your paper:

Is the paper topic appropriately focussed? Is the focus narrow enough?
Is the scientific content supporting the topic included? Is the level appropriate, and does the writer choose a level appropriate for the reader? (assume I know nothing about your topic).
Is command of background content demonstrated?
Are specific study areas, case histories, examples, etc developed?
Is background integrated with material about the specific content or study areas?
Are critical thinking skills used in the analysis?
Are the references adequate in number?
Are critical professional-level references included? Don’t include references that are only peripherally related to your topic.
Are the citations accurate and adequate for the reader to locate references?

Attention to specifics of assignment, appropriate format, organization, development of topic, and writing.
Introduction (a clear presentation of “problems”, “questions” or “issues” you are addressing, your objective, statement of focus and scope, plan of attack, etc).
Is the choice of topic explained? Are the writer’s intentions for developing the topic clearly stated?
Is the context of the specific topic defined and related to more general context or background?
Does the introduction give a clear “road map” for the rest of the paper, and is this plan followed?
Information/Content (data, observations or results, presented separately from Discussion, including captioned tables, maps, graphs, illustrations, and other types of figures, annotated with reference citations identifying the original source)
Was care taken in separating data and interpretations?
Discussion (discussion of what the results or data mean; analysis of results and their significance, context, interpretation, etc; presentation of your own insights). Integrate into the main text
Are concepts integrated, synthesized and clearly explained?
Conclusions (a summary of the principal findings and conclusions, identification of limitations, and suggestions for further work)

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Works Cited

Branson, Anne. "Map." Napa Real Estate Web site. No date. 4 Dec. 2007

Climate of the Napa Valley." Napa Now. No date. 4 Dec. 2007

Geological resources." Watershed Information Center & Conservancy of Napa County. 2005. 4 Dec. 2007

Howell, David G. "The terroir of the Napa Valley ava." The Geological Society of America Web site. 2003. 5 Dec. 2007

Larson, Ronald. "Napa Valley: The lay of the land." Napa Wedding Source. 2007. 5 Dec. 2007

Livingston, John. "The geology of fine wines." California Wild, 51:4. Fall 1998. 4 Dec. 2007

Marcus, Kim. "California takes on the world." Wine Spectator Online. Dec. 18, 2002. 5 Dec. 2007,1197,1572,00.html

Napa Valley: An ideal place to grow grapes." Napa Vintners Web site. No date. 5 Dec. 2007 oads/napa_valley_seminar.ppt+%22napa+valley%22%2Bbedrock&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=15&gl=us>

Napa Valley Vintners. "Science of Napa Valley." Napa Valley Vintners Web site. No date. 4 Dec. 2007

Smith, Rod. "Napa's hidden faces." Private Clubs magazine, March/April 2005. 4 Dec. 2007 apr/wine_napas_hidden_faces.htm>

Tinney, Mary-Colleen. "Winemakers examine what makes Napa AVAs unique during premiere Napa Valley event." Wine Business. Feb. 2007. 4 Dec. 2007

U.S. Geological Survey. "Probability map." 2002. 5 Dec. 2007

Map 1: Napa Valley region


Map 2: Napa County faults and seismic activity

U.S. Geological Survey)

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