Topic: Pick up a position in the free will
vs. determinism debate
My professor ask us to use the notes information write this paper!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! it is ok, if you use other examples.
This paper's purpose is to discuss the Hume's and Chisholm' s philosophy freedom and debate!!!!!!!!
you can use Hume' example: the prisoner and the jailer;
use at least three example from this notes to explain their argument!!!!!
The debate is: Free will
Incompatibility between free will
: If God knows everything, then God knows what I will
do tomorrow. But it knows what I will
do tomorrow, then in what sense do I choose it?
Determinism: we live in a world of natural laws; fundamental physics; psychology ( personality value); psychological laws;
Hume's determinism is true of us: Human nature is much the same across time and place. Culture determine our attitude. Our behave just cause and effect.
Hume' argument - clarifying the " necessary"
(1) human behavior is quite uniform (called thing considered)
(2) all human depends on predicting the behavior of others ( and most of them learn to do this very successful.) Book( David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Second Edition p59)
(3) history, politics depends in our believing in the constant character of human behavior. ( Ex: the prisoner and the jailer: prisoner realized it is unnecessary to please the jailer, so he chose to hit the stone to escape.p60)
(4) when people behave unpredictability, we call it unknown causes
Hume define liberty p63
A power of acting or not acting, according to the determinations of will
. Person in claims don't have free will
because he can't determine will
The jailer has self interest , he has his work and want to do it well, so he wouldn't release the prisoner, the cause of this action.
Self respect, desire to feed family cause (set will
) the jailer behavior predicting( don't release the prisoner)
Secret reason, like the memory of jailer's grandfather cause(set will
) jailer behave unpredictably ( release the prisoner)
Hume - if we don't believe the determinism is true, then the law is ridiculous. If specific causes people do specific ways. The legal system is based on the thing we account.
Chisholm' argument: incompatibility, has some agreement with Hume. (see the Attach file p392 section 3 first paragraph)
Compatibility argue that:
(a) " He could have done "otherwise, means no more nor less than. (b) "If he had chosen to do otherwise, then he would have done otherwise."
(b) could be true while (a) is false (cause they don't mean the same thing)
a husband saw his wife with other man on bed, and they are actually have some relationship. So, the husband shot the man. Because the husband didn't have the desire to not shot the man. He was not bothered by Chisholm's problem. He didn't have a strong opposite will
to reject doing that.
desire (like addicted to cigarette ), disposition and character cause a person internal constraints.
Prison bar and violent chain cause a person external constraints.
Example: you saw a wallet on the floor. Your desire want you to pick up it and take the money, but you don't , you change your desire. However, your external constraint want you to pick it up, because your mum was in the hospital and you don't have the money!
Hume's freedom: 'A power of acting or not acting according to the determination of our will
Chisholm's freedom: the power to change our desire so as to determine our will
act or not act.( ex: some people don't have the ability to control their action, like the insanity person.)
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