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## Finance Essays and Research Papers

### Title: Overview of the Financial System

Total Pages: 2 Words: 867 Sources: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: “Finance as a scientific discipline is the study of how to allocate scarce resources over time under conditions of uncertainty” ??" Financial Economics, Zvi Bodie/Robert C.Merton/David L.Cleeton, 2000, 2009

In firms, finance plays a significant role in decision making ??" Justify.

Overview of the Financial System, addressing each specific term below in relation to the role finance plays in decision making (Justify):

>Explain the Financial System.
>Describe the Functional Perspective.
>Explain the Financial Innovation and Market Rates.
>List the financial intermediaries and regulations.

Excerpt From Essay:

### Title: Finance 501

Total Pages: 10 Words: 2876 References: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Finance 501 application paper
Subject-Present value, Capital asset pricing model, Asset price Model
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All the instructions for the paper assignment is in the assignment itself. Minimum statistical data required. Just show the computation as requested in the instructions then write the paper. Any questions call me at . Thank you!
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Module 2 Case Background Material to help with the paper is on these websites.

1.http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/bp/app/cfldemo/TVM/PresentValue.html
2.http://www.public.asu.edu/~atmxh/fin361/ch2.pdf
3.http://www.studyfinance.com/lessons/timevalue/lesson08.html
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Module 2 Case assignment is below:

Part I:
Suppose you just inherited an oil well. This oil well is believed to have three years worth of oil left before it dries up. Here is how much income this oil well is projected to bring you each year for the next three years:
Year 1: \$160,000; Year 2: \$210,000; Year 3: \$320,000
Compute the present value of this stream of income for a discount rate of 5%, 12%, and 17%. 1-2 Page paper.
Part II:
Read the following three sample business plans:Acme Consulting; Interstate Travel Center and Silvera and Sons
Which of these three projects do you think should have the highest discount rate? Which one do you think should have the lowest?
Turn in a Parts I and II in one Word document. For Part I make sure you show all your work. Part II should be in the form of a two page paper explaining your reasoning.
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Module 2 Session Long Project

One specialized type of security is called an equity future. This is a contract that guarantees you shares of a company to be delivered to you not today, but sometime in the future. What you would pay for such a contract depends on a) what price you expect the shares to be at in the future, and b) how volatile the stock is (i.e. what discount rate you should value this future payment of stocks).

Using the Yahoo Finance take a look at the five year chart for your reference company. Using this chart and other information you can find on this company,
write a one to two page paper answering the following question:
What would you pay for 100 shares of Walmart to be delivered to you in one years?
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Background Material to help with the paper is on these websites.
1.http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/bp/app/cfldemo/RR/RiskAndReturn.html
2.http://www.prenhall.com/divisions/bp/app/cfldemo/RR/CAPM.html
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Module 3 Case

CAPM vs. APT
The Capital Asset Pricing Model is not the only asset pricing model around. One of the competing approaches asset pricing is called the Arbitrage Pricing Theory, which was developed to address some of the criticisms of the CAPM.
Read the article below and do some of your own research using the CyberLibrary and Internet search engines.
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Then write a 4 page paper answering the following question:
Do you think APT or the CAPM is the best approach for a financial professional to use?
Defend your answer rigorously. And don't cop out by saying "I like both approaches", take a side and defend it.
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This an abstract paper to further help with the paper!
Risk and Return
The Economist; London; Feb 2, 1991; Anonymous;
Abstract:
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) states that the return on a stock depends on whether the stock's price follows prices in the market as a whole. The more closely a stock follows the market, the greater will be its expected return.
A technique called mean-variance analysis can be used to construct a series of portfolios that are efficient. Instead of looking at the covariances among stocks in a portfolio, the CAPM divides a stock's risk into 2 parts: systematic and unsystematic. The CAPM assumes that no investor has better information than another and that, if a stock's beta is known, its long-run return can be predicted. Researchers found that the CAPM works only in the long run. Despite doubts, the CAPS passed most of its early tests. The arbitrage pricing theory (APT) divides systematic risk into smaller component risks. Recent research has suggested that the 4-factor version of the APT is better at predicting the return on a stock than the simplest version of the CAPM. In some of its basic ideas, but not in its details, the APT builds on rather than replaces the CAPM
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Module 3
Session Long Project
Using the PC Quote Web Page find the value of beta for Walmart.
Write a two page paper discussing the following items:
a. What does this beta means in terms of your choice of including this company in your overall portfolio?
b. What two other companies would you pick along with your reference company if you are using beta as a criteria? The other two companies that are selected using beta as a criteria is Kmart and Target.
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This is Module 4.
Background Materials to help with paper assignment is below.

The Capital Budgeting Process is a highly comprehensive overview that is especially useful for the problem set.
StudyFinance.com has an excellent Summary of Capital Budgeting
Corporate Finance Live has a good Section on Capital Budgeting.
Finally, this Meta-Site on Capital Budgeting from Harcourt College Publishers has many more links to sites that are highly relevant to this module

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This is Module 4 Case assignment for the paper below.
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CU Boxes Inc.
CU Boxes Inc. makes boxes for shoe manufacturers. One of the machines that CU uses may need replacement.
The following information is available to you:
Revenues will not change if the machine is replaced.
Both the present machine and the new machine will last 5 years and will have no disposal value in five years.
The new machine will cost \$400,000. The old machine can be disposed of right now for a disposal value of \$10,000.
The new machine will reduce operating costs by \$100,000 per year (assume cash flows at the end of the years.)
Assume a required rate of return or discount rate of 9%

Part 1: Determine if the new machine should be purchased. Use NPV, IRR, and Payback in your analysis where appropriate. Refer to the articles below and the background materials in your analysis.
Part 2: Read the articles below and discuss what method (NPV or others) is the best method to use for capital budgeting purposes. Defend your arguments carefully.
Answer Part 1 and Part 2 for a total of four pages.
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Additional info an an example of how the paper should look is below.

Read these articles below (click on the titles):
Modified internal rate of return: Will it replace IRR?

Lefley, Frank. Management Accounting. London: Jan 1997. Vol. 75, Iss. 1; pg. 64, 2 pgs
Abstract (Article Summary)
The 2 main discounted cash flow methods are the net present value and the internal rate of return (IRR). Although IRR suffers from a number of defects, it continues to be the most popular method used in industry. Recently a modified internal rate of return (MIRR) method was developed to address some of the defects of IRR. The MIRR addresses some of the deficiencies of conventional IRR, such as: 1. It eliminates multiple IRR rates. 2. It addresses the reinvestment rate issue and reduces over-optimism. 3. It produces a result which, when ranking projects, is consistent with the NPV rule.

Capital budgeting needs vision

Abstract (Article Summary)
"WHAT business are you in?" a CEO of Ponds was once asked. "We sell hope," he said. (A wide definition of business indeed.) The same question was posed to Akio Morita, the founder of Sony. He said, "We are in entertainment." And when a truck-fleet owner was asked the same question, he said, "We are into truck and transportation business." (A very narrow definition of business.)
These decisions have to fulfil the criteria of creating net positive present value for the organisation. Thus an organisation should grab and hold on to every opportunity (both external and internal) that creates positive net present value (NPV) for its shareholders. And in a competitive environment, every organisation has to attract, reward and retain its shareholders and potential investors.
Long-term investment decisions are called capital budgeting/ capital expenditure decisions - launching a new product, improvisation, modernisation, expansion, replacement of fixed assets, research and development, purchasing new fixed assets, acquisition, takeover, merger, alliances, and so on.

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

### Title: Finance Higher Education 21st Century Paper Details The future financing higher education state depends a concerted collaborative effort groups levels government This assignment presents a scenario issue formulating a vision financing higher education 21st century

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1558 Works Cited: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Finance of Higher Education in the 21st Century Paper .

Details:
The future financing of higher education in your state depends on a concerted, collaborative effort of many groups at all levels of government. This assignment presents you with a scenario regarding the issue of formulating a vision of financing higher education in the 21st century. Your response to the scenario is the basis for a paper you will write.
1) Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:
Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide.
2) Consider the following scenario: State legislators and educators have increasingly recognized that the current approach to funding higher education in your state is no longer sustainable from the state, institutional or even federal perspective. Therefore, the governor recently announced the formation of a statewide commission to examine the state?s approach to funding higher education. You have been invited to provide expert testimony on the topic. Your charge is to answer one broad question: What should the finance of higher education in the state look like in the 21st century?
3) To provide a comprehensive answer to this question, you decide to write a 1,250?1,500 word proposal (paper) titled, ?XYZ State Plan to Finance Higher Education in the 21st Century.? To formulate your plan, you must do the following:
a) Identify the goals and expected outcomes of your plan.
b) Address financing related to private, as well as, public institutions
c) Address the existing funding structure in your state, including factors such as:
i) State appropriations?
ii) Capital expenditures
iii) Range of student aid programs
iv) Funding sources other than state-related
d) Account for the demographic realities of the state.
e) Acknowledge the current role of federal government funding.
f) Address the roles state policymakers, campus leaders, and others you specify, will play in reformulating the finance of higher education to achieve your plan?s goals.
g) Ground your response in consideration of the state values and purposes for funding postsecondary education.

4) Locate at least two additional scholar

Excerpt From Essay:

### Title: Finance 100 Write a 4 5 page paper Image a small business owner Determine financial ratios important business Compare ratios important a manager a larger corporation Explain advantages disadvantages debt financing organization choose issue stocks bonds generate funds

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1742 Bibliography: 5 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Finance 100 - Write a 4-5 page paper.

Image you are a small business owner. Determine the financial ratios that are important to the business. Compare your ratios with those that are important to a manager of a larger corporation.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of debt financing and why an organization would choose to issue stocks rather than bonds to generate funds.

Discuss how financial returns are related to risk.
Describe the concept of beta and how it is used..
Contrast systematic and unsystematic risk.
Image your corporation will have about \$1 million. Explain how you plan to invest the money in order to diversity the risk and receive a good return. Support your decisions with concepts learned in this course.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

Explain the concepts of time value of money, present and future value and how it influences financial decisions

Describe the key elements of the securities markets, and how the markets drive financial transactions, decision making and risk analysis.

Use technology and information resouces to research issues in finance

Write clearly and concisely about finance using proper writing mechanics.

What points need to be written about ; Rubics;

1. Determine the financial ratios that are important to the business. Compare your ratios with those that are important to a manager of a larger corporation.

2. Explan the advantages and disadvantages of debt financing, and why an organization would choose to issue stocks rather than bonds to generate funds.

3. Discuss how financial returns are related to the risk.

4. Describe the concept of beta and how it is used.

5. Contrast systematic and unsystematic risk.

6. Exlain how you will invest the money to diversity your risk and get a good return. Support your decisions with concepts learned in this course.

Four (4) to Five (5) references
Course Book Used is; Introcuction To Finance by Melicher/Norton 14th Edition/2011

Excerpt From Essay:

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