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Female Circumcision Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Female Circumcision College Essay Examples

Title: female circumcisions

Total Pages: 1 Words: 317 References: 1 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Chapter 4 focuses on the process of socialization, which is the "process whereby people learn the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate for individuals as members of a particular culture." Thus, one would expect and one would find that what is taught as part of the socialization process will vary from one culture to the next. Several cultures around the world still have a rite of passage for young females that includes their circumcision.


1. For this assignment, briefly answer two of the following questions for this LinkLetter Activity: a. Why are female circumcisions an example of a rite of passage? b. Are female circumcisions an example of a degradation ceremony? c. What ritual performed is performed the morning after a wedding? Would this ritual involve the need for face work? Why or why not? d. Discuss the role of the state and religion in the continuing practice of female circumcisions. e. What is the role of the family in the continuing process of female circumcisions? f. What is FGM and what alternative steps in the socialization process are being substituted for it?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Several readings to discuss 1 general opinion issue or similarity in the readings

Total Pages: 18 Words: 5955 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: There are several readings and articles. Each group (will explain what readings are in what group) requires a 1-2 page discussion. After the readings, I need a discussion or recurring theme that goes throughout the readings. Also include any discussion that you would think interesting for an Anthrolopology class on Gender, Society and Feminism. Each group are numbered, please label the pages that belong to that group with the number of the group on the top so when I receive the total 18 I don't get confused to what belongs to what. I name the readings according to the title they are saved with (some just have the author's name that also has it on the file name it is saved under). The files will all be uploaded to the resources section (except when they are links that I will add here). Group 2 only has 1 reading. When there are a lot of readings 2 pages will be best, if only 1 or 2 readings 1 page is ok.
The readings in each group are the following:
Group 1
- Annaim
- Brazilian Feminism and The State
- PDF link:
Group 2
Group 3
-Merry Human Rights gender violence
-Race, Gender and Class Criminology
-The Female Circumcision
Group 4
-Gender in Amazonia and Melanesia
-The Gender of the Gift
Group 5
-Gender's Place
-Anthropology and Feminism : On Violence
-Forms and Gender violence in Brazil
-Mello A (anti) homosexual familism
-Reichman Race and Feminism
Group 6
-Brazil and Americas
-Resisting Race and Xenophobia
-Race and Ethnicity in Latino America
Group 7
-Butler (author), Undoing Gender (first)
-Feminist Research Practice
-Politics of Piety (first)
-Moore the Subject of Anthropology
-Gender - The politics and Erotics of Culture
Group 8
-Anthropology and the Colonial Encounter
-Imperialism Humanitarism
-Recapturing Anthropology
Group 9
-Abu-Lughod Remaking Woman
-An Anthropology of the Subject
-Lewin Feminist Anthropology
-The cunning of recognition
-Women, Gender and Labour Migration

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Excerpt From Essay:

Title: anthropological thought

Total Pages: 23 Words: 7138 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: None Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: I. Four take-home examinations (100 points each). Follow the style guide on this syllabus. Present your arguments
consistently and logically. Support points with material presented in class and in assigned readings. Use crisp,
unambiguous sentences and thoughtfully organized answers. Each question may be no longer than eight pages.
Note: page counts do not include the title page and references cited.
Make a copy of all papers that you turn in for your own files.
Double space essays using one inch margins and a standard font.
Papers must have the following elements:
A title page that includes the name of the paper, the student's name, and the date submitted
The body of the paper
A references cited section (check syllabus for citation style)

******this will be broken down into 4 essays (6 pages for each one) pick one of the questions and write 6 pages for each question.

1st essay (6 pages

McGhee&Warms Ch 2,3,4,5,7,8

Historical Foundations of Anthropology
1.Explain and document through your assigned readings how the methods of the19th century evolutionists (comparative method, organic analogies, psychic unity, racial determinism) to explain the development of marriage and family, political organization, and religion. Explain how Marx’ ideas are similar to and different from other 19th century theorists.

2.What did Durkheim mean by a social fact? Explain mechanical and organic solidarity. Collective consciousness? Explain Mauss’ notion of gift giving. What distinctive contributions did Weber make to social theory?

****essay 2 (6 pages):*****

McGhee&Warms Ch 9, 11,12,13,15,17

Early 20th Century Anthropology
1. Part II of your text introduces you to Boas and his students. Using particular articles, explain the commonalities of historical particularism. How do Radin and Kroeber illustrate the extremes of the Boasian school? How did Whorf, Benedict and Mead link the individual to his/her culture?

2. What is British social anthropology? In what ways did British social anthropology contribute to the method and theory of anthropology? Be specific.

******essay 3 (6 pages)*****

McGhee&Warms Ch 18,21,22,23,24,26,28,29

Mid-Century Anthropology
1.What caused some anthropologists in the 1940s to return to evolutionary approaches? How were their ideas similar to and different from those of the 19th century evolutionists? Explain cultural ecology and cultural materialism. What are the strengths of these approaches? What are the problems with cultural materialism and cultural ecology? Be specific and tie your arguments into assigned articles.

2. Structuralism and cognitive anthropology both claim that culture is a mental structure and to be understood through language. Structuralists tried to determine the universal structures of human thought, while cognitive anthropologists tried to describe cognitive paradigms unique to individuals and groups. Explain.

****essay 4 (6 pages)*******

M&W Ch 31,32, 33,35,37,38,40,41

Late 20th Century and Beyond
1.What is sociobiology/evolutionary psychology/behavioral ecology? Why did some reviewers of your text strongly suggest that sociobiology shouldn’t get space in the McGee/Warms text? What are some of the fundamental differences between sociobiology and feminist anthropology? Are the two perspectives inevitably in conflict? Why? Do sociobiology’s evolutionary explanations of male promiscuity, rape, altruism, and costly signaling make sense to you? Explain.

2. Mary Douglas, Clifford Geertz, and Victor Turner looked at anthropology not as a science but as a way to understand how people construct their realities. How have symbolic/interpretive anthropologists and postmodernists challenged our classic ethnographies, fieldwork methods, and the ways that anthropologists conceptualize “culture”? Why are globalization, power, and agency such important concepts today? On what grounds does D’Andrade object to postmodernism? Where do you see anthropology headed?



Ethics and Political Action. Can anthropology establish appropriate ethical codes for human research? Should anthropologists primarily serve as advocates for the people they collaborate with? Should anthropologists take stronger (or no) stands on human rights? What is “cultural relativity” and what are its ethical implications? Should anthropologists work to change practices such as female circumcision, gender inequality, or cultural practices that spread infections or diseases such as AIDS? How can anthropologists try to make certain that their scholarship does not injure the people they work with? Should ethnographies be “sanitized” to mask illegal or potentially damaging behavior? Are research questions ultimately determined by funding agencies or the desires of journal editors and publishing companies? Are there questions that anthropologists should not explore (e.g., race and intelligence)?

Culture Concept. What is a “culture” or “Culture”? Can we distinguish boundaries between cultures? If so, how? Whose “culture” is the anthropologist representing? How do we represent intra-cultural variability? Do non-human animals have culture? To what extent do we have “agency,” or the ability to control our own destiny? Are we mostly puppets of our culture? Are there ways in which cultures are relatively static or, if not, what causes cultures to change?

Emics or Etics. Should anthropologists try to “get into the heads” of others and try to understand the world through the eyes of others? This is sometimes called the emic approach to understanding culture. Or should we develop testable hypotheses (etics) based on the categories of western science (e.g., population density, infant mortality rates, etc.). In other words, should we focus on what people think or what they do?

Objective Truth or Ethnographic Representation. To what degree can or should anthropologists try to discover objective truths about the world? How can we judge the quality of anthropological research? Does it matter how much time an ethnographer spends in the field or how the results of one study match up with prior scholarship?

Universals vs. Ethnographic Particulars. Should anthropologists be more concerned with trying to figure out the ways in which all societies and humans are the same, or should we be more interested in documenting the diverse behaviors of past and present peoples? What are the implications of our decisions? How does an anthropologist decide what to observe and what to write?

Idealism and Materialism. Are societies held together (or split apart) by symbols, values, and ideas? Do material or economic forces, including power and coercion, better explain how humans think and behave?

Cultural Evolution. What is cultural evolution? Do cultures evolve? Is there a direction to cultural evolution? Is cultural evolution like biological evolution? Why or why not? Does studying non-human primate behavior or applying Darwinian ideas such as natural selection help or hinder our attempts to explain gender differences and social networks?

Nature and Nurture. Is gender partially or entirely socially constructed? Are there universal differences between men and women? If so, what are they? If not, how do you account for gender variations cross-culturally? Can we explain near-universal taboos against mother-son incest by biology? Is adolescence always stressful? Are men everywhere more violent than women?

Kinship. Why has the study of kinship been of such special concern to anthropologists? Is kinship really hold the key for unlocking social structure? What is a “family”? How many individuals must practice polygamy before we call the society polygamous?

Globalization. Peoples whom anthropologists have represented as isolates are now segments of a world system marked by expansion, exchange, and domination. Should we revisit the way we have understood classic ethnographies?



Body of the Text

Essays must contain direct references to the original articles. Do NOT draw citations from the introductions or explanatory footnotes by McGee and Warms. For example, if you are writing about historical particularism, your essay must contain references to specific passages from original articles, not McGee & Warms’ commentary.

Reference ideas and places where you have paraphrased an author. Only quote an author when absolutely necessary. For example, if your reading of Kroeber leads you to conclude that Kroeber believed in the value of Freudian psychology for interpreting cultural patterns, you might write something like "Kroeber believed that Freudian concepts were valuable in interpreting cultural patterns” (1912:121). In this case, you would be indicating that on page 121 of a publication written by Kroeber with a copyright date of 1912, you found something that illustrated your point. Do not include a direct quote longer than 20 words.

References (including references to personal communication) are placed in the body of the text. (Doe 1968:21). If you were to use a quote from Kroeber that you have found in Langness's The Study of Culture, the correct citation form would be (Kroeber, cited in Langness 1987:69).

When you cite essays published in Anthropological Theory, the proper form is (Author 2000 [original year]:page). For example, (Malinowski 2007 [1922]:165) would be a reference to something Malinowski wrote that appeared on page 165 of the McGee/Warms text.

Use phrases like "cited by" or "quoted by" when an author cites or quotes another author. For example, Clifford Geertz in "Notes on a Balinese Cockfight," uses extensive quotes from the literary critic Northrop Frye. If you wanted to use part of one of these long quotes taken from the McGee/Warms book, it would appear as (Frye, cited by Geertz 2000). The original date of Geertz’ work (1973) would appear in your References Cited section.

References Cited
Citation style for an article from Anthropological Theory:
Durkheim, Emile
2007 [orig. 1895] What is a Social Fact? In Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History, 3nd edition. R. Jon McGee and Richard L. Warms, eds. Pgs. 87-93. Mountain View (CA): Mayfield Press.


Your goal is to develop an argument. An argument consists of these components: (1) a claim, (2) reasoning to support that claim, (3) evidence to support the claim, (4) a conclusion about the claim.
Make a strong opening. Lure your reader.
Use active voice.
Write for the reader who is unfamiliar with your topic.
Support your argument with specific examples.
Identify the work(s) and author(s) under discussion
Reference quotations (Smith 1969:44).
Underline or italicize titles of books. Put quotation marks around “Article Titles.”
Make a point. Do not leave your reader confused or in “so what?” land. Explore the implications of your argument for anthropology, for everyday life, and themes in the course. Push your analysis.
Wrap up the end of your paper by tying it back to the starting point. This will confirm your thesis and remind the reader of what you aimed to address and show how far your argument has taken you.
Proofread your essay. Try having someone else read it aloud to you and listen to make sure your essay makes sense. Is your essay persuasive? Are any of the sentences awkward? Are your sentences grammatical?

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Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Ethical Relativism in The Closing of the American Mind

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1551 Sources: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: For this assignment you are going to critique the views of Allan Bloom in his paper, "The Closing of the American Mind."

This is a kind of self conscious assignment in that it concerns not only the moral issue of Ethical Relativism (ER) but also your attitude regarding it.
Part of the assignment is to give a clear outline of ER and in general say what the evidence and grounds are in its favor. Be careful not to allow any one example dictate either your outline of the theory or (more importantly) your opinion on the matter--you may be able to feel liberal towards some other society's beliefs in the rightness of not working on the Sabbath or of eating only Kosher food, but can you be as open minded towards the practice of female circumcision or male-only suffrage?
A second task of the assignment is to lay out Bloom's view of the influence of ER on American culture. A paragraph will suffice especially if you plan to fix on and discuss only one particular claim of Bloom's. Of course, that particular claim would then need to be described and explained as well.
There are two levels that you might aim your paper at:
i/ at Bloom's implied criticism throughout the notion of ER itself which you may or may not agree with. Either way, you should be offering grounds for your view (not just opinions).
ii/ At Bloom's view that America has indeed "bought into" the ER agenda and that it is not only mistaken in this, but is surely the worse off for it. Again, you may agree or disagree with his assessment of the American situation. How open to alternative views of "right" are Americans? To what extent, for example, does foreign policy reflect such openness? And what are the consequences for American itself and its relations with other countries, of accepting the liberalism of ER?
Do not confuse i/ and ii/ in your paper and deal with one or the other only. You need to restrict yourself in order to get to grips with one or the other topic.
Do be clear what your chosen topic is- -and stick to it. Say clearly in your introduction just what your topic is- -the reader shouldn't need to guess. One way to do this would be to fix on one particular statement of Bloom's (some claim you strongly object to or agree with) and use that as your theme.
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