Federal Bureau Of Investigation Essays and Research Papers

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Title: The Use Of Force In Law Enforcement

  • Total Pages: 30
  • Words: 9298
  • Works Cited:10
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Previous work completed by Jillbee7, order #106076 . I would like Jillbee7 to write this paper as well. Thank you.

Guidelines:
Based on the previous order (attached below), I would like this paper to go into detail about the use of force in law enforcement. This can include the history of the use of force and techniques used today. This paper should be 30 pages long. References should be in the same format as the paper below (10 sources is enough).


Previous paper (research proposal):
The Use of Force in Law Enforcement
Chapter 1 – Introduction and Problem Statement
During a law enforcement officer’s time of duty, it is almost certain that a question concerning the whether use of force and, if so, how much reasonable force is needed arises, usually when arresting criminal suspects. Because an arrest and the subsequent investigative detentions are considered seizures of persons and property, the Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution must govern them. However, part of this investigation will be whether it is actually necessary and reasonable to use force, as preventative measures against crime have changed the statistics.
Enforcement officers must have and show probable cause in order to make a valid arrest. The manner in which arrests are carried out must not only be justified at their inception, but the level of force that may be used, must be considered "reasonable."(Hall, p. 1)
The word “reasonable” continues to come up and be debated in all courts of law, as the Constitution and other codes state that force may be used if it is constitutionally reasonable to arrest suspects considered dangerous or to defend life when necessary.
The Constitution puts forth a standard of "reasonableness" in the Fourth Amendment, saying that the word is not conducive to "precise definition," but that each individual case must be viewed separately. Seen from the perspective of a reasonable law enforcement officer at the scene, cases are considered, not with hindsight, but in consideration of the fact that split-second judgments must often be made “in circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving-about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation" (Graham, pp. 396-397).
In deciding the circumstances that govern reasonableness in using particular levels of force, the Supreme Court has shown that it depends upon “the severity of the crime;” “whether the suspect poses an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others;” and “whether the suspect actively is resisting arrest or attempting to evade arrest by flight” (Hall, p. 1). Recent cases may reassess law enforcement officers’ applying force when making arrests.
Chapter Two – Review of Literature:
When reviewing the literature dealing with the use of force in law enforcement, it is necessary to look at Supreme Court cases which have dealt with the use of force by officers, such as Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989), Beck v. Ohio, 379 U.S. 89 (1964), and Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520 (1979). The decisions by the Supreme Court in Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1, 8 (1985) deals with “reasonable force.”
The Federal Bureau of Investigation, another branch of law enforcement, must deal with how much force to use when performing official duties, as well. The FBI’s Uniform Crime Report has a yearly report called “Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted,” in which it gives the statistics of FBI officers feloniously killed during the past year. Most of the officers (16 out of 57) killed in 2007 were involved in arrest situations.
Title LXII of the Criminal Code, in Chapter 627, describes justifying the use of physical force by law enforcement officers. Beyond the standard ability to use force to restrain a criminal arrestee, it also addresses defense of the officer or a third person, preventing escape, and being careful not to harm innocent bystanders (Title, 627:5).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is a valuable resource for finding out how the public views police use of force. Every three years, the Police-Public Contact Survey interviews a sample of the national public to estimate how often they are pulled over in traffic and whether the police use force in their contacts with the public in the performance of their duty. Over 60,000 people, 16 and over were questioned every third year from 1995 through 2005. The results of the survey are found in PDF format and ASCII text, with recent supplements (in 2008) added, online at the U.S. Department of Justice * Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics website. (BJS, 2009).
Chapter 3 -- Methods
The method of investigation will be to peruse the statistics and papers written on the subject of the use of force by law enforcement officers.
The ability to use force has been given to law enforcement officers, but the term in question is “reasonable.” The ramifications of this term will be perused and defined in detail. As used currently, “reasonable” means different forms and extents in the use of force by officers in the line of duty to arrest criminals or defend themselves and others against criminals.
Whether and how law enforcement officers use force and what tools they use in order to subdue criminals by force will be the second aspect of this investigation. It appears that in different circumstances certain tools and defense weapons are used. If, in certain circumstances, certain weapons are out of proportion to the crime and the circumstances in which they are used, then this needs to be investigated.
Whether police officers actually use force (deadly or non-deadly) in the performance of their duty and how much this force is used will be investigated through the careful analysis of criminal victimization data collections. It appears that the use of force is descending and that the public is not reporting the use of force as often in this decade. Emergency Room statistics may be examined, as well, to determine whether the use of force by law enforcement officers has actually been an aspect of public injury.
Finally, looking at city level surveys of crime victimization and citizen attitudes, the perception of the public concerning whether community policing is effective, compared with statistics of incidents of use of force by police or law enforcement officers will tell whether the declining use of force has affected community policing tactics in subduing criminals.
Chapter 4 – Findings
It is expected that this investigation of the use of force by law enforcement officers will find that declining use of deadly force has not affected levels of crime either negatively or positively. What may be found is that the public’s perspective of the role of law enforcement officials and police has changed to a more positive one of respect and compliance with the law.
The use of force by law enforcement officers has been allowed by the Constitution and the Criminal Code of the United States of America, when subduing criminals or in defending officers or citizens from criminal attack. But the changing views of the courts and the public has not kept up with the actual trends in the law, and the public is not aware of the statistical decline of violent victimization from 1973 to the present, nor to the dramatic decline in property crime victimizations during the same period (BJS, p. 2).
The curtailing of the use of force and substitution of more productive activities by law enforcement officers was the subject of an experiment by the Kansas City Police Department with dramatic positive results. During this age of technical advances, the use of pro-active, preventative actions, rather than defensive actions after the fact, may be the logical substitution for use of force by law enforcement officers. It is much better to prevent crimes or control them, than to have to use force as a reaction, to stop them and risk the lives of not only the criminals, but of police officers and innocent citizens. (Kelling, p. 8)

References
Beck v. Ohio, (1964). U.S. Supreme Court, 379 U.S. 89.
Bell v. Wolfish, (1979). U.S. Supreme Court, 441 U.S. 520.
Bureau of Justice Statistics, (2009). Crime and Victims Statistics. U.S. Department of Justice * Office of Justice Programs. Reviewed July 14, 2009 at http://www.ojp.gov/bjs/cvict.htm#ncvs.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2008). Law enforcement officers killed and assaulted, Uniform Crime Report. Oct. 14, 2008. Reviewed July 15, 2009 at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/killed/2007/documents/summaryleoka2007.pdf.
Graham v. Connor, (1989). U.S. Supreme Court, 490 U.S. 386.
Hall, John C., (1997) Police Use of Nondeadly Force to Arrest., Law Enforcement Bulletin, Oct. 1997. Reviewed July 14, 2009 at: http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/1997/oct975.htm.
Illinois v. Lafayette, (1983). U.S. Supreme Court, 462 U.S. 640.
Kelling, George L., Tony Pate, Duane Dieckman, Charles E. Brown (1974)The Kansas City preventative patrol experiment – A summary report. (PDF). Police Foundation. Reviewed July 15, 2009 at http://www.policefoundation.org/pdf/kcppe.pdf.
Tennessee v. Garner, (1985). U.S. Supreme Court, 471 U.S. 1, 8.
Title LXII, (1971). Justification, Criminal Code, Chapter 627:5, 518:1. 1981, 373:1-3, eff. Aug. 22, 1981. Reviewed July 15, 2009 at http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/RSA/html/LXII/627/627-5.htm

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Works Cited:

Reference: Social Trends in America, Vol. 4. Reviewed July 24, 2009 at http://social.jrank.org/pages/1332/Law-Enforcement-Use-Force.html

Limitations on Use of Force in Law Enforcement. (N.J.S.A. 2C:3-7b) (1983). Reviewed July 24, 2009 at http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/charges/jury/justif008.htm.

McElvain, J.P. And Kposowa, A.J., )2003-08) "Police brutality and internal affairs investigations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA Reviewed online July 23, 2009 at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106568_index.html

Olson, Robert K., (2004), News Release. Police Executive Research Forum. Washington, D.C.

Oregonian, The, (2009). Report: fewer complaints of police officers' use of force. The Oregonian, 14 Jul, 2009. Reviewed July 23, 2009 at http://www.oregonlive.com/news/index.ssf/2009/07/report_fewer_complaints_of_pol.html

Payne, James L. (2004). A History of Force. Sandpoint, Idaho: Lytton Publishing.

Rodney King beating 3/3/1991 in Los Angeles, Youtube. Reviewed July 22, 2009 at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROn_9302UHg

Scrivener, Ellen M. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. W.D.C. Reviewed July 22, 2009 at http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/ppsyc.txt.

Tennessee v. Garner, (1985). U.S. Supreme Court, 471 U.S. 1, 8.

Title LXII, (1971). Justification, Criminal Code, Chapter 627:5, 518:1. 1981, 373:1-3, eff. Aug. 22, 1981. Reviewed July 15, 2009 at http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/RSA/html/LXII/627/627-5.htm.

U.S. Department of Justice (USDOJ) (2008), Use of force. Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). Reviewed July 23, 2009 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=1374

Wilson, Michael, and Moore, Solomon, (2009). As officers face heated words, their tactics vary. The New York Times, 24 Jul 2009.

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Title: American Criminal Justice Systems and Policies

  • Total Pages: 13
  • Words: 3251
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: 1. Discuss the Roots of American Policing

A. Depending on kinship for safety in Medieval England
B. The English office of the sheriff
C. The state as victims, Legis Henrici
D. The Magna Carter, Origins of Due Process

2. The Development of Policing In America

A. 1776 ? 1850
B. 1850 - 1900

Law and Order in the Colonies
Vigilantes and Posses in the west Private Policing
3. Foundations of Modern American Policing. 1900 ? 1930

A. Labor conflict and local police
B. August Vollmer and the professionalism of police

4. Origins of Federal Law Enforcement

A. US. Marshall Service
B. US Postal Investigation Service
C. US Secret Service
D. Department of Investigations and the Federal Bureau of Investigations


Please refer to the texts below also

Texts.
1. Criminal Justice: James A. Fagin, Publisher, Allyn & Bacon
2. Criminal Justice Today 7th ed. Frank Schmalleger - Prentice Hall

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Works Cited

Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.

Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9487482

Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=30434190

Jones, Trevor, and Tim Newburn. Private Security and Public Policing. London: Oxford University, 1998.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=93559993

Morn, Frank. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Schmalleger, Frank "Criminal Justice Today: Cybrary" Chapter 5 Policing History and Structure. Retrieved April 25, 2004 at: http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_schmalleger_criminalju_7/0,5505,292307-,00.html.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=28023295

Vila, Bryan and Cynthia Morris, eds. The Role of Police in American Society A Documentary History. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95931767

Ward, Harry M. Statism in Plymouth Colony. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1973.

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Title: Recruitment and Hiring

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3084
  • Sources:3
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Procedures and standards the United States Government takes to recruit and hiring qualified individuals for civilian government agency positions and the problems they face filling these positions. The agencies include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, National Reconnaissance Office, Defense Intelligence Agency and Department of Homeland Defense.

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References

Carland, Maria Pinto; Faber, Candace. (2008) "Careers in International Affairs"

Editorial Board, WSW. (2002) "Bush's new Department of Homeland Defense: the scaffolding of a police state" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2002/jun2002/bush-j08.shtml

N.A. (n. d.) "Contact the NRO" National Reconnaissance Office" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.nro.gov/contact.html

N.A. (n. d.) "Federal Bureau of Investigation -- Strategic Plan 2004-2009"

Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.fbi.gov/publications/strategicplan/stategicplantext.htm#recruit

N.A. (2008) "History: Who Became Part of the Department?" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0133.shtm

N.A. (2008) "Homeland Security Careers" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/careers/

N.A. (n. d.) "How Federal Jobs are Filled" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.usajobs.gov/fhprocess.asp

N.A. (n. d.) "How to Apply for Homeland Security Positions" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/careers/content_multi_image_0017.shtm

N.A. (2008) "Intelligence and Counterespionage Careers" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 from http://www.espionageinfo.com/in-Int/Intelligence-and-Counterespionage-Careers.html

N.A. (2007) "Scandal: Bias in Hiring Non-Muslims as Translator Analysts for U.S.

Security Agencies" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/014671.php

N.A. (2009) "Technical briefing: Spy boot camp" Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.c4isrjournal.com/story.php?F=3917494

Oldman, Mark; Hamadeh, Samer. (2003) "The Best 109 Internships"

Princeton Review.

Richfield, Paul. (2007) "Defense Intelligence Agency in hiring push" C4ISR Journal,

Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://integrator.hanscom.af.mil/2007/February/02012007/02012007-17.htm

Temple-Raston, Dina. (2007) "Intelligence Chief Hopes to Speed Staffing Checks"

Retrieved 14 March, 2009 at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10588696

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Title: Writers Username moriks58 Discussion Questions 1 There a countrys terrorist countrys freedom fighter If definition terrorism provided Hall 2003 techniques factor counter terrorism operations military tactics investigation 2

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 580
  • References:8
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Writer?s Username: moriks58

Discussion Questions

1.There is a saying that one country?s terrorist is another country?s freedom fighter. If you were to use the definition of terrorism provided by Hall (2003) above, what other techniques would factor into counter-terrorism operations besides military tactics and investigation?

2.What potential organizational conflicts do you see between FBI-CIA, FBI-DHS, and CIA-DHS? How would you propose to reduce or eliminate this conflict?

3.Explain the Governmental Response Continuum in regards to the Iraq or Afghanistan wars.

SOURCES:
Central Intelligence Agency. (2007). Retrieved May 24, 2007, from www.cia.gov.

Department of Homeland Security. (2007). Retrieved May 24, 2007, from www.dhs.gov.

Department of Defense. (2001). DOD antiterrorism standards. Instruction 2000.16. Washington,
DC: Author.

Dyson, W. E. (2001). Terrorism: An investigator?s handbook. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson
Publishing.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Retrieved May 23, 2004, from www.fbi.gov.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2006). Terrorism Mindsets. Quantico, VA: FBI National
Academy.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2007). Retrieved May 23, 2004, from
www.fema.gov.

Hall, H. V. (2003). Introduction: Psychological study of terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment

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