i am going to send you 8 different topic and I would like you discuss about the topic in 200 words for each topic. Please write the number if discussion in front of paragraph so i can find out which paragraph is for what topic.
name of the book
TEXTBOOK: Goldstein, Bruce. (2008). Cognitive Psychology: Connecting Mind, Research, and Everyday Experience. 2nd Ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson/ Wadsworth Learning. ISBN: 0-495-09557-5.
COGLAB: Francis, Greg & Neath, Ian. (2007). CogLab Online Version 2.0 Instant Access Code. 4th Ed. (http://coglab.wadsworth.com). ISBN: 0-495-50296-0.
# 1Discuss the three components of working memory
(phonological loop, visuospatial sketch pad, and the central executive) and how working memory
is a limited capacity system. Then discuss the problem of overloading when two tasks are done at once (compare two verbal tasks vs. two visual tasks vs. one verbal and one visual task). Please provide everyday tasks that might exemplify overload problems.
#2 Your textbook builds a strong connection between the lessons of memory
research and developing successful learning strategies (such as mnemonics). Please share some of your individual experiences about the successes, failures, and frustrations you've had in your study habits. For example, think of an exam you took recently and reflect on the following questions. What were you thinking about at the time of the exam? Was there an identifiable memory
failure that occurred? Was that failure a result of a less than optimal study habit? What insights have you gained by having an understanding of memory
? Using what you've learned from the text and notes about memory
, how could you improve your study habits to ensure you don't have memory
failures on future exams?
#3A very important idea in understanding memory
is the idea that "memory
is constructive". When you recall previous events at a later time point, you have to recreate (or construct) the memory
. Your textbook and the class lectures discuss the problems with memory
recall, such as false memories
, the inaccuracy of eyewitness testimony, and whether repressed memories
have any validity at all. There are videos posted under the Video Icon on the Course Content page that discuss constructive memories
and eyewitness testimony that you will find helpful for this discussion. To give you an idea of how fallible your memories
are, complete the False Memory
CogLab or view the Bomber videos (the effect is best if you watch the Bomber on the Roof video first and then wait a day or two before watching the line-up -- this simulates the reality that eyewitnesses don't get to view potential suspects in a line-up immediately after they witness a crime). Now discuss some of the problems associated with the constructive nature of memory
and describe some of your personal experiences with memory
failures or inaccuracies. Now that you are aware of the constructive nature of memory
, do you think it will influence the way you encode and view your memories
in the future? How so?
#4Classification of objects is a complex, but vital part of our everyday lives. How important do you think the ability to classify objects or events is in your own life? How would it affect your life if you suddenly couldn't classify objects correctly? Some people have trouble categorizing objects, like familiar faces or specific types of objects, due to brain damage. What are some of the classification errors that are related to brain damage? How do you think this disorder affects the patients lives?
Don't forget to respond to at least two of your classmates' posts.
In the Videos icon on the Course Content page, I uploaded a video that I thought you might find interesting and helpful with this discussion. It shows a patient who has trouble classifying objects correctly. So click on the filename
#5 Find a picture of an everyday object. Write a description here of the object in your picture (without naming the object) and be as detailed as possible. Now add your picture as an attachment to your discussion post or provide a web link so other students can look at your picture. Discuss how these two representations differ in terms of the information they contain. Further, explain how the concepts of propositional (verbal) representations and depictive (pictorial) representations apply to this demonstration.
Don't forget to respond to at least two of your classmates' posts. To receive full credit, make sure that you read their object descriptions and try to guess the object. Then look at the pictures of the object they described and discuss how close your visualization of their written description was to the actual pictorial representation of the object.
#6 When you listen to the radio or any conversation, you perceive separate words in spoken sentences. Do you think you could perceive separate words in a language other than your own? For an example, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mn0PlOexcnI -- can you hear the different words in Chinese or is the speech signal continuous with no physical breaks? Look at Figure 10.2 in your book and discuss why speech segmentation occurs for a familiar language, but not an unfamiliar language. Also discuss how when we learn language, we learn meaning as well as rules for individual words, such as which sounds are more likely to occur at the beginning or end of words. Then view the video entitled Ch. 10 - McGurk Effect (located in the Video folder on the Course Content page or at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFPtc8BVdJk). What do you initially think the person is saying? Does it change if you close your eyes? What happens if you watch the video with the sound turned off? Explain how the McGurk Effect creates an auditory illusion.
# 7nsight (also described as the ‘aha’ moment) is a sudden understanding of a problem or of a strategy that aids in solving the problem, which is often associated with ill-structured problems. Read the examples of several ill-structured problems provided in the class notes (Ch. 11 - Problem Solving). If you don't immediately know the answer to all 5 questions, take some time to think about possible answers and take a guess. Make sure you read each problem carefully and provide insightful guesses. Insight often follows taking a break from a problem and has been experienced by most people. Share an example of how that has happened to you or someone you know. Compare the examples from other students and people you know. Can you see any patterns or hints about what might be behind the insight process?
#8Discuss the Wason Selection task described in the notes and the CogLab you completed. Do you think the confirmation bias could play a role in perpetuating stereotypes? How so? Discuss how selective attention causes some evidence to be overlooked in confirmation bias tasks. Include the concepts of base rates and illusory correlations in your discussion.
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