Eyewitness Testimony Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Eyewitness Testimony College Essay Examples

Title: eyewitness testimony exceptional weight juries However mistaken inaccurate eyewitness identification continues a problem criminal trrials In case 30 witnesses testified defendant a forgery case committed dozens forgeries

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 607
  • References:1
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: eyewitness testimony is given exceptional weight by juries.However,mistaken and inaccurate eyewitness identification continues to be a problem in criminal trrials.In one particular case,30 witnesses testified that the defendant in a forgery case had committed dozens of forgeries.The was not convicted because he produced evidence showing that he was in jail at the time the forgeries were committed.
The United States Supreme Court has ruled that reliability of such evidence is paramount.It provided guidelines in the case of Neil v. Biggers,409 U.S 188,93 S. Ct. 375 (1972).

What were those guidelines? Find a case that cites this case and explain why the court in your case found the Neil v. Biggers case a useful precedent.

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In determining that Davis's identification was admissible the lower court stated: "The court's finding is that there is evidence -- I won't say reliable, but I think that's a matter for the jury -- that she can identify them. I don't find it unduly suggestive. I find the issues -- the weight is a matter for the jury." The state Supreme Court found that the lower court did not look at the reliability of Davis's identification in regards to the guidelines established in Neil and did not make a decision that her identification was unfailing, which was an error.

As shown by the record, without Davis's identification, the State's case against Moore was tenuous. Accordingly, the court found error in admitting Davis's identification testimony without first figuring out that her identification was dependable, which was not harmless. Therefore, this case was remand back to the trial court in order to hold a hearing to figure out, under the whole of the circumstances, that the identification of Moore was dependable.

In another case State of Connecticut v. Julian Marquez, No. 17663, 2008, the court proposed that in the influential case of Neil v. Biggers, supra, 409 U.S. At 188, 93 S.Ct. 375, the Supreme Court explained the overarching apprehension that courts face when evaluating a disputed identification procedure. The court said that the primary goal is to avoid a very substantial probability of irreversible misidentification. It is the likelihood of misidentification which infringes a defendant's rights to due process. As courts apply the two-pronged test to decide if a specific identification procedure is so suggestive and untrustworthy as to necessitate suppression, they forever should weigh the pertinent factors against this standard. In other words, an eyewitness identification should be barred on the foundation of the procedure used to extract that identification only if the court is sure that the procedure was so suggestive and otherwise untrustworthy as to give rise to a very considerable probability of irreversible misidentification.

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Title: eyewitness testimony study of perception and memory

  • Total Pages: 12
  • Words: 3711
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: The research paper topic is on eyewitness testimony: the study of perception and memory. The paper should include the psycholegal relevance of the issue, that is, why is it important, the historical context that laid the foundation for the issue, what findings have emerged in the research, what major case opinions shape the legal aspects, and what direction is likely in this area. Please include an equal amount of both psychology content and law content in the research.

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Works Cited:


Callahan, S. (1993, December 17). Memory can play tricks. Commonweal, 120, 6+. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Gordon, B.N., & Follmer, a. (1994). Developmental issues in judging the credibility of children's testimony. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23(3), 283-294.

Handberg, R.B. (1995). Expert testimony on eyewitness identification: A new pair of glasses for the jury. American Criminal Law Review, 32(4), 1013-1064. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Howton, T. (1996). Death or declaration. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 86(4), 1461-1491. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Loftus, E.F. (2002, Summer). Memory faults and fixes: Research has revealed the limits of human memory; Now the courts need to incorporate these findings into their procedures. Issues in Science and Technology, 18, 41+. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Memory's future. (2001, March). Psychology Today, 34, 55. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Rubin, D.C. (1985, September). The subtle deceiver: Recalling our past; we filter memories of past events through the screen of our present lives. Psychology Today, 19, 38+. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Sanchirico, C.W. (2004). Evidence, procedure and the upside of cognitive error. Stanford Law Review, 57(2), 291+. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Webert, D.R. (2003). Are the courts in a trance? Approaches to the admissibility of hypnotically enhanced witness testimony in light of empirical evidence. American Criminal Law Review, 40(3), 1301+. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Wells, G.L., & Olson, E.A. (2003). Eyewitness testimony. 277+. Retrieved August 4, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

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Title: A Framework for Understanding Children's Eyewitness Testimony

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 854
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Respond to the stated question below, including any relevance to and implications on the field of criminal justice. Be sure to discuss the issue(s) to which the question pertains. Remarks can include your opinion(s), but must be based on experience, research, and/or prior learning. Use this exercise to foster a rich dialogue with your colleagues about issues that are important to the field of criminal justice.

Describe a child’s developmental stages as they relate to the ability to form memories and recall events.

In your opinion, what dynamic is the most influential in the elderly population that causes their dimensioned ability to recall events and situations?

In your opinion, what dynamic has the most adverse influence on eyewitness testimony?
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Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html

Kulfosfky, S. And Kemfuss, J.Z. (2008). What the stories children tell can tell about their memory: narrative skill and young children's suggestibility. Developmental Psychology, 44(5), 1442-1456.

Wilde Astington, J. And Edward, M.J. (2010, August) the development of theory of mind in early childhood. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. [Web.] Retreived http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/documents/Astington-EdwardANGxp.pdf

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Title: TOPIC I shook hands Bugs Bunny Describe evaluate role schemas stereotypes recalling past events What implications accuracy eyewitness accounts events SECTIONS OF ESSAY Title page Abstract 120 words max Essay References Students Define schemas stereotypes role memory processing Review literature schemas stereotypes recalling past events generally Review literature schemas stereotypes specific eyewitness testimony Identify limitations relative strengths studies attempt understand role schemas stereotypes accuracy recall Draw implications findings establish impact schemas stereotypes accuracy eyewitness testimony

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 2111
  • Sources:4
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: TOPIC: I shook hands with Bugs Bunny...? Describe and evaluate the role of schemas and stereotypes on recalling past events. What implications does this have for the accuracy of eyewitness accounts of events?

- Title page - Abstract (120 words max) - Essay - References

Students will need to:
- Define the schemas and stereotypes and their role in memory processing
- Review literature on schemas and stereotypes and recalling past events generally
- Review literature on schemas and stereotypes specific to eyewitness testimony
- Identify limitations or relative strengths of the studies in their attempt to understand the role of
schemas and stereotypes on accuracy of recall
- Draw out the implications of these findings to establish the impact of schemas and stereotypes
on accuracy of eyewitness testimony.

- Braun, K. A., Ellis, R., & Loftus, E. F. (2002). Make my memory: how advertising can change our memories of the past. Psychology and Marketing, 19, 1-23. (* NB: this is the Bugs Bunny study)
- Kleider, H. M., Goldinger, S. D., Knuycky, L. (2008). Stereotypes influence false memories for imagined events. Memory, 16, 97-114.
- Kleider, H. M., Pezdek, K., Goldinger, S. D., & Kirk, A. (2008). Schema-driven source misattribution errors: remembering the expected from a witnessed event. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 1- 20.
- Sacchi, D. L. M., Agnoli, F., & Lotfus, E. F. (2007). Changing history: doctored photographs affect memory for past public events. Applied Cognitive Psychology,21, 1005-1022.
- Tuckey, M. R., & Brewer, N. (2003). The influence of schemas, stimulus ambiguity, and interview schedule on eyewitness memory over time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 9, 101-118.

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Brewer, W.F., & Treyens, J.C.(1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology, 12(2), 207-230

Charman, S., & Wells, G.(2008). Can eyewitnesses correct for external influences on their lineup identifications? The actual/counterfactual assessment paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14(1), 5-20.

Christianson, S., & Hubinette, B.(1993). Hand up A study of witnesses' emotional reactions and memories associated with bank robberies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7(5), 365-379

Duffy, E.L.(1948). Motivational theory of emotion. Psychological Review, 55, 324-328.

Easterbrook, J.A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review, 66, 183-201

Gerrie, M., Belcher, L., & Garry, M.(2006). 'Mind the Gap': False Memories for Missing Aspects of an Event. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(5), 689-696.

Loftus, E.F., & Zanni, G. (1975). Eyewitness testimony: The influence of the wording of a question. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 5, 86-88

Morgan, C., Hazlett, G., Doran, A., Garrent, S., Hoyt, G., Thomas, P. (2004). Accuracy of eyewitness memory for persons encountered during exposure to highly intense stress .International Journal of Law and psychiatry, 27(3), 265-279

Nemeth, R., & Belli, R.(2006). The influence of schematic knowledge on contradictory vs. additive misinformation: False memory for typical and atypical items. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(5), 563-573.

Payne, J., Nadel, L., Allen, J., Thomas, K., & Jacobs, W. (2002). The effects of experimentally induced stress on false recognition. Memory, 10(1), 1-6

Pansky, A., & Bar, S.K. (2004). The role of basic level convergence in accounting for the misinformation effect.

Wells, GL., & Loftus, E.F. (2003). Eyewitness memory for people and events. In A.M. Goldstein (Ed). Handbook of Psychology: Forensic Psychology, Vol II (pp. 149-160). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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