Essay Instructions: Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Paper
-Prepare a 1200-word paper in which you explain the evolution of cognitive psychology as a discipline. Be sure to address the following items in your explanation:
a. Define cognition.
b. Explain the interdisciplinary perspective as it relates to cognitive psychology.
c. Describe the emergence of cognitive psychology as a discipline.
d. Assess the impact of the decline of behaviorism on the discipline of cognitive
1 of 2 sources needed is provided. Sources must come from current scholarly Journals.
There are faxes for this order.
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Total Pages: 2 Words: 655 References: 1 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Evolution
1. choose to research any four scientists from the list below:
2. project should include descriptions of each scientist?s contributions to the developing theory of evolution. The following checklist provides the required information to be included for each scientist:
The country in which the scientist lived
Dates when the scientist lived
The scientist?s main findings, publications, and contributions, with corresponding dates
Explanations of how these findings impacted the developing theory of evolution and relate to the modern theory of evolution
Information on how these findings and publications relate to the commonly held beliefs of the day
3. present THE research in a creative and detailed project. choose one of the following formats:
Detailed interactive timeline
4. Be sure that the project:
includes citations of all resources used for your research
is presented in a way that is neat, organized, and clear
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Essay Instructions: Evolution of European Union :
- Basics (how many states, when it formed, why it was formed, etc)
- Its economy , and history of the Euro (and list other forms of currency, if they are still in effect)
- Its governing body, and its politics
- Its demographics & culture,religion,langugages
- Need 4 sources, and one has to be from a book
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Essay Instructions: Evolution ResearchProposal
Your assignment is to write a proposal (a plan) to study an evolutionary question of your choice (anything from molecular evolution to paleontology). This is not a typical essay or research paper as there will not be results or conclusions for the experiments or observations you propose. Instead you will state several hypotheses and describe how you could conduct research that could test the predictions of your hypotheses. Biologist’s seeking funding to conduct research write proposals to NSF or NIH that are similar to your assignment. The proposal will be written like a scientific paper with the following sections: 1. Abstract, 2.Introduction, 3. Materials and Methods, 4. Discussion, and 5. References.
A. Choose an area of interest in evolution and focus on a specific question or evolutionary process. Develop a testable hypothesis and at least one alternative hypothesis about the topic (ideas can come from the text, readings, lecture, or other sources). In the proposal Introduction, carefully explain the logic behind the hypotheses you propose and state the prediction(s) and any important assumptions. Make sure that your hypotheses are testable. Does each hypothesis yield at least one unique prediction and is it possible to collect information that would allow you to reject at least one hypothesis? For ideas about how to test hypotheses, read the discussions of hypotheses, experimental design, observational studies, and the comparative method in Ch. 9 (pg. 331-349; Freeman and Herron). Your Introduction should provide background and include citation of references related to your hypothesis.
B. Conduct library research to identify the existing literature on this and related topics. Incorporate the sources into your text. Avoid use of quotations. Whenever you write about an idea or fact that comes from a book or article, put the authors name and publication date in parentheses at the end of the sentence (Thompson, 1999). All authors cited in the text should be listed in alphabetical order on a References page at the end of the proposal. Although books may be a good starting point for your research, most of your citations should come from the primary literature (journals that publish original research articles such as Evolution, Genetics, Molecular Evolution, etc.). You are required to find at least eight primary journal articles related to your topic. Be advised that most internet search engines will not directly access primary scientific literature. Your best approach for finding articles is to use the search options at the UNLV Library web site (http://library.nevada.edu/resources). Then go directly to journal articles and look through the reference lists at the end of each article. Be sure to ask a librarian for assistance in your quest for articles.
C. In the Methods section of your proposal, describe an experiment or set of observations that you will use to test your hypotheses (predictions). Make your experiment practical in that you could conduct it with appropriate equipment and funding. Carefully explain the methods you would use and what you would measure. Use verb tenses that result in an active voice (e.g., I will raise gorillas in cages and measure aggressive behavior directed at intruders to determine if aggression is related to fitness ....not...the gorilla's reactions to unsuspecting volunteers will be measured...).
D. In the Discussion section of your proposal, briefly explain the different kinds of experimental results you might obtain (you do not know the outcome of your proposed experiment, but you can outline the range of possible outcomes) and the observations that would lead you to reject or not reject your hypotheses. Explain how you would determine the validity of your assumptions. The Abstract should be a 200-300 word summary of your hypotheses and your method for testing the predictions of your hypotheses. It is easiest to write the abstract last.
E. Attach a xerox of a research journal article you used that is the most closely related to your proposal.
GENERAL NOTE: Follow the citation style of our textbook (Freeman and Herron, 2007). Remember, this is an exercise in proper scientific writing (five pages of text, plus References). Bad grammar and spelling errors/typos are inexcusable. Carefully proof-read your paper and have a friend do the same. Take advantage of the UNLV Writing Center (FDH 240; 895-3908) for guidance in developing your writing skills. Grades will be based on the logic, clarity, and novelty of the research proposal. Spelling and typographic errors will reduce your grade and late papers will be marked down five points per day.
Suggestions to get started (START NOW!):
Choose a topic in evolution or choose an organism or trait that interests you. Search electronic journals or books on evolution using several different key words, some general and some specific. You can also go directly to an electronic journal such as Evolution or Trends in Ecology and Evolution and browse through the article titles looking for topics of interest. When logged onto library computers you can download PDF electronic files of most journal articles. You may also be able to find journal articles by using Google.com (scholar option) and typing “pdf “ after the key words of your search.
PARTIAL LIST OF RESEARCH PERIODICALS THAT COVER EVOLUTION
Trends in ecology & evolution
Journal of molecular evolution
Development genes and evolution
Evolution & development
Journal of evolutionary biology
Molecular phylogenetics and evolution
Origins of life and evolution of the biosphere
Infection, genetics and evolution
Journal of evolutionary biochemistry and physiology
Journal of human evolution
Journal of mammalian evolution
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research
The Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution
Plant species biology
Plant systematics and evolution
Biological journal of the Linnean Society
BMC evolutionary biology
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