Enzymes Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Enzymes College Essay Examples

Title: Enzymes

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2468
  • Works Cited:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This paper is for my Biology class. It is a formal lab report over ENZYMES, I will upioad lab manual and also more stuff that you will need to write this paper.
I will send you a guide for writing lab reports also, please make sure to read them carefully and follow the instructions. My paper should have 3 parts, first Introductions, use at least 3 sources for this part, do as a 3 paragraph, in first paragraph write about lactose and lactose Intalerance, in second paragraph what we did in experiment(temprerature, PH, cofactor and specificity) and in last paragraph write hypothesize.
In second part I need Materials and Methods(You will find them on lab manual).
In last part I need Result and Discussion and again this part should be on several paragraph.
I will try to send you one of my class mate Lab report and the manual as soon as posible.
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References

Cornish-Bowden, A. (2004). Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics. Portland Press.

Dunaway-Mariano, D. (2008). Enzyme Function Discovery. Structure, Vol.16 Issue 11, 1599-1600.

Fernandez, P., Canada, J.F., Jiminez-Barbero, J., & Martin-Lomas, M. (1995). Substrate Specificity of Small-Intestinal Lactase: Study of the Steric effects and Hydrogen Bonds involved in Enzyme-Substrate Interaction. Carbohydrate Research Volume 271, Issue 1, 31-42.

Naim, Y.H., Sterchi, E., & Lentze, M. (1987). Biosynthesis and Maturation of Lactase-Phlorizin Hydrolase in the Human Small Intestinal Epithelial Cells. Biochemical Journal Vol. 241 No. 2, 427-434.

Sallee, J., & Clapper, A. (2007). The Effects of Temperature and Chelating Agents on Catechol Oxidation. Andrew's Online Journal.

Schneider, R.E., Corona, E., Rosales, F., Schneider, E.F., Rodriguez, O., & Pineda, O. (1990). Effect of Temperature on the Lactose Hydrolytic Capacity of a Lactase derived from Kluyveromyces Lactis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 51 No. 2, 197-201.

Wilson, J. (2005). Milk Intolerance: Lactose Intolerance and Cow's Milk Protein Allergy. Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, Vol. 5 Issue 4, 203-207.

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Title: Nature

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 841
  • Bibliography:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Nature's Factories
Analyze the various enzymes in plants. Is there an enzyme that humans can harness in order to create a drug or product that can be of use to humans? Write a paper (2-3 pages) on three such enzymes and how we can cultivate plants as biological manufactories like we do bacteria. You can use the Internet to research this assignment. Please attach a separate bibliography page.

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Bibliography

1) Burton Goldberg, 'Alternative Medicine', Second Edition, 2002, Berkley Books

2) UMMC, 'Bromelain: Overview', Accessed Mar 17th 2010, available at, http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/bromelain-000289.htm

3) Andres Illanes, 'Enzyme Biocatalysis: Principles and Applications', Springer Publications, 2008.

4) EIR, 'Antifungal Treatment', Accessed Mar 17th 2010, available at, http://www.ei-resource.org/treatment-options/treatment-information/antifungal-treatment/

5) Nemours Foundation, 'Lactose Intolerance', Accessed Mar 17th 2010, available at, http://kidshealth.org/teen/food_fitness/nutrition/lactose_intolerance.html

6) ERG, 'Enzymes: The Difference Between Plant and Animal', Accessed Mar 17th 2010, available at, http://www.enzymeresearchgroup.net/docs/Animal_Enzymes_vs_Plant_Enzymes.pdf

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Title: Cell Structure and Function Enzymes Meiosis and the ecology of organisms

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1160
  • Sources:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Below there are 3 sections (Cell Function, Enzymes, and Meiosis) of questions. Please answer the questions in a “short to the point” answer. Try to think as the answers will be placed on a power point presentation. Lastly, there is an Experiment 1: “Effects of pH on Radish Seed Germination” please complete table one, the graph and the 3 questions in APA style.

Cell function
1. For each structure identified, do you think its location affects its ability to function? Why or why not? (Hint: those buried deep in the cell probably do different things than those closer to the cell membrane)

2. Draw a labeled diagram of a small section of the plasma membrane and briefly describe its structure and function.

3. Describe the differences between animal and plant cells.

4. Which of the following structures are present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

5. Where is genetic material found in plant cells?

6. Mitochondria are the only organelles that contain their own DNA (circular) and have a double membrane. Why do you think this might be so?

Hint 1: Where else do we see circular DNA?)
Hint 2: What do you know about the relative age of eukaryotic cells?)

7. How is the structure of the plant’s cellulose-based cell wall related to its function?

8. Defects in structures of the cell can lead to many diseases. Pick one structure of a eukaryotic cell and develop a hypothesis as to what you think the implications would be if that structure did not function properly.

9. Using books, articles, the internet, etc. conduct research to determine if your hypothesis was correct.



ENZYME
1. How does temperature affect enzyme function?

2. Do plants and animals have an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide? How could you test this?

3. How did the boiling water affect the overall reaction?

4. How can enzyme activity be increased?

5. Design an experiment to determine the optimal temperature for enzyme function, complete with controls. Where would you find the enzymes for this experiment? What substrate would you use?

6. Draw a graph using balloon diameter vs. temperature. What is the correlation?
7. Do you expect more enzyme activity if the substrate concentration is increased or decreased? Draw a graph to illustrate this relationship.

8. Hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells, yet is a common byproduct of the reactions that occur inside the body. How can’t his compound be changed to become non-toxic (Hint: Look at the chemical formula of hydrogen peroxide)?

Meiosis- Following chromosomal DNA movement Procedure
Meiosis I

• Prophase I??"
• Metaphase I??"
• Anaphase I??"
• Telophase I??"

Meiosis II

• Prophase II??"
• Metaphase II??"
• Anaphase II??"
• Telophase II??"


1. What is the state of the DNA at the end of meiosis I? What about at the end of meiosis II?

2. Why are chromosomes important?

3. How are Meiosis I and Meiosis II different?

4. Name two ways meiosis contributes to genetic recombination.

5. Why do you use non-sister chromatids to demonstrate crossing over?

6. How many chromosomes were present when Meiosis I started?

7. Why is it necessary to reduce the chromosome number of gametes, but not other cells of an organism?

8. If humans have 46 chromosomes in each of their body cells, determine how many chromosomes you would expect to find in the following:

Sperm _________________
Egg _________________
Daughter cell from mitosis _______________
Daughter cell from Meiosis II _________________

9. Investigate a disease that is caused by chromosomal mutations. When does the mutation occur? What chromosome is affected? What are the consequences?
Experiment 1: Effects of pH on Radish Seed Germination

Table 1: Radish Seed Observation and Germination
Solution pH Days 1-2 Day 3 Day 4
Observation Seeds Germinated % Observation Seeds Germinated % Observation Seeds Germinated %
Water
Vinegar
Baking soda


Complete the graph. Use the graph provided as your template. You will need to impose figures and shapes over the graph.













Questions
1. Was there any noticeable effect on the germination rate of the radish seeds as a result of the pH? Compare and contrast the growth rate for the control with the alkaline and acidic solutions.

2. According to your results would you say that the radish has a broad pH tolerance? Why or why not? Use your data to support your answer.

3. Knowing that acid rain has a pH of 2-3 would you conclude that crop species with a narrow soil pH range are in trouble? Is acid rain a problem for plant species and crops?



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Balloon diameter is directly related to the temperature. As increase in temperature causes expansion of gas molecules, therefore, the volume and thus the diameter of balloon also increases (Seager & Slabaugh 2010).

7. Do you expect more enzyme activity if the substrate concentration is increased or decreased? Draw a graph to illustrate this relationship.

With an increase in substrate concentration, enzyme activity will significantly increase at initial values. However, as the active sites of enzymes get occupied by substrate molecules, the rate of reaction will not remain dependent prominently on the amount of substrate as then substrate molecules have to queue

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Title: Alzheimer s Disease

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3266
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: The title of the dissertation is: Examining the potential use of beta secretase enzymes in the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.
I would like the literature review to be mainly focused on the beta secretases that have been successful in trials on mice and comparing them and I would also like a conclusion.

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References

Cole S. L & Vassar, R. (2007). The Alzheimer's disease ?-secretase enzyme, BACE1. Molecular

Neurodegeneration 2007, 2:22 doi:10.1186/1750-1326-2-22

Dominguez D, et al. Phenotypic and biochemical analyses of BACE1- and BACE2-

deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30797 -- 30806

Hong-Qi, Y., Zhi-Kun, S. & Sheng-Di. C. (2012). Current advances in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: focused on considerations targeting A? And tau. Translational Neurodegeneration 2012, 1:21 doi:10.1186/2047-9158-1-21

Hu X, et al. Genetic deletion of BACE1 in mice affects remyelination of sciatic nerves. FASEB

J. 2008;22:2970 -- 2980.

Lazarov O, et al. Environmental enrichment reduces A? levels and amyloid deposition in transgenic mice. Cell. 2005;120:701 -- 713.

Lu, Q. et al. (2012). L655,240, acting as a competitive BACE1 inhibitor, efficiently decreases ?-

amyloid peptide production in HEK293-APPswe cells. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica

(2012) 33: 1459 -- 1468; doi: 10.1038/aps.2012.74

Luo Y, et al. Mice deficient in BACE1, the Alzheimer's ?-secretase, have normal phenotype and abolished ?-amyloid generation. Nat Neurosci. 2001;4:231 -- 232.

McConlogue L, et al. Partial reduction of BACE1 has dramatic effects on Alzheimer plaque and synaptic pathology in APP transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:26326 -- 26334.

McGowan E, et al. A?42 is essential for parenchymal and vascular amyloid deposition in mice. Neuron. 2005; 47:191 -- 199

Nishitomi K, et al. BACE1 inhibition reduces endogenous Abeta and alters APP processing in wild-type mice. J Neurochem. 2006;99:1555 -- 1563.

Ring S, et al. The secreted ?-amyloid precursor protein ectodomain APPs? is sufficient to rescue the anatomical, behavioral, and electrophysiological abnormalities of APP-

deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7817 -- 7826.

Roberds SL, et al. BACE knockout mice are healthy despite lacking the primary ?-secretase activity in brain: implications for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. Hum Mol

Genet. 2001;10:1317 -- 1324.

Vassar R. & Kandalepas, P.C. (2010).The ?-secretase enzyme BACE1 as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Res. Ther. 2011; 3(3):20-36

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