Environmental Justice Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Environmental Justice College Essay Examples

Title: Environmental Justice

  • Total Pages: 35
  • Words: 9648
  • References:20
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This thesis will examine whether the issuance of Executive Order 12898 in 1994 has made a recognizable difference in assisting the environmental justice movement reach its goal of achieving environmental protection for all communities.

On February 11, 1994, President Bill Clinton signed Executive Order 12898 on Environmental Justice: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. This order directs each federal agency to develop an environmental justice strategy for identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health, or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority populations and low-income populations. Monies were allocated to federal agencies and state governments assisting communities to develop strategies toward local environmental problems.

Executive Order 12898 reinforces the 45 year-old Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VI, which prohibits discriminatory practices in programs receiving federal funds. The order also focuses the spotlight back on the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), a 40 year old law that set policy goals for the protection, maintenance and enhancement of the environment. NEPA’s goal is to ensure for all Americans a safe, healthful, productive, and aesthetically and culturally pleasing environment, NEPA requires a detailed statement on the environmental effects of proposed federal actions that significantly affect the quality of human health.

This thesis may have (but is not limited to) the following areas of discussion:
1. Introduction
2. Background of the Environmental Justice Movement
3. Effects of Executive Order 12898
4. Chicagoland areas affected by unequal enviromental protection
(example - Altgeld Gardens which has a high minority/low income population and many environmental issues...do areas such as these have the same concerns now as before the the issuance of Executive Order 12898?)
5. Methodology
6. Results
7. Discussion/Conclusion

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Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives

• VOLUME 115 | NUMBER 7 | July 2007. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/9903/9903.pdf

Pellow, David Naguib (2004) Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. MIT Press 2004. Google Books Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=P_8g761DKFAC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=Environmental+Justice+Movement,+Chicago,+Executive+Order+12898&source=bl&ots=ZC3pkDW6PB&sig=lwIdweolIL9q613JulaJ1RKvrCs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPA81,M1

Sriraj, P.S., Fruin, Geoff, and McNeil, Sue (2003) Analysis of the Environmental Justice Compliance of the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA)"Proceedings of the 2003 Mid-Continent Transportation Research Symposium, Ames, Iowa, August 2003. © 2003 by Iowa State University. The contents of this paper reflect the views of the author(s), who are responsible for the facts and accuracy of the information presented herein.

What are Cultural Resources (2009) National Preservation Institute - Tools for CRMs. Online available at http://www.npi.org/NEPA/whatare.html

Clinton, William J. (1994) Executive Order 12898. U.S. General Services Administration. GSA. Online available at http://gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/contentView.do?pf=y&channelId=-13339&contentId=16908&programId=9644&pageTypeId=8199&contentType=GSA_BASIC&com.broadvision.session.new=Yes&P=PLAE

Environmental Justice and Health Disparities (2009) Health Schools Campaign. Online available at http://www.healthyschoolscampaign.org/programs/envjustice/

Wilson, Sacoby, Hutson, Malo and Mujahid, Mahasin (2008) How Planning and Zoning Contribute to Inequitable Development, Neighborhood Health and Environmental Injustice. 1 Dec 2008. Online available at http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/env.2008.0506

Environmental Justice - What does that mean? (2009) Environmental Justice Readings - Brief Information Summary of Environmental Justice. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Online available at http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/niehs/ambient/teacher/env_justice/module%20segments/envjusticereadings.pdf

Payne-Sturges, Devon and Gee, Gilbert C. (2006) National environmental health measures for minority and low-income populations: racking social disparities in environmental health. Environmental Research journal. 27 July 2006. Online available at http://yosemite.epa.gov/ochp/ochpweb.nsf/content/Disparities2.htm/$File/Disparities2.pdf

Environmental Justice and Executive Order 12898

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Title: Environmental Justice policies and issues

  • Total Pages: 20
  • Words: 5141
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Specific guidelines: My research paper has to be a complete extensive study on the environmental justice movement within the U.S. To do this, I need a paper that is thorougly researched and shows that I analyzed and included facts,
statistics, laws, and policies related to environmental justice and its role within the National agenda. Beyond the governments role in environmental justice policies and the EPA---I need to include accounts of specific examples of
enviromental racism or environmental injustice at the local levels. My major is interdisciplinary studies: environmental studies. I have integrated studies in Political science, Environmental Science, Sociology, and Communications and need
to draw on these disciplines to show how they interconnect with one another in society, and enviromental justice issues throughout my paper. My personal writing style incorporates my holistic perspective of society, and so it is super important that beyond the technical information of policies and laws in place, a real sense of humanity and social justice issues come through. This is about the people affected by these local struggles and I need to have real people illustrated in this paper---and how they are winning or losing against industry and the environmental hazards they are placing in minority/low-income communities.

Environmental Justice is a relatively new issue/policy in America, and I need to document its birth and rise in salience among local citizens and legislators, as well as the President (clinton). I have to include policies at the national level, and how these are applied at the local level. I want to include how citizens are utilizing the NIMBY approach and are succeeding in their personal
struggles against environmental hazards and risks--and how they are using environmental laws to do this (OR...how the laws are placing hinderances upon them). I want to make the connection between environmental justice and social
justice issues by connecting the terms, definitions, civil rights movements, same struggles, etc. Below is a loose guideline I have been following to formulate my paper, I have written about 5 pages so far....but am running out of
time!!! I need a professional, thoroughly researched paper----please help!! My work cited has many good references to use.....
Env Justice
-connection to social justice
-civil rights movements, others?
-historical accounts, when did it start, where, how has it grown?
-what policies have resulted from this?
-who are the major players involved?-who are the groups??
-how has this been framed?agenda setting, on both sides??
-what can citizens do to stay involved, combat health risks, etc? ?what are
procedures to help??
-sample cases to illustrate points

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Works Cited:


Adams, John H. (1994, spring) Message From the Director: Environmentalism and Justice at NRDC, Amicus J. (statement of the Executive Director of the Natural Resources Defense Council).

Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.Ace-ej.org

Commununities of a Better Environment (CBE). Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.cbecal.org

Community coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.ccej.org, online.

Blank, Linda. (no date) Comment, Seeking Solutions to Environmental Inequity: The Environmental Justice Act, 24 Envtl. L. 1109, 1113-15

Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. (1994, Feb 16) Exec. Order No. 12,898, 59 Fed. Reg. 7629.

Boerner, C., Clegg, R., & Lambert, T. (1996). A critique of "environmental justice."

The National Legal Center.

Brown, Alice B. (1993) Environmental Justice: New Civil Rights Frontier, Practicing Law Institute, Environmental Law Update.

Chavis, Benjamin. (1993, Mar 3) Environmental Racism: Hearings Before the House Subcomm. On Civil and Constitutional Rights, 103d Cong., 1st Sess.

Cole, L., & Foster, S. (2001). From the ground up: Environmental racism and the rise and of the environmental justice movement. New York: New York University Press.


Dryzek, J., & Schlosberg, D. (1999). Debating the earth. New York: Oxford University Press.

Earthshare. Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.earthshare.org, online

EcoNet. Accessed May 12, 2004. Available from: http://www.igc.org/home/econet//index.html,

Environmental Background Informational Center. Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.ebic.org.

The Enviromental Defence Center. Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.edcnet.org.

Environmental Law Institute Research Project. (2002). A citizens guide to using federal environmental laws to secure environmental justice. Washington, D.C.:

Environmental Law Institute.

Fisher, Michael. (1995) Environmental Racism Claims Brought under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act. Environmental Law, Vol. 25.

Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, nature, and the geography of difference. Massachusetts:

Blackwell Publishers.

Johnston, B. (ed.). (1994). Who pays the price? The sociocultural context of Environmental crisis. California: Island Press.

Lambert, T and Boerner C. (1997) Environmental Inequity: Economic Causes, Economic Solutions, 14 YALE J. ON REG. 195.

Lavelle, M. And Coyle M. (1992, Sept 21) Unequal Protection: The Racial Divide in Environmental Law: A Special Investigation, Nat'l L.J..

Melosi, M. (2001). Effluent America: Cities, industry, and the environment.

Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Payne, H. (1998, Oct 1) Green redlining: how rules against "environmental racism" hurt poor minorities most of all. Reason.

Reilly, K., & Weinberg, P. (1998). Understanding Environmental Law.

New York: Matthew Bender & Co.

Richman, Barak. (2002, Dec 22) Mandating negotiations to solve the NIMBY problem: a creative regulatory response.("not in my backyard") UCLA Journal of Environmental Law & Policy.

Wakefield, J. (2003, Feb 1) Growing pains for environmental justice movement. (NIEHS News). Environmental Health Perspectives.

Wenz, P. (1988). Environmental Justice. New York: State University of New York Press.

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Title: Managing Environmental Justice Issues Write a paper discuss relationship simulation environmental justice Include Identify stakeholders Describe ethical thinking philosophy stakeholder Identify conflicting competing priorities stakeholder

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 596
  • Bibliography:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Managing Environmental Justice Issues:

Write a paper in which you discuss the relationship between the simulation and environmental justice. Include the following:
* Identify each of the stakeholders.
*Describe the ethical thinking or philosophy of each stakeholder.
*Identify the conflicting or competing priorities of each stakeholder.
*Describe how these tensions can be understood as environmental justice issues.

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Smith, G. (2011, August 7). Environmental Justice Simulation. Retrieved January 12, 2012, from http://www.*****/essay-on/Enviornmental-Justice-Simulation/44717

Warner, K.D. & DeCosse, D. (2009, May). Lesson Five Environmental Justice. Retrieved from Santa Clara University website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/environmental_ethics/lesson5.html

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Title: Environmental Case Law

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1766
  • Sources:3
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Directions: Please read first the environmental justice case entitled, South Fork Band Council of Western Shoshone of Nevada v. US Department of Interior.

Formulate an opinion concerning the judge's ruling. Prepare a response to stakeholders in which you explain whether or not you agree with the ruling and why.

The completed environmental justice case evaluation must include the following information:

A. Detailed background history of the case

B. Identification of the environmental law or policy cited in the case

C. Identification of the scope and specific requirements of the law in the case

D. Description of the position and arguments of the plaintiff(s)

E. Description of the position and arguments of the defendant(s)

F. Description of the final decision of the judge and the justification for the decision

G. Statement of whether you agree or disagree with the decision (support your response with specific legal examples and information you found in your research)

Your response should be no less than 5 double-spaced pages, excluding the references page (containing full citations of all at least three (3) sources used in APA format). Extensive quotes will not count toward the required length of the response and should be avoided.

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FindLaw, (n.d.), Law Article: United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, Retrieved from http://caselaw. findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1498619.html.

Akilah, J.K. (2011), Indigenous Consent: Rethinking U.S. Consultation Policies In Light Of the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, VOL. 53, 2011, Retrieved from www.arizonalawreview.org/pdf/53-4/53arizlrev1301.pdf.

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