# Elementary Essays and Research Papers

## Instructions for Elementary College Essay Examples

### Title: Elementary Measurement area perimeter volume

• Total Pages: 18
• Words: 4943
• Sources:0
• Citation Style: APA
• Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: If this project turns out good, I'll be back in January for my thesis paper. I teach elementary math and this is an instructional design project. My topic is measurement such as area, perimeter, and volume. Please reference the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for measure for grade 5 mathematics. They are found here: http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/ch111a.html (Scroll almost to the bottom and they start at 5.1) My instructions are below:

Instructional Design and Performance Improvement Project

Define a problem that can be solved through appropriate instruction. The instructional design process begins by analyzing this problem. In this project you will analyze the instructional problem that you have identified and provide a rationale for why this problem can be solved through instruction rather than through other means. After the underlying nature of the problem has been analyzed, you will need to identify any and all domains of knowledge needed to solve the problem, identify component tasks for each, and develop a corresponding objective for each task. These objectives guide the design process and help you select and sequence content, instructional strategies and assessment measures. Your final product must be in APA style and should include the following:
1. Problem statement and needs analysis
2. Goal statement
3. Learner analysis
5. Performance objectives
6. Instructional strategies and supporting learning theories

Problem Statement. This statement should clearly identify the problem and identify sources of the problem. Conduct a needs analysis by obtaining additional information on the problem from others through the use of observation, interviews, focus groups, achievement tests, surveys, or other appropriate data gathering instruments. In the needs analysis, obtain information regarding the difference between the current state of affairs and the desired state of affairs. The results of the needs analysis should demonstrate that there is a need for instruction to solve the problem. The problem statement in your project should include the following subheadings:
1. Background of the problem
2. Definition of the problem
3. Needs analysis (this should contain a description of the data collection and analysis techniques used in your needs analysis and the findings of your needs analysis)
4. Rationale for the need for instruction (based on the needs analysis)
5. Available resources (resources you have available for creating an instructional unit to help solve this problem)

Goal Statement. After all the information about the problem has been gathered then it is possible to better identify the “what should be.” The goal statement is the expression of the way things should be. Instructional goals focus on what learners will be able to do when they complete the set of instructional materials. It describes the real world context, outside the learning situation, where the learner will use the new skills and knowledge. Write an instructional goal statement that (1) contains a clear, general statement of learner outcomes (2) describes what the learner will be able to do using a measurable verb, and; (3) relates to the identified problem and needs assessment.
Learner Analysis. An important part of the analysis process is gathering information about the learners. The learner analysis describes the target audience and provides valuable information that helps to identify deficiencies that will become the focus of instruction. Additionally, the learner analysis provides important information for the selection of instructional strategies. Subheadings in the learner analysis section should include:
1. Demographic information
2. Relevant group characteristics
3. Prior knowledge of topic
4. Entry level knowledge and skills
5. Attitudes and/or motivation toward the subject
6. When appropriate, additional information may include education level, learning styles and/or orientations.
Task Analysis. Once the goals of the instruction or curriculum have been determined the next step in the instructional design process is the task analysis. In the task analysis the instructional designer analyzes how an expert performs a complex job by breaking the job down into simple, easy to perform steps that need to be performed in order to meet the course or curriculum goals. The task analysis identifies both the steps and the sequence that the steps are performed. You may choose to do either a topic analysis or a procedural analysis depending on the nature of your project. A topic analysis identifies facts, concepts, principles, and rules needed for the instruction and is well suited for defining cognitive knowledge. A procedural analysis identifies both the observable and non-observable (cognitive) steps required to complete psychomotor tasks, job tasks, or multi-step cognitive sequences.

A hierarchical numbering scheme should be used to label the items in a task analysis.
Example:

1.1 First step of task 1
1.2 Second step
1.2.1 First sub-step step 1.2
1.3 Third step
2.1 First step of task 2
2.2 Etc.
Performance Objectives. A performance objective is a detailed description of what students will be able to do when they complete a unit of instruction. The objectives are usually derived from the steps in the goal analysis identified in the task analysis. Performance objectives. follow the three-part standard as identified by Mager: (1) a description of the condition under which the learner must be able to perform the task; (2) a statement of the intended learning outcome in terms of a measurable performance, and (3) the standard for an acceptable level of performance.
Instructional Strategies and Theories of Learning. The performance objectives provide a focus for selecting instructional content and instructional strategies to help ensure the mastery of your goal. Now that you have completed the learner analysis and have identified the performance objectives, consider effective instructional strategies for teaching the content. Consider using either Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction or the abbreviated Five Events as found in the Systematic Design of Instruction by Dick and Carey as a framework.

After you have discussed the instructional strategies briefly discuss how you expect learning to occur using these strategies based on one or more of the three theories of learning: behaviorism, cognitivism or constructivism.

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References

Accountability manual. (2007, May). Texas Education Agency: Department of Assessment, Accountability, and Data Quality -- Division of Performance Reporting. Texas Education Agency. Retrieved December 6, 2007 at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/account/2007/manual/body.html.

Baroody, a.J., & Coslick, R.T. (1998). Fostering children's mathematical power: An investigative approach to K-8 mathematics instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Chanter, C., & Welsh, L. (2000, December). Fifth-grade students experience careers that use mathematics. Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(4), 236.

Chapter 111. Texas essential knowledge and skills for mathematics: Subchapter a. Elementary. (2007). Texas Education Agency. Retrieved December 6, 2007 at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/ch111a.html.

Gagne, R.M. (1987). Instructional technology: Foundations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Green, S.K., & Gredler, M.E. (2002). A review and analysis of constructivism for school-based practice. School Psychology Review, 31(1), 53.

Hawkins, J., Skinner, C.H., & Oliver, R. (2005). The effects of task demands and additive interspersal ratios on fifth-grade students' mathematics accuracy. School Psychology Review, 34(4), 543.

Horn, R.A., Jr., & Kincheloe, J.L. (2001). American standards: Quality education in a complex world, the Texas case. New York: Peter Lang.

Jonassen, DH, & Land, S.M. (2000). Theoretical foundations of learning environments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Passing rates on 5th grade math TAKS hit record high level. (2007, April 20). Texas Education Agency. Retrieved December 6, 2007 at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/press/07taksgr5mathapril.pdf.

Petraglia, J. (1998). Reality by design: The rhetoric and technology of authenticity in education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Plymate, L.M., & Ashley, D.I. (2003, November). The Missouri elementary mathematics contest: Student performance on questions that reflect NCTM standards. Teaching Children Mathematics, 10(3), 162.

Sweet, J., Huttly, S., & Taylor, I. (2003). Effective learning & teaching in medical, dental & veterinary education. Sterling, VA: Kogan Page.

### Title: Pros and Cons of Calculator Usage in Elementary School

• Total Pages: 10
• Words: 3187
• References:17
• Citation Style: APA
• Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I need a research paper on the current research on the history and pros and cons of calculator usage in elementary school (grades 1-6). I need you to focus on general usage (adding, subtracting, multiplication, division, especially fractions) and not on advanced graphing calculators for geometry or calculus. I would also like information in the paper to focus on rules about calculator usage on state achievement tests, with emphasis on the TCAP tests in Tennessee. ALL SOURCES MUST BE FROM 2000-2009.

I must have a works cited page. APA format.

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Works Cited

"Allowable Accommodations." http://tennessee.gov/education/assessment/doc/tsallowaccin.pdf

Brown, E.T., et. Al. (March 2007) Crutch or Catalyst: Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

Regarding Calculator Use in Mathematics Instruction. School Science and Mathematics v. 107 no. 3 p. 102-16

Cavanagh, S. (2008). Use of Calculators. Education Week, Vol. 28 Issue 7, p5-5,

Chval, K.B., Hicks, Sarah J.(Mar2009), . Teaching Children Mathematics, Vol. 15

Issue

7, p429-437,

de Walle J.A.V. (2003) Elementary and Middle School Mathematics. Teaching Developmentally.

Ellington. A.J. (Nov., 2003). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Calculators on Students'

Achievement and Attitude Levels in Precollege Mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 433- 463 Author(s):

Goya, S. (2006) The Critical Need for skilled math Teachers. Phi Delta Kappan. Vol. 87

Issue 5, p370-372

Hoff, D.J. (2003) Math Divisions Have Chance of Lessening. Education Week. Vol. 22

Issue 19, p1,

Hoyles, C., Noss, R. And Kent P. (2004) On the Integration of Digital Technologies

into Mathematics Classrooms. International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning. Vol 9 no. 3 page309

Klein, (2005).The State of State Math Standards. THOMAS B. FORDHAM

FOUNDATION. http://www.math.ksu.edu/~pietro/M320/Math05Intro.pdf

Lukas, P. (2005) A curriculum Model for Calculator Use. Micro Math. Vol. 21 Issue 2,

p38-40,

McCauliff, E. (2004) The Calculator in the Elementary Classroom: Making a Useful Tool

out of an Ineffective Crutch

http://www.publications.villanova.edu/Concept/2004/The%20Calculator%20in%

20 the%20Elementary%20Classroom.pdf

Reys B.J. And Arbaugh F. (2001) Clearing up the confusion over calculator use in grades

k-5. Teaching Children Mathematics 8 no2 . Pg 90

Royal, K. (2007) Navigating Mathematics. District Administration, Apr2007, Vol. 43

Issue 4, p90

Seeley, Cathy, Hagelberger, Bonnie, Schielack, Jane. Using Calculators in Elementary

School. Teaching Children Mathematics v. 12 no. 2 (September 2005) p. 52-3

Steele M.M. (2007)Teaching Calculator Skills to Elementary Students Who Have

Learning Problems. Preventing School Failure., Vol. 52 Issue 1, p59-62,

Vanderbilt University (2008, August 20). Calculators Okay In Math Class, If Students

Know The Facts First, Study Finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 22, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com-/releases/2008/08/080819160203.htm

Varol F. And Farran D. (2007)Elementary School Students Mental Computation

Proficiencies.

Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 35, No. 1, p.89-94

Walen, S.B., Williams, S.R. And Garner B.E. (2003). Pre-service teachers learning mathematics using calculators: a failure to connect current and future practice.

Teaching and Teacher Education. Volume 19, Issue 4, May 2003, Pages 445-462

### Title: Technology

• Total Pages: 5
• Words: 1475
• Works Cited:0
• Citation Style: APA
• Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: 5 pages double spaced New Times Roman, APA format reference page
Topic: How Elementary Classroom Websites Support Children's Literacy. Style of writing; A lit Review

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Brown, D. & Warschauer, M. (2006). From the university to the elementary classroom: Students' experiences in learning to integrate technology in instruction. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(3), 599-601.

Koehler, L. (2007). 50 essential Web sites for teachers of students with mild or moderate disabilities. Intervention in School & Clinic, 42(5), 285-286.

Lacina, J. (2004). Promoting language acquisitions: Technology and English language learners. Childhood Education, 81(2), 113-114.

Smith, S.J. & Smith, S.B. (2002). On the right track: Technology for organizing and presenting digital information. Intervention in School & Clinic, 37(5), 304.

Urquhart, V. & McIver, M. (2005). Teaching writing in the content areas. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

### Title: differentiation in elementary classrooms

• Total Pages: 7
• Words: 2365
• Bibliography:0
• Citation Style: MLA
• Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: This paper should focus on differentiation in the elementary classroom. The paper should have two parts. One part should discuss various ideas, approaches, practices, etc. for differentiation in the elementary classroom. Some (or all) of these suggestions should come from Carol Ann Tomlinson's book "How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed Ability Classrooms" Including her ideas of differentiating content, process, and product. What these mean and how they may be implemented may be discussed.
The other section should be examples and details of successfully differentiated elementary classrooms. Included should be details of what made them "successful"

The number of works cited is not critical. Just be sure to include Tomlinson's book. Examples from educational journals are preferred.

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Hoover, John J. And Patton James R. (2004). Differentiating Standards-Based Education for Students with Diverse Needs. Remedial & Special Education 25: 74

Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.).

Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000864788

Voltz, D.L., Brazil, N., & Ford, a. (2001). What Matters Most in Inclusive Education: A Practical Guide for Moving Forward. Intervention in School & Clinic, 37(1), 23. Retrieved March 5, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Differentiation

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