Essay Instructions: Double Spaced.i n 12 PT Times New Roman. 1.25 margins all around. what is the implications of social media for contemporary security strategy.
Here is what i got so far on how social media fueled the social revolution in Egypt in 2011. The author suggested social as the only reason but i believe he should consider factors such as moral reasoning, clutter and the social movement model.
The 21st century reintroduces and revolutionizes information as a type of warfare wherein the entity that dominates this domain is likely to achieve the goal it strives to attain. It is not about the country or organization whose got the most bullets or the biggest guns but the ability to control the flow and source of information that can bring about change. Social media may have played a significant role in the 2011 Egyptian revolution but it is not the sole source of success of the campaign. Conducting proper target audience analysis, the author should have considered different perspectives such as the Social Movement Model of Unconventional Warfare, Marketing Clutter, and the components of Moral Behavior to understand more how the general audience was able to reach a unified goal and not claim social media.
The article highlights a perfect example of the Social Movement Model of Unconventional Warfare and the use the Media Infrastructure as a catalyst. Using the right media infrastructure to disseminate the information is critical in preparing and shaping the environment for operation. The success of a social revolution depends heavily on Political Opportunities, broad socio-economic processes, strategic framing and organizational strength as depicted on the Figure below (Lee 2013, 29). By launching the protest on a national holiday, historical leverage reinforced the themes and messages of unity. The Egyptian revolution was not simply initiated by the social media. It was amplified by it. That objective was also emotionally magnified by the years of legal and political oppression.
The article emphasizes the mobilization and synchronization of all media platforms available that help increase the sphere of influence therefore making the revolution a success. But what he did not consider is the level of ?clutter? in the country. Clutter is the saturation of media where the information being distributed or disseminated is no longer receptive to the targeted audience. The general audience of Egypt was so vulnerable that any information is credible no matter what the source. There were some reports indicating that some messages acted as a form of deception to the authorities in the early phases of the revolution. So deceptive that tweets had been deliberately planted as decoys to mislead the police (PBS.ORG 2013). Considering Egypt?s current state, the increase of clutter in the country could be one of the factors that cause misinformation and disinformation therefore creating instability in the region.
A moral issue arises when the goals, plans, desires, and expectations of the people are in conflict or simply as when the rights of others are violated. This is the reason why Moral Behavior should be considered as another driving factor that ignited Egyptian population nation to rise against the regime. There are four components of moral reasoning: Moral Sensitivity- awareness of how our actions affect other people, Moral Judgment- refers to what course of action from the possible alternatives ought to be chosen in the situation, Moral Motivation- pertains to individuals? value priorities, and more specifically, the importance they give to moral values in contrast to other values, and Moral Character- involves having courage and implementing skills to carry out a line of action even under pressure (Myyry 2003). After Hosni Mubarak?s 30 years of dictatorship the people finally gain a moral standing, a standing that may defer from one group?s agenda to another, but the commonality of a common goal is what driven the revolution.
As a fellow Military Information Support Operations Practitioner, I totally understand the importance of social media as a platform to effectively conduct influence operations but looking at a deeper analysis of the Egyptian revolution, the 2011 regime change is clearly defined as a people?s revolution amplified not ignited by social media. The media created an environment that was favorable for exploitation and expansion. That is why Strategic communication will and always be a precursor and enduring operation in the security strategy.
Lee, Doowan. 2013. ?Social Movement Approach to Unconventional Warfare? Special Warfare: Social Revolution 26, no. 3(July-September): 29.
PBS.ORG 2013. ?Frontline: revolution in Cairo.? Accessed August 19. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/revolution-in-cairo/day-to-day/
Myyry, Liisa. 2003. ?Components of Morality.? University of Helsinki.
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Total Pages: 3 Words: 1066 Works Cited: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Harvard Model UN position papers
-Committee: UN General Assembly High-Level Meeting on Arab States
-Background guide attached, though other sources can be used.
Assignment: A 3 paragraph, 1.5 page position essay for Madagascar on Topic A as well as a 3 paragraph, 1.5 page position essay on Topic B.
Instructions for writing position papers:
Each delegation is required to submit two position papers, each covering one of the topic areas. Each position paper should be one and a half pages, single-spaced, twelve-point Times New Roman font (approximately 750 words). The paper should be outlined in three paragraphs. The first two paragraphs should make up about half of the paper; the third and final paragraph should make up the remainder, and bulk, of your paper. These paragraphs are in a logical procession, and each paragraph should build analytically on the last.
The first paragraph should consist of your country?s experience or particular connection to the topic. Is your nation in a particularly vulnerable position going forward, or surrounded by vulnerable countries?
The second paragraph should discuss your nation?s policy on the issues, as supported by relevant national documents. This differs from the first paragraph because it should also include a short description of agreements, statements, and lessons learned from your history and choices in the past. You should also discuss your current diplomatic arrangements with relevant nations in this paragraph. Research for this paragraph could include speeches given by heads of state or ambassadors, or national studies, statistics, and policy statements.
??The third, final, and most important paragraph is your country?s plan going forward. Given your history and your policy going forward, what does your country believe is the best course of action to pursue? This should be a unique mixture of international work and your country?s personal past and experiences. For example, given risk factors and past experiences, what is the most logical and effective way to address future risks? What priorities does your country assign to different matters, and why? Incorporate both "Questions A Resolution Must Answer" sections for each topic in the background guide.
These length guidelines are meant to focus your research in the places that will be most productive for committee debate. Understanding your country, however, is important for creating a plan to undertake on an international level, and I highly encourage you to conduct your investigations and learning with vigor and curiosity. Please cite all your sources with endnotes.
Topic Area Summaries
Topic Area A: Rise of Islamic Regimes in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring
Since the beginning of both the Egyptian Revolution, Egypt has been divided between the liberal oppositions and Islamist regime. Chaos, violence, lack of freedom of speech and a sharp decline in the quality of education has been spread as a result of what years of oppression under the previous regimes. Both Islamists and non-Islamist parties claimed to that they could lead the country during this hard transitional state.
The Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt?s largest Islamic organization, began to reorganize and rebuild itself at the same time when non-Islamist parties were fragmented. Islamist indeed came to power, but the rise of Islamic Rule in the post-Arab spring political scenes of Egypt was very surprising. Many women rights advocates and international organizations feared that this would create a new ?Iran? in North Africa. Many questions arose. First, how would the previously illegal and repressed movements rule the countries? How would and should they approach women rights especially that most of the movements core values go against what most feminists internationally have been fighting for ? employment, equal payment, and equality at work? And lastly, are there any concrete steps that Islamic regimes can take in order to smoothly interact with the international community?
Topic Area B: Women?s Rights in the Arab World
Women who played important roles during the Arab Revolutions are still not able to equally participate in building what they had fought for. Especially with the emergence of the new ?Islamic? regimes, feminist voices have been consistently unsupported and fought against. During the past year in Egypt, thousands of women were beaten and sexually assaulted publically, with governments responding rather leniently to such horrific acts. Similarly, Women rights advocates in Tunisia have expressed their concern that the new Islamic regime there might stifle women?s voices; they feared that women who protested for democracy and equality would not be given their full rights under the current Islamic regimes.
The regimes in several countries have had different responses to the concerns of women right advocate. Some expressed more understanding such as the case in Tunisia, whereas others have been almost indifferent to the demands of women such as Egypt. In addition to the role governments? play in response to women rights, culture too has a major role in how women rights issues are approached. Open conversations about political participation, Genital mutilation, abortion, reproductive rights tend to be censored and oppressed in various parts of the Arab world.
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Total Pages: 2 Words: 658 Bibliography: 2 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: What sort of experiences, if any, might you have had in using information technologies to interact with current political developments -- not necessarily the Egyptian revolution specifically, but also including domestic politics? I am not particularly interested in the content of your opinions regarding either foreign or domestic politics, and you certainly won't be judged on the "correctness" of your ideas and/or involvement. But I am intensely interested in the degree to which active and aware adults are facilitating new kinds of politics through the use of continually evolving information and communications technologies. Please note -- it's perfectly all right to say that you haven't any such involvement, and no intention of developing any. In that event, you might wish to discuss why you're opting out of this new mode of political discourse, and/or the experiences along these lines of friends or family members. Whether or not you choose to become an active participant, you can't remain unaware of this "revolution" going on around you.
So -- think about these issues. Then write a short paper discussing your own experiences or those of folks you know in this environment, and how you/they have coped with the potentially conflicting ethical dimensions of these and related issues.
paper should be two pages in length, and reflect your personal experiences with this issue. The important part of all these project assignments is to carefully assess your own experiences with the topic, and then reflect critically on what you might have learned
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