Essay Instructions: The paper is to focus on a description of U.S. Economic Sanctions policy and the affects that such policies have on target countries. More specifically, I am seeking to investigate the manner in which such policies may have a disproportionately negative effect on the poorer populations of the target nations (ie., is Saddam Hussein being harmed by the U.S. sanctions against Iraq or are the Iraqi people being harmed to a greater degree than may have been anticipated). The paper should follow roughly the following outline:
I. Brief Introduction of Topic
-- explain the paper and describe the historical backdrop of economic sanctions as a function of thier present existence.
II. Literature Review (this is to draw from approximately 7-10 sources-- sholarly articles and the like)
A) What are economic sanctions --definitions
B) Differenct sanctions programs and thier intended effects on target country.
C) What is being said about econimic sanctions-- pros and cons. This paper will argue against economics sanctions, specifically, because of the distortions that such sanctions create in a country where the poorer populations are harmed in larger proportion than the affluent classes.
III. Detailed Analysis of disparate effects of U.S. Sanctions policy and how these policies have hurt the average working person in countries that the US has economic sanctions against.
A) hightlight several examples (ie, Iraq, Iran, Libya) and how this argument has been shown to be valid in these countries where the leaders are wealthy dictators, but where the majority of the population is poor and downtrodden
*** I will be using my own 8 page case study on Iraq as a key example of the distortions that economic sanctions create, so please set the stage for this. Perhaps I can use Iraq as the introductory Case study at the beginning of Section III whichever you think fits best. ***
NOTE: The position part of the paper needs to contain some quantitative data to support the argument (ie, a table(s) or graph(s) or both that show how average people in these countries have been made poorer by US Economic sanctions against their country.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: please read "Chapter 19: Economic Sanctions and International Peace and Security by Chatal de Jonge Oudraat in Leashing the Dogs of War" and "Chapter 31: Capacities and Limits of NGOs as Conflict Managers by Diana Chigas in Leashing the Dogs of War" to finish this paper.The topic of this paper is "How can sanctions be adequately targeted to avoid the suffering of innocent people?"
Thank you !
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Essay Instructions: Answer ALL questions, Answer to each question should be typed at about 2 pages each single spaced.
Deadline is not flexible at all must have by requested day and time. Thank you
1. Identify and define the two types of deterrence. Explain different categories of risk factors for crime and provide examples of factors within each category.
2. Offer several examples of situational prevention in action including the evaluation evidence on those techniques. Demonstrate how situational techniques can be used with personal crimes.
3. What is SARA? Provide insight to the extent of drug use in society and among offending populations.
4. Outline the Minneapolis Domestic violence experiment, cite its findings and discuss the results of its replication studies. Compare and contrast collective and selective incapacitation with suitable examples.
5. Compare and critique basic problems of relying exclusively on the “hard line” approach toward dealing with terrorism. Also compare and critique problems of relying exclusively on “soft line” approaches. How useful are economic sanctions as a counter-terrorist option? Explain your answer.
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 4 Words: 1278 Sources: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Term Essay Directions
Each student must select a topic that relates to American history from 1877 to the present. You will spend the semester writing a short analytical paper (1500-1800 words) on your topic. Pay close attention to the directions. You will submit your topic for approval in the 1st module, your thesis statement in the 5th module, and your essay in the 7th module.
You should use 2-3 books written by historians ? it is in your best interest to let me know what books you will be using before you write your essay. Students who need extra help should see me. You cannot use websites, textbooks or encyclopedias for this assignment.
The term essay is due in Module Seven. You must submit your thesis in Module Five, and your topic in Module 1. You will not be able to write on a topic that is similar to one of the module essay questions.
Term Essay Directions
1. All term essays will be written in 12 point Times New Roman font with standard margins all around. Double space between all lines. Do not add extra spaces at the top or bottom of pages, and do not add extra spaces between paragraphs. Simply double space your entire document.
2. All page lengths or word count minimums are absolute: papers shorter than the minimum required length in 12 point Times New Roman font with standard margins all around will receive a grade of F.
3. Papers and essays must be submitted to turnitin.com by the due date. Students who have difficulty with turnitin.com should contact student computing for assistance.
4. Students will receive an F for direct or indirect plagiarism. You should consult William Kelleher Storey, Writing History: A Guide for Students 2 ed. (Oxford University Press, 2004) for information on plagiarism.
5. Students will need to use endnotes or footnotes (not parenthetical references like this) to give proper credit for the material that they draw upon for their essay. Consult William Kelleher Storey, Writing History: A Guide for Students 2 ed. (Oxford University Press, 2004) for directions. No other reference format (other than footnotes or endnotes) is acceptable. Students who do not use citations will receive failing grades; students who use any other type of citations (other than footnotes or endnotes) will suffer a letter grade penalty.
6. Websites are not acceptable sources except in one of the following circumstances: 1. The essay directions specifically directed you to use web based material; 2. The web site contains primary source material; or 3. The web site contains peer reviewed material. All websites must be pre-approved by the instructor.
7. Source minimums are, like length, absolute. Students who do not use the minimum required sources will receive an F for the paper. This will require you to express some understanding of the material in your sources. Simply listing books does not count. Do not use encyclopedias, websites, and textbooks in your essay.
8. Essays and term papers are due before the end of the day on the due date, and will not be accepted late without my permission.
Note on citations: You must offer citations for your work, and those citations must either be footnotes or endnotes.
I Also have the thesis already statred and here it is:
The Topic is "America's undeclared war in the Atlantic."
America's Undeclared War in the Atlantic
America?s undeclared war in the Atlantic has been subjected to several criticisms. That is, many claimed that it happened because in that time, Roosevelt administration does not have clear defense tactics. America could not just be sitting on its hands until it was attacked. America?s security was deeply influenced by what was going on elsewhere in the world. That is, if Britain went down, then the Axis powers would control the resources of the entire Old World. The New World would then be living in war. This paper will discuss more about United States? undeclared war against the Atlantic. That is, this undeclared war is United States? defense against the possible threat of war against Europe. However, many think that is an action to take United States into war.
By the end of 1940, America?s defense program was well-established and supplies were going to Great Britain. However, the British were no longer able to pay cash for the war materials they needed. Therefore, President Franklin Roosevelt presented a plan to Congress, wherein he proposed the Lend-Lease bill that would provide large-scale aid to British and the other Allies. In 1941, this bill was passed and became a law. The Congress funded it with seven billion dollars for materials to go to the Allies (Patterson et al). This act was almost unofficial declaration of war against the Axis powers, and it strengthen the unwritten alliance between Britain and United States.
At this same time, the Nazi submarines had heightened their attacks on British ships in the North Atlantic to stop American supplies from reaching Great Britain. Roosevelt ordered naval vessels to support the British with submarine patrols in the Atlantic. That is, the neutrality acts was passed to permit arming of American merchant vessels and provide convoy to ensure that American goods reached Britain and Russia. By June 1941, the United States Navy was actively protecting the ships carrying lend-lease materials to Britain, and with this act, the United States was involved in an undeclared war against Germany (Patterson et al).
However, the actions that finally brought the United States into the war did not occur in the Atlantic but in the Pacific when the Japanese attacked the American naval fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941 (Patterson et al). The Japanese attacked because the United States? economic sanctions prevented Japanese expansion into other Far Eastern countries and forced their withdrawal from China, Germany and Italy. Aside from that, Japans? allies also declared war against the United States, and America was brought into the conflict in Europe and Asia at the same time. The attack on Pearl Harbor effectively ended the traditional American foreign policy of isolation and non-involvement in world affairs.
America needs to defend itself in a more dynamic way and not just within its borders. Included in this is the idea that the Nazi power had to be broken, as the Nazi?s could not be allowed to build up their power by consolidating their position and drawing on the resources of all Europe. Another is the policy of simply preventing the defeat of Britain would not be enough because America will never enter war. And lastly is that the Nazi needed to be struck down. America was aware of the consequences of war in terms of security, politics and economy of the country. But then, America entered the war after Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and right after that Hitler made declaration of war against United States.
Patterson, T. Clifford, JG. Maddock, SJ. Kisatsky, D. Hagan, K. American foreign relations: a history. Since 1895, Volume 2. USA: Cengage Learning, 2009.
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