Essay Instructions: As number of sources I put 5, but you can use as many as it is necessary.
So, just give a general overview of the economic history of Europe over the period 1800's to 1945. Don't get too much into details, just give a report of major economic issues that happened during that time.
As citation, write the author and pp number in paranthesis. You can use footnotes as well.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: writer: Tsiyasse
PLEASE make sure to give this work to Tsiyasse.
hi, can you remember me?
I got 4 pages first draft research paper from you, its order ID was 45481.
this time, I want to ask 15 pages final draft.
same topic, and same thesis statement, same source.
I'll give you first draft very below.
I got first draft back, instuctor gave me some ments,
when support my statement, I need some "statistical number" from paper sources. not all statemet needed, but he remended to put statistical number in it because this is economic class. so, please put some number to support statement. thank you.
I'll give you same insturction again as I gave you before.
I have 6 sources you can look at, you just can use the sources I?ll give you. If you want any other source, plz no more than 1, and please indicate in bibliography. First 2 sources from internet source, so you just can go to that address, and the other 4 sources from PDF file. Actually, I already sent it to you when last order, but I?ll send these PDF files via e-mail().
my instructor said first internet source, Lamoreaux, Naomi , is very important source for me.
*****This is instuction for research paper.
It should have really clear intro, body, and conclusion. again, it should be clear.
A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. Usually, it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis, but in this case it is a separate assignment. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries.
The Five Stages to Writing a Literature Review
a. Choose one topics
b. Narrow your focus
c. Find the relevant papers( I?ll give you in bibliography below)
a. Analyze each paper
b. Explore how different papers fit together
c. Develop a thesis statement(below) about the literature as a
a. Write a first draft
b. It should have an introduction, body paragraphs, and
c. As you write your first draft, don?t be surprised if your
a. Check to see if the paper is cohesive (i.e. sections and
paragraphs must hand together)
b. Make sure your bibliography is consistent with the
Chicago Manual of System format
a. Rewrite based on ments from your T.A. or others
Examining the influences of the merger wave in the evolution of the industrial structure of the American economy and how those consequences eventually impacted in our munities; the allocation of private and social goods and services to individuals, and also discussing whether mergers were sources of economic efficiency or whether they jeopardized market petitiveness.
********( but my instuctor said this is too broad, so I need to narrow focus. my instructor ments was What is your view on how mergers affected efficiency, petiton, or social welfare. Focus on only 1 or 2 of these issues not all issues, then you modified like below.
How merger affected working conditions/ worker's health and welfare. (this is the one you gave me at last order.)
**and this class is history of Economics, it?s not present economics. So, it?s study for mergers in the evolution of the industrial structure of the American economy not present merges. It?s focused on evolution not present mergers. Actually you can pare old with new, but plz don?t focus on present mergers. This class is History of Economics. Thank you very much.
(this is MAIN SOURCE related to my research paper) Lamoreaux, Naomi (1985). The Great Merger Movement in American Business, 1895-1905. pp. 1-13, 87-158.
Mark Glick and Dominique Levy (1996). The History of Competition Policy as
Economic History. Retrieved from http://www.econ.utah.edu/les/version_2.0/papers/HISTORYOFCOMP.htm
Cheffins,(2002). The Great Merger Wave of 1897 to 1903
Chandler, Alfred (1973). Decision Making and Modern Institutional Change.
Journal of Economic History 33: 1-15.
Atack, Jeremey (1986). Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern
Industrial Corporation. Explorations in Economic History 22: 29-52.
O?Brien, Anthony Patrick (1988). Factory Size, Economies of Scale, and the Great Merger Wave of 1898-1902. Journal of Economic History 48: 639-649.
** again, for internet source, you just can go that adress, and for PDF sources, I'll send it via email()
and I'll give you FIRST DRAFT here, this is written by you.
title: Corporate Mergers and the Public Good (FIRST DRAFT)
The United States of America, during the last years of the Nineteenth Century, witnessed a rash of corporate mergers. The Industrial Revolution had taken firm hold, and the nation was changing rapidly. Millions of Americans who had once been independent farmers or tradesmen now found themselves in the position of what some termed ?wage slaves.? At the mercy of their corporate employers, they worked long hours at low pay, and often under appalling conditions. The reasons for the merger mania of this period are many and plex, as are its effects upon the population as a whole. In breaking down the traditional vocational environment, the gigantic new conglomerates also transformed the entire social landscape. Work was no longer a family business shared by all generations. Communities no longer clung together for mutual protection and aid. Suddenly, the citizen of this new world was out on his own. He did what he was told and hoped for the best, though what was deemed the best often fell far short of what was desirable. The corporate juggernaut spawned its own adversaries, corporate greed feeding the new union movement as exploited workers fought for basic rights. More than any other time, the late Nineteenth Century was a time in which the modern world and all its social safety nets was formed. The seemingly unstoppable growth of the trusts and the conglomerates caused many to rethink the basic responsibilities of employers and government.
To begin with, the new conglomerates acted in much the same way as traditional employers. Like the old masters and farmers, they did not attempt to provide any special welfare services for their workers. Employers expanded their enterprises as they were able to do so. In this sense, the corporate merger represented a natural process of growth. Successful panies bought up other panies in order to expand into new markets and eliminate petition. As with the old, traditional-style family business, the new corporations could be a source of pride and social prestige. Yet Americans demonstrated an extraordinary willingness to sell out when the price was right. Unlike their counterparts in certain other countries, Germany for example, the original owners of a business saw nothing wrong with selling out and depriving their heirs of the opportunity to control what had been a family-run enterprise.
Though Germany?s hospitable legal environment for collusive arrangements can be cited to account for the absence of a U.S.-style merger wave, it is imprudent to leave matters at this. Instead, other variables merit consideration. For instance, attitudes toward control perhaps had an impact. Allegedly, as pared with their counterparts in the U.S., industrialists in Germany were more reluctant to relinquish their independence and lose the identity of the firms they had founded. This was because they tended to have deeply -rooted historical ties to the firms providing their ine and believed that having a family business provided the basis for their social status.
Given that the owners of the new corporations were increasingly inclined to view their enterprises, not as family business, but almost solely as money-making entities, it is no surprise that workers were increasingly perceived as parts of the manufacturing process rather than as human beings. Many industries relied increasingly on elaborate chemical processes and the employment of huge amounts of energy, usually steam:
The application of heat and involved chemical rather than mechanical methods, improved technology, a more intensified use of energy, and improved organization greatly expanded the speed of throughput and reduced the number of workers needed to produce a unit of output. Enlarged stills, superheated steam, and cracking techniques all brought high volume, large-batch, or continuous process production of products made from petroleum, sugar, animal and vegetable fats, and some chemicals, and in the distilling of alcohol and spirits and in the
brewing of malt liquors. In the furnace industries better furnaces, converters, and rolling and finishing equipment, all of which required a more intensive use of energy, did much the same thing.
The typical industrial worker became subordinated to the means of production. Inherently unhealthy processes and conditions led to increased hardship. The factory worker in this period was exposed to hazard after hazard, and risked life and limb almost every day he went to work. The larger the corporation, the more likely it was, as well, that the factory owner would have little knowledge of the actual conditions under which his employees labored. To these owners, they would quickly bee little more than figures on a balance sheet. Indeed this situation was exacerbated by the various economic criteria that created the ?merger mania.?
Low earnings, however, were also a function of the intense petition that occurred during the 1890s in industries that experienced consolidations?profit rates on capital were on the average lower in consolidating industries than in the rest of the manufacturing sector in 1899?.
Nevertheless, employers were fully capable of developing new skills when it came to managing these new industrial enterprises. Corporations grew to a size hitherto unimagined, their vastness and plexity requiring the development of a whole new managerial apparatus. Hundreds, or even thousands, of highly trained personnel would be needed to oversee the highly technical means of production, and to superintend armies of unskilled, or semi-skilled laborers:
The operation of the? [new] systems required the creation of a plex managerial structure to assure steady and continuing flows of information and orders?. By careful coordination of flow within and between the large? enterprises, the time involved decreased even more. As the rate of? flow increased, so did output per worker and unit of capital and equipment used?.
Thus, as profits declined because of the intense petition, money that might otherwise have been available for higher wages or the improvement of the work environment was simply not forthing. Business owners were too busy maximizing their resources. Corporations concentrated on intra-industry petition rather than any goal of benevolence toward their workers.
Given the plexity of these tasks, and the willingness and ingenuity with which they were met, it is not to be imagined that the greater and more humane task of caring for the new breed of worker was beyond the capabilities of the new factory-owning class. It was simply a matter of applying the techniques of large-scale industrial management to the workforce as opposed to the physical operation. Unfortunately for the average worker, the ?bosses? frequently considered such concerns to be a waste of money and time. It was to be left to the fledgling unions to being to organize workers on a grand scale, and to fight for workers? rights and humane conditions.
Atack, Jeremy. (1985). ?Industrial Structure and the Emergence of the Modern Industrial Corporation? Explorations in Economic History 22, 48.
Chandler, Alfred D. Jr. (March 1973). ?Decision Making and Modern Institutional Change.? The Journal of Economic History, 33, 1, 6.
Cheffins, Brian R. (December 2002). Investor Sentiment and Antitrust Law as Determinants of Corporate Ownership Structure: The Great Merger Wave of 1897 to 1903. Harvard :aw School.
Lamoreaux, Naomi. (1985). The Great Merger Movement in American Business, 1895-1905.
again, for internet source, you just can go that adress, and for PDF sources, I'll send it via email()
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 10 Words: 3347 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This research paper's general subject is history of Canadian economic.
The two books below must be include in the cited sources:
Norrie,Kenneth,Douglas Owram and J.C. Herbert Emery.(2002)A
History of the Canadian Economy.Third Edition.Harcourt Brace Jovanovich,Toronto.
McCalla,Douglas and Michael Huberman.(eds.)(1994)Perspectives on Canadian Economic History.Second Edition.Copp Clark Longman,Missisauga.
The topic is: Critically assess the differing impacts of the wheat staple in Upper and Lower Canada druing the late 18th and early 19th Century.
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Essay Instructions: Brief summary of research topic/introduction: A convergence of factors surrounded the simultaneous labor and women´s movements in the early 20th century intersected and affected legal, political, and economic structural orders over time.
Both Howard Gillman and Barry Cushman systematically analyze key cases involving protective labor legislation for women, such as Muller v.Oregon, Adkins v. Children´s Hospital, and West Coast Hotel Co. v. Parrish. However, the authors´ doctrinal focus does not fully recover the "Multiple Traditions in America," as described by Rogers Smith (which recognizes the conflictual and contradictory history of the roles of women and minorities in the nation). For example, Gillman only makes one explicit reference to women´s suffrage and the external influence of the Nineteenth Amendment with his quote by Justice Holmes´ dissent in Muller, "...[i]t will take more than the Nineteenth Amendment to convince me that there are no differences between men and women, or that legislation cannot take those differences into account." (171). A closer examination of the multiple actors and influences of the changing institutions, orders, and rules surrounding women´s and racial minorities' legal and political status may improve understanding the interpretive context and evolving constitutional frameworks during this era.
Julie Novkov, Constituting Workers, Protecting Women: Gender, Law and Labor in the Progressive and New Deal Years (2001)
Louise Newman, White Women's Rights(1999)
Ritter, Gretchen, The Constitution as Social Design: Gender and Civic Membership in the American Constitutional Order (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006)
Rogers M. Smith, “Beyond Tocqueville, Myrdal and Hartz: The Multiple Traditions in America,” American Political Science Review 87 (1993): 549-666.
Gender, Class, Race, and Reform in the Progressive Era. by Noralee Frankel, Nancy S. Dye - Author(s) of Review: Nancy Folbre. The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992),
Stromquist, Shelton. Reinventing 'The People': The Progressive Movement, the Class Problem, and the Origins of Modern Liberalism, University of Illinois Press, 2006
See also Gillman, Howard, The Constitution Besieged (1993);
Cushman, Barry, Rethinking the New Deal Court (1995);
(Regarding multiple political orders...) Karen Orren and Stephen Skowronek, “Institutions and Intercurrence: Theory Building in the Fullness of Time,” in Ian Shapiro and Russell Hardin, eds., Nomos XXXVIII: Political Order (NYU, 1996), 111-146.
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