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Drug Testing Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Drug Testing College Essay Examples

Title: Random drug testing Medical Professionals

Total Pages: 5 Words: 2165 References: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Include a thesis statement at the end of the first paragraph. Include in-text citations following APA guidelines.
this paper should be written following the Toulmin Model. Please include Annotated Bibliography. the title random drug testing medical Professional (why should we randomly test medical proffessional. )
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Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Drug Testing In High School not just dealing with drug testing athletes but all students

Total Pages: 6 Words: 1700 Works Cited: 6 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Explain why the drug testing in high schools (not just dealing with athletes...more schools have institued policies (e.g. random) for all students) is an important, judicial, legislative, or public policy issue of regional or national significance and has a direct impact on education.

2. Length: 7 pages (including endnotes). Title Page needed.

3. Substance: Accuracy and thoroughness are important. Topical analyses should cover the most significant holdings on the topic, trends in litigation, relevant law and contrary opinions.

4. Review of the Literature: The paper should identify and integrate relevant secondary sources.

5. Style: The paper should communicate in a way that will be of interest to and understood by educators. Writing style should be clear, scholarly, and balanced. Paper should be well-organized, including sections with appropriate headings.

6. Orientation: In general, the writing should be future-oriented, calling attention to anticipated appeals and future litigation, recommend changes in public policy, the need for additional research, and practical implications.

7. Citations: court opinions (try to include court opinions from Indiana) and other references should be numbered in the text and listed separately as endnotes, starting on a new page at the end of the paper.

Format should be as follows:
Intro (personal/annecdotal...For the past two years, we have debated whether to implement random drug testing at our high school)

Definition: What is drug testing? What can it entail (e.g. urine, hair, saliva)

Significance of drug testing research findings (mention specific cases in particular Indiana cases)

What future effect will this have for education?

Summary Page

Should have transition headings

Important Cases, Studies, Information that should be incl: Venonia Sch Dist. 47J V Acton, 515 U.S. 646 (1995)
Schaill by Kross v Tippecanoe County School Corp
Willis v. Anderson Community School, 158 F.3d 415, 130 Ed. Law Rep. 89 (1998)
April 2003 issue of the Journal of School Health (Vol. 73, No. 4, pages 159-165) University of Michigan Study on Student Drug Testing
Board of Education v Earls

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: A Position Paper Mandatory drug testing for high school students

Total Pages: 6 Words: 1752 Bibliography: 6 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: There are many complex issues facing educators today. In order to fully understand each issue and find plausible approaches to minimizing it, educators must be able to see both sides of the situation–the pros and cons of the various approaches. This assignment is a two part process to enable you to see both sides of a controversial position facing educators today. See you topic below:

Topic: Mandatory drug testing for high school students

1. For the Pro position of your paper, provide scholarly evidence that supports the point of view. Support your paper with factual data, not emotionally charged opinion.

2. Use at least 3 different resources which can range from newspaper articles, respectable internet sites, books, and journals. You may not have 3 of the same resources—you must have three different resources.

3. Use the following format for the Pro position part of your paper:

a. Description of the issue
b. Address why the issue is important to educators
c. Address what the future consequences are if the issue is not addressed
d. Address what the advantages are of supporting this position

4. For the Con position of your paper, provide scholarly evidence that refutes the point of view. Support your paper with factual data, not emotionally charged opinion.

5. Use at least 3 different resources which can range from newspaper articles, respectable internet sites, books, and journals. You may not have 3 of the same resources—you must have three different resources.

6. Begin the Con position of your paper on a new page. Use the following format for the Con position part of your paper:

a. Description of the issue
b. Address why the issue is important to educators
c. Address what the future consequences are if the issue is not addressed
d. Address what the advantages are of supporting this position

7. The length for each position should be 3 pages, double spaced, 1 inch margins, 12 point font. The total paper will be between 6 pages long.

8. Include a separate page for the scholarly references that were used.

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Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Business ethics

Total Pages: 3 Words: 1066 Sources: 1 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Research Paper


Shaw, W. H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson Wadsworth

Discuss each of the questions thoroughly and defend your answer using the ethical theories that are the cornerstones of the course. Cite all sources using the APA. In developing your original assignment, answer each of the questions individually and post the question on your assignment.

Address the following questions in the original assignment:
• Is drug testing an unwarranted invasion of employee privacy?
• Which is more important--getting drugs out of the workplace or protecting the privacy of the employee?
• What about other health-threatening activities, i.e. smoking outside of working hours, unprotected sex, etc?
• Should employers be allowed to use polygraph tests to "screen" out potentially costly employees who may engage in any of these activities?



This theory is the easiest to describe and the hardest to use or justify in a course devoted to Business Ethics. Kant states that an action is right and ethical if it is accordance with a moral rule or principle that is required by rationality and could be adopted as universal law, what is called the categorical imperative. How do you determine what is rational or what is a categorical imperative? You must look at moral obligations, not consequences, and do what is necessary to treat people as the prime objective rather than means to an end.

The plus is that you are looking to do what is right and don't we all know that some actions are just right, and some are just wrong.

The minus is that this theory is very hard to use in the business world because as a business person (or someone enrolled in Business Ethics) you are always looking at consequences and that necessarily makes you something other than a Kantian. How do you determine if something is moral or ethical or not? You look at the consequences of that action. If the consequences are bad, then it is not ethical. How do you determine if the consequences are bad? You either determine that the consequences are bad for you (egoism), infringe on liberty (libertarianism), promote more bad than good results (utilitarianism) or are not something you would chance given all the odds (Rawls). And if you are going to use those standards to determine if an action is ethical, then you aren't really a Kantian and are in fact an egoist, libertarian, utilitarian or Rawlsian.


This theory looks at an action in light of tis consequences for only one entity, the person deciding whether an action is ethical. In other words, if an action is good for me, then it is ethical. The plus of that theory is that it is easy to apply--you need only look at a proposed action, figure out the consequences for you and if they are good then the action is ethical. The minus of the theory is that it obviously leads to many conclusions that most would agree are not ethical. Suppose you have a baby food plant and have some rotten fruit If it would be economically feasible to use that fruit (amount in profits vs. amount in lawsuits and lost public relations) then it would be absolutely ethical to use that fruit. Apply that example to out of date medications in the third world and you can see that it might be hard to make a straight-faced argument that this theory promotes what most think of as ethical outcomes.


This theory is a little more nuanced. You are still looking at only one aspect of the situation and that is how it upholds or promotes liberty, but you need to look at how the action upholds or promotes liberty for all those who might have rights. This theory looks at whether an action violates anyone's' liberty and liberty is defined as the right to property you have legally acquired and the right to be free from the unwanted or unagreed-to interference of others with your liberty. You can agree to have your rights or liberty violated if you do so with complete knowledge of the consequences of your agreement. In the baby food example above, the owner of the baby food plant has the right to use the rotten fruit since he acquired it legally. However, he can sell the baby food only if the people buying it understand that it was made from rotten fruit and understand the consequences. If he sold it without telling them, then that would be violating their rights. But if he tells them and gives them complete information, then that is their right. If they want to chance illness for perhaps a lesser price, then that is their right. If people disagree with that and think it is not ethical, then they won't buy it and the plant owner will go out of business or stop selling rotten baby food--the marketplace will decide.

The plus of this theory is that it allows people to exercise free will--actions are ethical if they do not interfere with my rights and I don't interfere with your rights. If I decide to save money and buy bad baby food, what is it to you? Of course, we are ignoring in this case the baby's rights but that is a whole separate issue of children's and parental rights.

The minuses of this theory are one (1) the definition of rights and (2) the complete knowledge requirement. Under libertarian theory, you have the right to what you own legally and don't have rights in many things that we traditionally think of as "rights." For example, while in our society we talk about the right to a job or a right to go in a commercial establishment, under libertarian theory you don't have those rights. The employer has the right to hire or fire since it is his business and his salary to give out. The property owner has the right to set whatever rules he wants to run his property. Theory is that if society does not like what the employer or property owner is doing, they will not support that business or property and the employer or owner will have to change to keep his business. The second problem is the complete knowledge problem--easy enough with rotten fruit if you tell the buyer and indicate that the food could cause intestinal upset, etc. or smoking when you post a sign saying second hand smoke can cause cancer. But how complete can the knowledge be when you are dealing with complicated subjects such as drugs, pesticides, etc. and people who might not be educated?


This theory is one of the easier to apply (in theory!). Basically, an action is ethical if it promotes the most happiness for those affected. The most happiness is not only calculated by determining how many people benefit and how many hurt but also how much they are helped or hurt. Thus, an action that minimally benefitted 10 will not be ethical if it severely hurts 5 people although it would be ethical if it minimally hurts 5 people. This becomes a little more nuanced when you consider the difference between rule utilitarianism (consider the effects of a general rule )and act utilitarianism (consider the effects of each individual act).

The plus of this theory is that it allows you to come up with a fairly simple equation that is determined by the number of people and the extent of the effect.

The minus is coming up with that equation--how to you assign units of happiness to actions? How unhappy are people forced to go outside to smoke? How happy are those who are not subject to second hand smoke? Obviously, there is an element of subjectiveness to this determination and if you choose to apply this theory, it will be up to you to argue that one side outweighs the other. The other minus might arise in the application of the theory after you have done all the calculations. As a practical matter, are there are any absolutes? Is murder okay if it would save the lives of millions (the Hitler/Idi Amin example)? How about if it would save thousands? Hundreds? It is up to you where to draw that line and in writing a persuasive paper, it is up to you to make that plausible argument.


This is a theory that usually causes some confusion because Rawls is usually used to justify political, social situations rather than the business situations that we are going to deal with in this course. For political/social/economic situation, then Rawls theory of justice and its principles of liberties and inequalities are most useful. However, in the business context, your arguments are much more easily formed and defended if you remember two phrases--the original position and the veil of ignorance. When deciding whether an action is ethical, you must put yourself in the original position, behind the veil of ignorance, where you retain all your knowledge of the world, situations, consequences, etc. EXCEPT you don't know your place in that world. In other words, you know that bad baby food causes illness, that there would be a public relations fallout, etc. but you don't know if you are the company owner, the parent of a baby that got sick from buying the cheaper food or the parent of a baby that did not sick and who benefitted from saving money in buying that cheaper food. Would you think a action ethical if you did not know if you personally would be helped or hurt by the action? How do you make that calculation? First, you must identify the people who would benefit or be hurt by a proposed action, and then figure out your odds of being one of those people. In our baby food example, your chances of being the owner are pretty slim--that is only one person. But assuming most kids would get sick, your chances of being the person with the sick kid are pretty good. Then, just as in utilitarianism you must figure out the extent of the benefit or harm. As the owner, you might have a monetary benefit but again your chances of being that owner are slim. As the parent, your harm is potentially great (botulism, etc.) and your chances of being that parent is substantial. When you weigh all the odds, you probably are not going to want to take the chance of being that parent and you would decide that selling that baby food is not ethical.

The pluses and minuses of this theory are the same as util.--and that makes sense. Rawls designed this theory to be "utilitarianism with a heart", to take the pure numerical calculation out of the system .

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