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Depression In The Elderly Essays and Research Papers

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Title: Depression in theElderly

Total Pages: 2 Words: 655 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Describe the prevalence, symptoms, medical treamtent and nursing management and intervention of " Depression in the Elderly.

Please use at least one Journal article as reference the specifically deals with this disorder.

I am looking for the appropriate discussion of the topic
extent of research, analysis of material, logical development of ideas, clarity etc.

(2 pages, not including the cover page and reference page.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: The effects of massage on depression in newly widowed elderly females

Total Pages: 7 Words: 1789 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: PHD Dissertation writers only!

Please email for 5 files sent by customer.

The effects of massage on depression in newly widowed elderly females

This is a partial thesis- does not include data collection, study, analysis.
I am 46 years old, have been a nurse for 26 years.
Detailed instructions follow. I will also e-mail you a file with eleven articles that you can use as a start, a reference list, and a document with three tools/ instuments for depression which could be used. I believe the GDS is probably the best one for use with this study.
The professor said that usually proposals are 10 pages or so and the bibliography for the lit search makes up "several more pages", hence the attached bib. Should follow APA 5th edition style.
It is a nursing research paper, so it is important that references be from nursing sources and that the conceptual framework follow a nursing mid-range theorist. Perhaps M. Rogers? If you have questions, please don''''t hesitate to contact me.

Hypothesis- The use of massage in elderly, newly widowed women has a positive effect on depressive symptoms. (or something like that)???

Problem- The effects of massage on depression in the elderly, widowed woman????


NUMBER AND TITLE: Nursing Research
CREDITS: 3 (theory)

This advanced research course builds on the knowledge base developed in basic nursing research courses. The major purpose of the course is to assist students in designing a research proposal. Concepts developed in this course may serve as the basis for students'''' research proposal. Students relate nursing research to theory, critique studies, evaluate instruments, analyze data, and discuss opportunities for disseminating findings. In addition, students explore ethical issues in health research, nursing research priorities, epidemiological trends, puter analysis of data including accessing national data sets, and collaborative approaches to research.


1.Design a research proposal to address a nursing phenomenon.
2.Relate trends, ethical issues, importance of the problem, and feasibility to decisions about conducting clinical research in nursing.
3.Appraise gaps or discrepancies in scientific knowledge as bases for setting priorities and future directions in nursing research.
4.Debate ethical issues and dilemmas inherent in conducting research with human subjects.
5.Analyze research studies to determine their use in nursing practice, education or administration.
6. Select puter methods for analysis of data.
7. Analyze puterized national data sets.
8. Propose ways to disseminate research findings to a professional audience.

Polit, D. & Hungler, B. (1999) Nursing research: Principles and methods (6th edition) Phil: Lippincott

Author, (1995) The American Psychological Association manual of style. 5th edition, APA

Munro, B. (1997) Statistical methods for health care research (3rd ed.) Phil: Lippincott (remended for the statistically challenged)

Presentation of proposal
Each student will present their proposal for 20-30 minutes on April 5th. Each student should prepare an abstract of 2-3 paragraphs (no more than 1 typewritten page) covering the main points of their proposal. See sample abstracts in research articles for a model on how to do this. 2 randomly selected students and the instructor will evaluate the presentation.

A student prepares the proposal as a course requirement which is usually taken during the spring semester early in the course of studies. The proposal is a formal written paper which describes the problem to be addressed, the significance of the problem, a formal literature review with discussion and implications of potential findings or contribution. The content of the proposal is written in the future tense following a defined chapter outline, which is based on the suggested outline. The faculty member teaching NS ___ grades the project proposal.
The thesis is organized into three chapters and related materials:
Table of Contents
Abstract of the Research project
Chapter I. Introduction
Chapter II. Review of the Literature
Chapter III. Methods

Chapter I. Introduction
This chapter includes the description of the research problem, including information about the background and importance of the problem to nursing. This is a rationale or justification for the study, so discussion of the information about how widespread the problem is, the population affected, and why the problem needs study is useful for clarifying the problem statement.
Students who either have or will plete a concept analysis in NS___, may explore the concept(s) further in their research proposal, and now identify the theoretical rationale (or conceptual framework) for the study. The conceptual framework is to be appropriate for the problem under study and the concepts reviewed in the literature.
In Chapter I, the student may explain any assumptions and state reasons why they are necessary in conducting the research. An assumption is some idea or condition which the researcher is "taking for granted," but which other persons may or may not assume. Some nursing research textbooks list assumptions mon to nursing research and practice. Chapter I ends with a statement of the purpose for the study.

Chapter II. Review of the Literature
The review of the literature contains a discussion of all the concepts used and the variables under study which are presented in a critical summary of relevant scholarly literature. Rather than listing or describing individual studies from the literature, the student pares, contrasts, draws conclusions, and/or summarizes studies that are pertinent to the research being conducted. Similarly, an amount of detail reported about a study must correspond with its importance to the research.
Generally, three sections prise a review of the literature. The introductory section describes the organization of content in the review. For example, the student would identify any premises, state what topical areas and which literature sources were reviewed, list the span of years the review covers, and note classic references from primary sources. As part of the introduction, the student presents concepts (or conceptual framework), major variables, aspects of the hypothesis(es), and any pertinent areas for the reader''''s attention. The depth and scope of the literature review will vary with the research design, the number of concepts and variables, and the topic of the research.
A second section of the review of the literature is where the student develops the topics and discusses the literature, including gaps in scientific knowledge. In this section, the student uses pertinent literature on the topic and citation of primary sources to support or argue the study. A description of previously conducted research and findings in relevant areas includes critical discussion about how the research and findings in the literature relate to this particular study.
At any level of research, the student uses the third section as a summary of the review of the literature. The summary indicates the implications of research findings reported in the literature for the problem under study. When a study contains multiple concepts, problems or variables, the summary may be more plex. An unbiased, impartial, scientific, and scholarly tone allows the student to build a credible research argument without editorializing or use of opinion, and to present the major findings clearly and concisely. The literature review should build to the research question, which is asked at the end of this chapter.

Chapter III. Methods Design
An introductory paragraph identifies the research design and methods explicitly. The design must fit with the research problem, be consistent with the research question(s), and reflect how the hypothesis (es), if used, will be tested. Early in this chapter, the student discusses controls used for the design and/or decisions about the methodology. Usually, a description of the research methods contains sufficient detail so that other researchers who would desire to replicate the study could use it.
All of the variables contained in the research question(s) and hypothesis(es) are placed in context and defined. Two levels of definition are needed for all relevant variables: a conceptual definition and an operational definition. The operational definition provides precise information about how the variable is "operationalized" or used in the study. The operational definition also contains a description of how the variable will be measured in the study, such as by using a specific instrument and the range of scores on that instrument. The reliability and validity of the instrument are reported.

Setting for the Research
The student identifies the type of setting and explains why it was chosen for study of the problem under investigation. A description of the setting for conducting the research includes discussion about how the procedures and process of collecting data were necessary to answer the research question(s). Whether the research setting is a clinical practice site, a laboratory or artificial environment, an institutional facility, or a munity site, certain factors influenced the choice of setting. For example, cost, access, time schedules, availability of a study population, and other factors influence the student''''s rationale for selecting a setting for conducting the research. Letters of agreement, such as to obtain access to a setting, or other documents are noted and included in the Appendix to the research project.

Sample or Study Population
The population from which the sample will be chosen is identified and must be appropriate for the problem under investigation. This section describes the study sample as fully as possible. The content includes details about the criteria for inclusion or exclusion in the study, the number of persons prising the study population, their accessibility, a rationale for selecting the sample, justification when the sample includes children or persons from a vulnerable population.

Obtaining a study population may bee a difficult situation when the student is not informed about limited access to the population or aware of the numbers of persons available within the time and resource limitations of the research process. The student must inquire, review, and make estimates to determine how reasonable it is to select a particular study population.

Sampling procedures also need to be described and are not the same as descriptions of the study population, but rather a discussion about how the student will acplish the sampling. Detailed information is provided about the type of sample, means of sample selection, size of the sample, and estimates about the sampling process in a manner that explains their relationship with the research problem. How the sample size will be determined is a topic of special interest and may vary considerably with the research design. For example, a student conducting a qualitative phenomenological study may have a sample size often persons, while another student using a correlational design may require 70 persons. Randomization procedures are described. If a convenience sample is used, rationale needs to be offered.

The description of the sampling procedure addresses such situations as maintaining controls, degrees of randomness, and means of managing sample size when participants leave the study population. Power analyses seldom are necessary for determining sample size in research for a master''''s research project.

Informed consent and approval for human subjects research are addressed and how the subjects were protected, whether participation was voluntary and the IRB''''s from which approval was obtained. A copy of the letter seeking approval from the IRB and the letter of informed consent are placed in the Appendix.

Data Collection
The method(s) used for collecting data are described in detail, specifically how the student will collect, record, and manage the data. This section indicates the rationale for using a particular method or procedure, cites limitations or unique features of data collection methods, such as use of methods with persons from differing cultures, and demonstrates objectivity in the process. Additional information about how the student will approach the subjects or participants in the research may be included here, especially when the method was used to prevent bias and increase parability of findings.
With a qualitative research methodology, the researcher may describe the method of using self as research instrument, such as with participant observation. Thus, the student prepares detailed descriptions of observations, field notes, categories, rankings, ratings, and other techniques. As with other portions of the methodology, the description of the data collection process contains sufficient information for others who may choose to evaluate and/or replicate the process.

Instruments or Tools
Instruments and tools are means of acquiring data. Examples include rating scales, attitudinal differential scales, self-reports, surveys, questionnaires, equipment to measure and record physiological responses, checklists, written or verbal tests, and others. The most crucial points in selecting an instrument or tools are those to assure they are capable of providing information about the phenomenon under study and that they measure what they were designed to measure. Instruments must be precise and sensitive as well. The student addresses the reliability and validity or standardization of all instruments or tools; separate descriptions are written for each instrument or tool. If a researcher develops his/her own instrument, the development process, as well as the reliability and validity, both before and following data collection, are described in detail. The time involved in developing the measurement may be too lengthy or costly for the researcher.
However, researchers have developed many instruments and tools and made them available for possible use in research. The Nyselius Library contains several books and puterized data bases which are prepared specifically for assisting researchers to locate existing measurements. Some instruments or tools are protected by copyright. Although a student must obtain permission to use an instrument or tool as professional courtesy, the researcher must obtain written permission from the holder of the copyright. A student may need to search several sources for permission since the holder of the copyright may not be the person(s) who prepared the instrument.

Whenever an instrument or tool constructed by someone else is used, the original author is given credit in the text and references. In addition, the researcher describes any modifications or adaptations made to the instrument or tool, including a rationale for the changes and discussion about whether the measurements were affected. Copies of instruments or tools are in the Appendix unless they are too plicated or lengthy, in which case a sample sufficient for understanding or representing the instrument or tool is provided. Also included in this section is the demographic data to be collected. This too is included in the Appendix.

Data Analysis
The data to be collected can neither be used nor interpreted until they have been reduced, categorized, summarized or otherwise prepared, and they have meaning related to the phenomenon under study. The analysis of data section includes a description of the descriptive and/or inferential statistics related to the major variables, extraneous variables, and demographic data. Additionally, this section describes the amount and type of data relative to satisfying the research question(s) and/or hypothesis(es) and specific analytical techniques. The level of significance set a priori is clearly stated. When mon statistical tests or measures are used, such as t-test or Pearson''''s, the step-by-step procedures are not described;
however, with less usual statistical approaches, the steps would be described in more detail. Regardless, the method(s) to be used for analysis of data must be appropriate for the level of study and type(s) of data. Inferential and descriptive statistical information is important to describe. Be sure to state the level of measurement of each variable and the appropriate statistic to be used to analyze the data.

All research studies have limitations, those factors that limit the scope of the project. A section in Chapter III contains a discussion of limitations, such as confounding or extraneous variables, sample selection, and any factors, which may influence the generalizability of the results or findings from the study. Limitations are stated and all intervening variables that have potential to influence the research findings receive ments, including those which are project limitations. When controls are lacking, the student addresses any potential limitations that may stem from the effects of intervening or extraneous variables upon the study results here.

Implications for Practice and Research
When a student replicates, or uses an investigation as a portion of a study examining similar problems, the findings from the research may contribute to the professional literature, regardless of whether the student''''s research settings or populations differ from those in the original study. Discussion of the implications of the study that relate directly to nursing and practice should be clear and definitive. Finally, a short closure or summary paragraph summarizes the entire study.

The most current APA style provides citations for the references. References list all studies and sources cited in the scholarly project. Lists of bibliographic entries, if used, are separate and follow the references in the scholarly project.

Items included in the Appendix are lettered with capital letters (A, B, C, and so forth) and arranged in chronological order as they are presented in the body of the project. An index and title for each item in the Appendix is in the Table of Contents. The Appendix contains only information that is relevant and necessary to the project, such as a research instrument or letters of permission.

Abstract of the Project
The student is expected to prepare an abstract of the project that is between 250 - 350 words in length and lists no more than four key words. The abstract is a concise preview of the project that contains information about the type of study, the study population and setting, data collection instruments and methods within several sentences.
Outline of the Thesis
Thesis proposals should have the following sections in the following order.

Table of Contents
Chapter I.
Theoretical Rationale/Assumptions
Chapter II.
Review of the Literature
Development of Concept or Theory
Research Question
Chapter III.
Research Design
Conceptual Definitions of each variable
Operational Definitions of each variable
Selection of Sample/Process
Informed Consent/IRB
Data Collection Procedures
Design for Data Management
Analysis of Data/Results
Implications for Nursing
Implications for Research

Students are encouraged to seek peer review from each other in their study groups before submitting the pleted thesis. Asking a fellow student to evaluate your proposal according to the following point system may be helpful.

Grading criteria- worth 2-5 point each (noted after each)
Chapter 1 Introduction:
Clearly described problem 2
Provided information about the background 2
Discussed how widespread the problem is 2
Identified the population affected 2
Discussed why the problem needs study 2
Identified assumptions/theoretical rationale 2
Theoretical rationale appropriate for study 2
Stated the purpose of the study 3

Chapter 2 Review of the Literature:
Introduced major concepts 3
Compared and contrasted studies 3
Discussed each concept adequately 3
Discussed how the literature relates to your study 3
Summarized the literature 3
Studies recent and relevant 3
Primary sources used 3
Stated research question correctly 3

Chapter 3 Methods:
Identified appropriate research design 3
Hypothesis stated correctly 3
Variables defined conceptually 3
Variables defined operationally 3
Setting described 3
Population identified 3
Selection of sample described 3
Protection of subjects described 3
Data collection plan described 3
Instruments described with normative data 3
Level of measurement of data & statistics to be used 5
Limitations 5
Implications for practice 3
Implications for research 3
Scholoarly & APA format 5
Organization and writing style 5
Appropriate appendix materials included 3

Presentation of the Thesis
At the close of the course, each student presents her/his research proposal to members of the class

Nursing Research
Spring 2003
Evaluation of Presentation

Presenter?s Name:
Title of Proposal: _______________________________________________________

Using the scale of A = Excellent, B = Very Good, C = Average. D = Poor, and
F = Not At All. Rate the student?s presentation in the following areas:

Distributed abstract to the class A B C D F
Described the research problem to be investigated A B C D F
Significance of the research to nursing is addressed A B C D F
Identified the conceptual framework A B C D F
Gave a brief overview of the literature A B C D F
Clearly stated the research question A B C D F
Identified the research design to be used A B C D F
Identified the variables in the study A B C D F
Described how the variables will be measured/operationalized A B C D F
Identified the setting for the study A B C D F
Described the population and how the sample will be selected A B C D F
Identified how data will be collected A B C D F
Stated the statistics or the way the data will be analyzed A B C D F
Identified limitations of the study A B C D F
Ideas are logically developed A B C D F
Spoke clearly so the entire group could hear A B C D F
Presented the topic in a professional way A B C D F
Looked up at audience and did not just read from paper A B C D F
Held my interest throughout A B C D F
Was able to answer questions and respond A B C D F
Kept presentation to 30 minutes A B C D F

Evaluator?s Signature ____________________________

Date: ____________________

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