Decision Theory Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Decision Theory College Essay Examples

Title: 1 How decision theory probability theory inference generalization relate data analysis How median mode standard deviation differ Support answers specific examples 2 What nurses role data collection patient privacy ethical treatment human subjects What ethical considerations data collection nursing research Describe methods strategies a nurse researcher collect qualitative quantitative evidence based data ethical manner

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 956
  • Bibliography:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: 1) How do decision theory, probability theory, inference, and generalization relate to data analysis? How do mean, median, mode, and standard deviation differ from one another? Support your answers with specific examples.

2) What is the nurse?s role in data collection, patient privacy, and ethical treatment of human subjects? What are some ethical considerations in data collection for nursing research? Describe some methods or strategies that allow a nurse researcher to collect qualitative, quantitative, and evidence-based data in an ethical manner.

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References

LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2006). Nursing research: Methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. St. Louis: Mosby Elsevier.

Nunnally, J.C. & Bernstein, I.H. (1994). Psychometric theory (Third Edition). New York:

McGraw-Hill.

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Title: Applied Management and Decision Sciences

  • Total Pages: 90
  • Words: 25680
  • Sources:40
  • Citation Style: None
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: ****Request for Writer AWEST*******

This PAPER is about the understanding of theories of applied management and decision sciences, with an emphasis on attempting to find an effective methodology that contributes to the efficiency of the decision-making process in higher education.
This paper has three parts; Abstract(1 page)+29 pages for first part, 25 pages plus 15 annotated references for second part, and 20 pages for the last part.(Total 90 pages) (Template of the paper is in Appendix B)

The first part, the breadth component, will examine theories of applied management and decision sciences from various theorists; analyze the evolution of managerial decision making from scientific management to the complicated forecasting models used today. Second part, the depth component will evaluate the usefulness of various tools formed to enhance decision making in management, particularly in terms of their applicability to decision making in university circles as well as critically assess recent research which addresses the application of diverse decision methodologies. The third part, application component will utilize the pertinent decision making tools to assess the feasibility of a new program at Zomba University Isoka Campus.

PART 1: The Breadth Component
Objective

The objectives of this part are to:
• Examine the theories of applied management and decision sciences as interpreted by the research of Ducker (1974), Newman (1971), Harrison (1975), and others as listed in the reference section.
• Analyze the historic evolution of decision making from scientific management to modern applications of operations research.
• Examine the decision making process, with a particular emphasis on the importance of values and management judgment.
• Describe, assess, and evaluate various decision evaluation tools included: Matrix analysis, influence diagrams, payoff matrices, sensitivity analysis, decision tree, propabilistic forecasting, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

B. Learning Resources

The materials to be reviewed and interpreted in this part include, but are not limited to, the following resources:
Carter, W. M., & Price, C. C. (2001). Operations research: A practical introduction. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Deming, W. E. (1982) Out of the Crisis: Quality, Productivity and Competitive Position. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Drucker, P. (1974). Management: tasks, responsibilities, practices. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.

Harrison, E. F. (1975). The managerial decision-making process. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Hogarth, R. M. (1987). Judgment and choice: The psychology of decision. Chichester [West Sussex], New York: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Miller, D. W. & Starr, R. (1967). The structure of human decisions. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: The Free Press.

Newman, J. W. (1971). Management Application of Decision Theory. New York: Harper & Row.

Odiorne, G. (1965). Management by Objectives: A system of managerial leadership. New York: Pitman Publishing Company.

Senge, P. (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday.

Taylor, F. W. (1911/1998). The Principles of Scientific Management. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc.

Wren, A. D. (2005). The history of management thought. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

C. Criteria for Evaluation
In a paper of approximately 30 pages, first, I will discuss the components of a good decision, as articulated by aforementioned theorists. Second, I will trace the historic evolution of management thought, compare each approach, and critique the implications of each on the management decision making process. Third, I will describe the steps in decision making process, focusing on the importance of values and management judgment. Finally, I will describe various decision evaluation tools and evaluate each tool in terms of its strengths and weaknesses, its relationships to other tools, and its incorporation into management judgment.

PART 2: The Depth Component
A. Objective

The objectives of this part are to:
• Explore and assess recent research-based knowledge concerning the role of quantitative models and tools in higher education decision making. Describe the prevalent models currently used in most universities and judge their relative merits.
• Evaluate the significance of each of the decision-making methods explained in the breadth component for higher education administration. Describe the management fads which have evolved through university administration and critically analyze why each had failed.

B. Learning Resources
The materials to be reviewed and interpreted in this part include, but are not limited to, the following resources:
Begi?evi?, N., Divjak, B., Hunjak, T. (2007). Development of AHP based model for decision making on e-learning. Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences, 31, 1, 13-24.

Birnbaum, R. (2000). Management fads in higher education: Where they come from, what they do, why they fail. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Birnbaum, R. (2000). The life cycle of academic management fads. The journal of Higher Education, 71, 1, 1-16

Cheng, T. (1993). Operations research and higher education administration. Journal of Education Administration, 31, 1, 77-92.

Goho, J., & Webb, D. (2003). Planning for success: Integrating analysis with decision making. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 27, 5, 377-391.

Harter, E. A., England, M. D. (2002). Using course load matrix analysis to support departmental planning for enrollment expansion. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Institutional Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED474035)

Hoverstad, R. Sylvester, R., Voss, K. E. (2001). The expected monetary value of a student: a model and example. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10, 4, 51-62.

Lewis, D. R., Kallsen, L. A., (1993). Using Multiattribute Evaluation Techniques for Assisting Reallocation Decisions in Higher Education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Pittsburgh, PA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED365191)
Schroeder, R. G. (1973). A survey of management science in university operations. Management Science, 19, 8, 895-906.

Shriberg, M. (2002). Institutional assessment tools for sustainability in higher education: strengths, weaknesses, and implications for theory and practice. Higher Education Policy, 15, 13-167.

Thomas, E. H., & Galambos, N. (2004).What satisfies students? Mining student-opinion data with regression and decision tree analysis. Research in Higher Education, 45, 3, 251-269.

Wan Endut, W., Abdullah, M., & Husain, N. (2000). Benchmarking institutions of higher education. Total Quality Management, 11, 4/5&6, 796-799.


C. Criteria for Evaluation
For annotated bibliography, I will critically analyze a minimum of 15 journal articles addressing the application of various decision methodologies to higher education administration. Then, I will write a paper of approximately 25 pages corresponding to the evolution of management techniques in higher education with the evolution of methods used in businesses described in the breadth component.


PART 3: The Application Component
A. Objective
The objectives of this part are to:
• Examine the decision making process used by Zomba University Isoka Campus in launching a new program and apply the decision science theories that will be learned and demonstrated in the preceding components.
• Develop a decision model for analyzing the feasibility of a new program at Zomba University Isoka Campus and make recommendations to the university’s director.

B. Learning Resources
The materials to be reviewed and interpreted in this part include, but are not limited to, the following resources:

Bertsch, T. (2000). Planning for results-oriented higher education in the 21st Century. Advances in Competitiveness Research, 8, 1, 110-120.

Lerner, A. L. (1999). A Strategic Planning Primer for Higher Education. Retrieved on October 1, 2008 from http://www.sonoma.edu/aa/planning/Strategic_Planning_ Primer.pdf

Welsh, J. F., Nunez, W. J., Petrosko, J. (2005). Faculty and administrative support for strategic planning: a comparison of two- and four-year institutions. Community College Review, 32, 4, 20-39.
.


C. Criteria for Evaluation
In the paper of approximately 20 pages, I will first explain the process used by Zomba University Isoka Campus in launching their new program(background of the university is in Appendix A). Using the model analyzed from the Breadth and Depth components with additional relevant materials, I will analyze the decision to launch the new program. After assessing implications of the new program, I will propose the methodology to the university’s director for use as a protocol for evaluating other programs that will be launched in the future.



Appendix A

Background of Zomba University Isoka Campus

In 1998, Zomba University Isoka Campus was established in the Isoka province of northern Zambia. Its mandate is to increase and disperse higher educational opportunities for Zambia students in rural area. By integrating two-way communication videoconference technology and processes with its traditional instructor led classroom delivery system, Zomba University Isoka Campus is able to offer Zambia students undergraduate and graduate level degrees through this approach.
While the university's strategy has succeeded in providing the university with a large increase in its student population, it has also presented the university with additional challenges.
First, the dramatic growth in student enrolment from 100 in 2003 to 8,056 in 2007 is not accompanied by a corresponding increase in infrastructure. This naturally resulted in overcrowded lecture halls and other facilities. Under such conditions the teaching and learning process is bound to be very ineffective.
Second, staff recruitment is far less than the growth in student enrolment so the staff-student ratio is high at the Zomba University Isoka Campus. This also rendered teaching and the supervision of student research very difficult.
Third, Laboratory equipment is grossly insufficient for the number of students enrolled for such courses. This either resulted in students shifting to other faculties or ineffectiveness in the teaching and learning process.
The last most important is that the programs offered by the university do not correspond to the academic needs of the tens of thousands of students who left secondary school every year. This is because new programs offered each year which should be informed by an objective decision capability is inherently dominated by administrator’s intuition or guess.
These factors affected both the motivation and possibilities of the students and therefore resulted in low academic performance and capacity.
The curricula offered each year do not correspond to the demand of the expanding private sector, market forces and the increasing tendency of the government towards retrenchment and down sizing of the public service manpower. The number of unemployed graduates is growing in the society. This is mostly due to the fact that the skills acquired in the university are highly inadequate for the requirements of the labor market. The general picture of the university community is that of a demoralized and de-motivated academic and non-academic staff. The situation is highly compounded by the following problems:
Lack of an Active Strategic Plan: The University does not have a current Strategic Plan. Although the university has a clear vision and mission statements (attachment 1), they do not transform these statements into Strategies and Time Bound Objectives; i.e., development of strategic plans. Factors such as rapidly changing system priorities, changing university leadership, severe budget reductions, and economic/demographic challenges, have all impeded university planning efforts.

Lack of a Planning Process: The university constituents indicated that the planning initiatives of the past several years seem to be centered upon top level university planning. There is no strategic planning process, planning is uneven, there is a lack of horizontal and vertical coordination among planning groups, planning is not specifically tied back to university priorities and mission, few department heads lead their staffs in strategic planning activities, input is not gathered from all levels of the university, and there is no staff development on how to conduct and organize planning. When planning is selective, not broad-based or systematic, the university’s leadership risks overlooking critical and relevant needs.
Parts of the institution, even basic ones, may be left behind. Priorities and resource allocations set under these conditions may not accurately match the university needs or best interests.

Lack of a Resource Allocation Process Linked to Planning: Most university constituents indicated that they did not believe that there was any linkage between planning and resource allocation. The budget process is top-down and departments give little input on decisions, there is no explanation of resource allocation decisions, there is a lack of goal clarity which makes linkage to resources difficult, faculty have a difficult time understanding or accepting resource allocation decisions, the budget situation rather than programmatic need appears to dictate personnel decisions, and resource allocation information is not readily available. The university budget model is not shared with or explained to campus constituents on a regular basis, and it does not clearly demonstrate linkages to planning efforts.

Lack of Effective Communication: Campus constituents were generally dissatisfied with communications regarding planning, resource allocation, and assessment activities. This is not surprising, for so far the creation of a planning process has concentrated on the upper leadership of the university. Constituents felt that not all administrators communicate or explain planning and resource allocation decisions to unit personnel; the top-level administration does not consistently communicate its actions to departmental chairpersons and staff members; employees do not always understand the relevance of planning efforts to their individual units; most unit heads do not engage in strategic planning; and reciprocal communication needs to be improved. It is evident that personnel cannot be very engaged in the strategic planning process, and that communication, including engagement, requires improvement.


Attachment 1

University Mission
Zomba University Isoka Campus is striving to be upgraded as an autonomous state university specializing in both social science and science and technology in order to produce higher qualified and internationally standardized graduates. The university is also aiming to construct novel body of knowledge by seeming out partnership and to establish academic network domestically and internationally so as to achieve the state of leading academic excellence. In addition, the university will serve as an academic resource for guiding societies and communities and for building up Zambia people’s awareness to perceive the needs of changing of thinking process, attitudes and working system for effective development of the nation. Furthermore, the university will also train its graduates to pursue changes in global societies, be able to utilize knowledge and technology wisely and appropriately and be flexible for any changes. Importantly, students have to well-equipped with good morals also.

University Vision
Zomba University Isoka Campus as a highly recognized and standardized institute is committed to widening access to higher education and create equal educational opportunities for students particularly in the northern part of Zambia. The curriculum is divided into two branches: one is social science studies; the other is science and technology in accordance with the needs of society and the country. Moreover, the university participates in many aspects of community services and has significant aim as follows:
1. Producing graduates
Zomba University Isoka Campus has the main continual mission to develop human resources at all levels with the hope that the human resource development is crucial factor for the sustainable growth of the country and helps move aside from economic stagnation. For these reasons, the university focuses on educating students to be internationally well-trained and well-qualifies for all types of national and international work. Also, to produce both undergraduates and graduates, it is conducts with partnership and establishment of network with prestigious universities locally and internationally in order to upgrade lecturers’ potentials and academic standard. Besides, the university has to adjust itself as a dynamic university with diversities of objectives to develop national manpower at all level continually.
The aims are also to develop students’ skill of work and local wisdom career.Students as national workforce must be equipped with the awareness of human being and being good members of Zambia and global societies. Simultaneously, the prospect of higher education must have diversities to cover those who aiming for and being in labor market.

2. Research
Zomba University Isoka Campus intends to support and develop all kinds of academic research, especially in applied studies, to enhance social development and national economic growth. For example, study of modern technology to improve manufacturing systems relying more on technology than man power or raw materials, study of the sufficient ways to depend on natural resources, restore nature and preserve the environment, study of the management of the public health and the list goes on. Moreover, Zomba University Isoka Campus will focus more on the parallel between fundamental and applied research. In so doing, Zomba University Isoka Campus attempts to integrate several related primary studies as much as possible to create more advanced level of study. The outcome of applied research will not only be practical in university’s classes but also will indicate the national ability to rely on our knowledge in the process of developing the country. Zomba University Isoka Campus also plans to conduct this project by initiating the partnership or networking with other researches in both domestic and international universities to become world-class university.

3. Academic services
Zomba University Isoka Campus will contribute to the society the variety of academic services. Zomba University Isoka Campus, in some cases, to co-operate with the public organizations that have financial support, for example, public company limited and international industry. The university aims to collaborate with the public institutions by offering them academic services, such as the public testing center in various fields. This support will be held in partnership and networking systems in order to promote the university’s reputation as well as to receive public acceptance.

4. Art and Cultural Conservation
Zomba University Isoka Campus realizes that art and cultural heritage will become more and more important in the future. In the globalization world, Zomba University Isoka Campus believes that the Zambia art and cultural awareness bring sustainable development of the nation in the context of cultural assimilation and social domination. The concept of cultural conservation is not simply limited to the national art and culture, but should extend to the true awareness and the pride of being Zambia. This realization helps maintain the cultural identity and enhances the feeling of love and awareness to improve the society. We expect that all the university’s members take pride of being Zambia.


Organizational structure






















Degrees Available
a. Bachelor’s Degree
1. Bachelor of Science (B.S)
2. Bachelor of Business Administration (B.B.A.)
3. Bachelor of Accounting (B.Acc.)
4. Bachelor of Communication Arts (B.Com.)
5. Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)
6. Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.)
7. Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.)
8. Bachelor of Nursing Science (B.N.S.)
9. Bachelor of Public Health (B.P.H.)
b. Graduate School
1. Master of Science (M.S)
2. Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
3. Master of Arts (M.A.)
4. Master of Public Health (M.P.H.)
5. Master of Education (M.Ed.)




Appendix B

PAPER TEMPLATE

ABSTRACT
Breadth
This should not exceed 120 words. Note that APA abstracts are not indented. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract. Text of Breadth abstract.

ABSTRACT
Depth
This should not exceed 120 words. Note that APA abstracts are not indented. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract. Text of Depth abstract.

ABSTRACT
Application
This should not exceed 120 words. Note that APA abstracts are not indented. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract. Text of Application abstract.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
BREADTH 1
Level 1 Head 1
Level 3 Head 1
Another Level 3 Head 2
Another Level 3 Head 3
DEPTH 4
Annotated Bibliography 4
Literature Review Essay 5
Level 3 Head 6
Another Level 3 Head 7
APPLICATION 8
Level 1 Head 8
Level 3 Head 8
Another Level 3 Head 9
Discussion 9
REFERENCES 11



BREADTH

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Level 1 Head

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Level 3 Head

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Another Level 3 Head

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Another Level 3 Head

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And so on until the Depth . . .

DEPTH

Annotated Bibliography

Andrade, H. G. (2005). Teaching with rubrics: The good, the bad, and the ugly. College Teaching, 53, 27. Retrieved June 28, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.

Each annotation should be a page or page and a half long. This paragraph should contain a summary of the research method and its findings. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
This paragraph should be a critical assessment of the article. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
This paragraph should be a statement about the value of this article for your research agenda or your profession generally. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Next annotation reference entry here
AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. And so on…
Literature Review Essay

AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Level 3 Head

AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
AAA bbb cccccccccccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeeeeeeeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnnnnnnnnn oooooooooooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffffffffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvvvvvvvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAAAAAAAA bbb cccc ddddddddddd eeee ffff ggggggggggggg hhhh iiii jjjjjjjjjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttttttttttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Another Level 3 Head
AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
And so on until the Application . . .


APPLICATION

AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Level 1 Head

AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Level 3 Head

AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Another Level 3 Head

AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz. AAA bbb cccc dddd eeee ffff gggg hhhh iiii jjjj kkkk llll mmmm nnnn oooo pppp qqqq rrrr sssss tttt uuuu vvvv wwww xxxx yyyy zzzz.
Discussion

The discussion should show how the project has been informed by the theories in the Breadth component and/or the research in the Depth component. It should be about 10 pages. aaa bbb ccc ddd eee fff ggg hhh iii jjj kkk lll mmm nnn ooo ppp qqq rrr sss ttt uuu vvv www xxx yyy zzz aaa bbb ccc ddd eee fff ggg hhh iii jjj kkk lll mmm nnn ooo ppp qqq rrr sss ttt uuu vvv www xxx yyy zzz aaa bbb ccc ddd eee fff ggg hhh iii jjj kkk lll mmm nnn ooo ppp qqq rrr sss ttt uuu vvv www xxx yyy zzz aaa bbb ccc ddd eee fff ggg hhh iii jjj kkk lll mmm nnn ooo ppp qqq rrr sss ttt uuu vvv www xxx yyy zzz
And so on to the reference list . . . .

REFERENCES

Andrade, H. G. (2005). Teaching with rubrics: The good, the bad, and the ugly. College Teaching, 53, 27. doi: 10.3200/CTCH.53.1.27-31

Csikszentmilhalyi, M. (1996). Creativity. New York: Harper Collins.

Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.

Lee, J. (2003). Implementing high standards in urban schools: Problems and solutions. Phi Delta Kappan, 84(6), 449-455.

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-110, § 115, Stat. 1425 (2002).

Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Restak, R. M. (2001). The secret life of the brain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Richard M. Restak and David Grubin Productions, Inc.

Silver, A. (2003). Missing links: On studying the connection of arts education to the public good. Arts Education Policy Review, 104(3), 21-26.











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Title: Capital Punishment Analyzed by Utilitarian Ethics and Kantian Ethics

  • Total Pages: 15
  • Words: 4657
  • References:13
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Request a writer with command of the American english language and great knowledge of Criminal Justice and Ethics!

Ethics Policy Paper Instructions:

Criminal Justice Senior Capstone Paper.
It is not a paper that discusses the Justice policy in terms of historical development or the impact of the policy on crime or crime rates. The majority of the paper MUST focus on an analysis of the policy from an ethics perspective. Essentially, transitory sentences, introductions, and other like sentences are all that will be in your own original work. You must cite all sources and give credit to those from whom you borrow ideas, statements and approaches. You must cite the original author if the idea, concept or approach is not original to you. This includes not only when you use the same words as the source but also when you paraphrase from the source (in text citation for all paraphrases). If direct words are used in your work, you must place quotation marks around those words to indicate that you have taken them from another text and provide a citation. et al. is acceptable to use after works of multiple authors are already introduced. Large quotations of 4 or more lines should use the quotation APA indentation format.
NO FOOTNOTES

I have compiled and will be sending my works cited documentation consisting of 12 scholarly journals and 1 book, totaling 13 sources to be used in the composition of this paper. I will fax and email in multiple emails!!!

The majority of this paper should be paraphrasing and quotations citations as the material from the sources builds the topic. The paper is not your opinion, not your hypothesis, not your analysis, but rather an account for the material from the sources organized and reported on accurately according to the Ethical systems (Utilitarian/Kantian) chosen and the Justice policy (Capital Punishment).

The paper must be 15 pages in length. The page length does not include title
page, tables of contents, or the reference pages. Table of contents is not mandatory.
It must be double spaced using a standard 12 point font. For example Times Roman is acceptable but Ariel is not acceptable. The margins must be 1 inch all around.

Citations and References: American Psychological Association
Format
The references and citations must be in the APA (American Psychological
Association) style. Citations are included in the body of the body of your report that document where you got the information you are using in your report. I HAVE ALREADY INCLUDED MY WORKS CITED PAGE.

ETHICS POLICY PAPER OUTLINE:
This is the exact perimeters of the paper!

Criminal Justice Policy: The Death Penalty/Capital Punishment is my policy. I will be using Utilitarian and Kantian Ethical systems.

The paper should introduce the Death Penalty by starting off with an explanation of the policy itself and brief history, the process and any information needed, including definitions or practices, to analyze it throughout the paper in accordance with the selected ethical systems.

The paper should describe the Utilitarian and Kantian Ethical systems as reported on by my 13 supplied sources. This will include any terminology or concepts associated with them such as, Rule and Act Utilitarianism, Hypothetical and Categorical Imperatives in Kantian ethics. It should also illuminate the general contrast in the two.

The paper should explain the Death Penalty/Capital Punishment policy under the Kantian Ethical system with its analysis of the system and policy according to the resources I have gathered. The paper should explain the Death Penalty/Capital Punishment policy under Utilitarian Ethics with its analysis of the system and policy according to the resources I have gathered. In summation the paper should emphasize the major variances in the two different ethical systems views of the Death Penalty/Capital Punishment.

LAYOUT/HEADINGS/TOPICS OF THE PAPER IN SEQUENCE:
Do not deviate from this outline.

1 INTRODUCTION
2 THE DEATH PENALTY AS A POLICY
3 KANTIAN ETHICS
4 UTILITARIAN ETHICS
5 KANTIAN ETHICS ON THE DEATH PENALTY
6 UTILITARIAN ETHICS ON THE DEATH PENALTY
7 SUMMATION




Paper Evaluation Criteria

I will evaluate the paper based on the extent to which the writer:

-Organizes material in a clear and logical manner and uses clear and logical
headings and sub-headings.
-Clearly identifies the criminal justice policy being analyzed
-Clearly identifies the ethical systems to be used in the analysis of the
criminal justice policy
-Thoroughly and accurately discusses the principles, concepts and postulates
of the ethical systems to be used in the analysis
-Clearly and accurately applies the ethical systems in the analysis of the
policy based on empirical research and scholarly materials addressing the
application of the ethical system to the policy.
-Synthesizes the material by inferring and presenting relationships among the
concepts, ideas and theories presented in the sources used.
-Uses sentences and paragraphs that are connected and writer shows strong
use of transitions (smooth, logical, varied)
-Thoroughly copy-edits paper (i.e., No major errors; minor errors few to
none)
-Uses sentence structures that are simple (not overly complex); varied
-Uses concepts and ideas that are clearly and concisely defined and are
relevant and accurate
-Accurately uses citations and reference in the APA format


References – Will also send with sources.

Bedau, H. A. (1983). Bentham's Utilitarian Critique of the Death Penalty. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 74(3), 1033-1065. Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1143143

Brudner, A. (1980). Retributivism and the Death Penalty. The University of Toronto Law Journal, 30(4), 337-355. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/825562

Calvert, B. (1993). Locke on Punishment and the Death Penalty. Philosophy, 68(264), 211-229. Retrieved November 07, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3751163

Capital Punishment. (11,1950). The British Medical Journal, 1(4649), 365-369. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25375103

Harsanvi, J. C. (1977). Rule Utilitarianism and Decision Theory. Erkenntnis, Social Ethics, 11(1), 1st ser., 25-53. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20010532

Hill, Jr., T. E. (1999). Kant on Wrongdoing, Desert, and Punishment. Law and Philosophy, 18(4), 407-441. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3505232

Hill Jr., T. E. (1973). The Hypothetical Imperative. The Philosophical Review, 82(4), 429-450. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2183709

Merle, J. (2009). A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment. Law and Philosophy, 19(3), 311-338. Retrieved November 07, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3505178

Murphy, J. G. (1987). Does Kant Have a Theory of Punishment? Columbia Law Review, 87(3), 509-532. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1122669

Nelson, M. T. (1991). Utilitarian Eschatology. American Philosophical Quarterly, 28(4), 339-347. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20014389

Powell, Jr., L. F. (1989). Capital Punishment. Harvard Law Review, 102(5), 1035-1046. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1341469

Reid, Sue T. Criminal Law. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. Print.

Singer, M. G. (1954). The Categorical Imperiative. The Philosophical Review, 63(4), 577-591. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2182292



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References:

References:

Bedau, H.A. (1983). Bentham's Utilitarian Critique of the Death Penalty. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 74(3), 1033-1065. Retrieved November 8, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1143143

Brudner, A. (1980). Retributivism and the Death Penalty. The University of Toronto Law Journal, 30(4), 337-355. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/825562

Calvert, B. (1993). Locke on Punishment and the Death Penalty. Philosophy, 68(264), 211-229. Retrieved November 07, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3751163

Capital Punishment. (11,1950). The British Medical Journal, 1(4649), 365-369. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25375103

Harsanvi, J.C. (1977). Rule Utilitarianism and Decision Theory. Erkenntnis, Social Ethics, 11(1), 1st ser., 25-53. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20010532

Hill, Jr., T.E. (1999). Kant on Wrongdoing, Desert, and Punishment. Law and Philosophy, 18(4), 407-441. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3505232

Hill Jr., T.E. (1973). The Hypothetical Imperative. The Philosophical Review, 82(4), 429-450. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2183709

Merle, J. (2009). A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment. Law and Philosophy, 19(3), 311-338. Retrieved November 07, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3505178

Murphy, J.G. (1987). Does Kant Have a Theory of Punishment? Columbia Law Review, 87(3), 509-532. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1122669

Nelson, M.T. (1991). Utilitarian Eschatology. American Philosophical Quarterly, 28(4), 339-347. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20014389

Powell, Jr., L.F. (1989). Capital Punishment. Harvard Law Review, 102(5), 1035-1046. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1341469

Reid, Sue T. Criminal Law. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. Print.

Singer, M.G. (1954). The Categorical Imperative. The Philosophical Review, 63(4), 577-591. Retrieved November 08, 2009, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2182292

Order Custom Essay On This Topic

Title: IT IS Practice

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1485
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: 1-Write a brief essay describing how each of the 16 reference disciplines provides support for and inform IS/IT practice.

AA: Behavioral Science

What are the Behavioral Sciences?

Our most narrowly focused discipline, Psychology, studies the human mind, thought and cognition; the development of the self through the life span; and the relation of the individual to the group. Sociology continues the discussion, with its focus on group behaviors and social institutions. Anthropology takes the widest possible focus, incorporating the entire scope of humanity through time and across the world.

AB: Computer Science

Computer Science AB includes all the topics of Computer Science A, as well as a more formal and a more in-depth study of algorithms, data structures, and data abstraction. For example, binary trees are studied in Computer Science AB but not in Computer Science A. The use of recursive data structures and dynamically allocated structures is fundamental to Computer Science AB.


AC: Decision Theory

Statistics.
the theory of making decisions based on assigning probabilities to various factors and assigning numerical consequences to the outcome.

AD: Information Theory

Information theory or communication theory, mathematical theory formulated principally by the American scientist Claude E. Shannon to explain aspects and problems of information and communication. While the theory is not specific in all respects, it proves the existence of optimum coding schemes without showing how to find them. For example, it succeeds remarkably in outlining the engineering requirements of communication systems and the limitations of such systems.
In information theory, the term information is used in a special sense; it is a measure of the freedom of choice with which a message is selected from the set of all possible messages. Information is thus distinct from meaning, since it is entirely possible for a string of nonsense words and a meaningful sentence to be equivalent with respect to information content.


AE: Organizational Theory

Is a learning organization "like a living organism, consisting of empowered, motivated employees, living in a clearly perceived symbiosis, sharing the feeling of a common destiny and profit, striving towards jointly defined goals, anxious to use every opportunity to learn from situations, processes and competition in order to adapt harmoniously to the changes in their environment and to improve continuously their own and their company?s competitive performance" (Otala 1995, p. 163)? Or is it an aspiration often viewed cynically by staff who don?t believe the rhetoric is sincere (Garratt 1999)? Does it offer individuals liberation and empowerment to maximize their full potential as innovative, intelligent workers (Fenwick 1995)? Or is it a tool that can turn into a weapon (Marsick and Watkins 1999)? This Myths and Realities examines different views of the learning organization, both in theory and in practice.

Cullen (1999) dates the current popularity of the learning organization from Peter Senge and his five disciplines characterizing learning organizations (personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and systems thinking). The learning organization can be described as "an organizational culture in which individual development is a priority, outmoded and erroneous ways of thinking are actively identified and corrected, and the purpose and vision of the organization are clearly understood and supported by all its members. Within this framework, the application of systems thinking enables people to see how the organization really works; to form a plan; and to work together openly, in teams, to achieve that plan" (Worrell 1995, p. 352). That characterization of the learning organization has powerful intuitive appeal and promise (Fenwick 1995).

AF: Management Theory



AG: Language Theories

language, systematic communication by vocal symbols. It is a universal characteristic of the human species. Nothing is known of its origin, although scientists have identified a gene that clearly contributes to the human ability to use language. Scientists generally hold that it has been so long in use that the length of time writing is known to have existed (7,900 years at most) is short by comparison. Just as languages spoken now by peoples of the simplest cultures are as subtle and as intricate as those of the peoples of more complex civilizations, similarly the forms of languages known (or hypothetically reconstructed) from the earliest records show no trace of being more ?primitive? than their modern forms.

AH: Systems Theory


AI: Research

Ai Research is a leading artificial intelligence research project. At Ai, we're creating a new form of life. Our expanding web site is an essential part of the emerging global discussion about artificial intelligence. On this website, we showcase the state of the art in patterm-matching conversational machines, demonstrated by Alan, and in reinforcement learning algorithms, demonstrated by HAL. Use our forums, original papers, online labs, demos and links to explore what's happening both at Ai (the project) and in AI (the field).

AJ: Social Science

social science, term for any or all of the branches of study that deal with humans in their social relations. Often these studies are referred to in the plural as the social sciences. Although human social behavior has been studied since antiquity, the modern social sciences as disciplines rooted in the scientific method date only from the 18th cent. Enlightenment. Interest at first centered on economics, but by the 19th cent. separate disciplines had been developed in anthropology, political science, psychology, and sociology. The 19th cent. was characterized by the development of wide-ranging theories (e.g., the work of Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, and Herbert Spencer). Developments in the 20th cent. have moved in these directions: the improvement and increased use of quantitative methods and statistical techniques; increased use of the empirical method, as opposed to general theorizing; and the direct practical application of social science knowledge. Social science departments are now firmly established in universities, and social scientists are increasingly called upon to advise industries and governments for future planning.

AK: Management Science


AL: Artificial Intelligence

Grid computing is emerging as key enabling infrastructure for science. A key challenge for distributed computation over the Grid is the synthesis on-demand of end-toend scientific applications of unprecedented scale that draw from pools of specialized scientific components to derive elaborate new results. In this paper, we outline the technical issues that need to be addressed in order to meet this challenge, including usability, robustness, and scale. We describe Pegasus, a system to generate executable grid workflows given a high-level specification of desired results. Pegasus uses Artificial Intelligence planning techniques to compose valid end-to-end workflows, and has been used in several scientific applications. We also outline our design for a more distributed and knowledge-rich architecture.

artificial intelligence (AI), the use of computers to model the behavioral aspects of human reasoning and learning. Research in AI is concentrated in some half-dozen areas. In problem solving, one must proceed from a beginning (the initial state) to the end (the goal state) via a limited number of steps; AI here involves an attempt to model the reasoning process in solving a problem, such as the proof of a theorem in Euclidean geometry. In game theory (see games, theory of), the computer must choose among a number of possible ?next? moves to select the one that optimizes its probability of winning; this type of choice is analogous to that of a chess player selecting the next move in response to an opponent's move. In pattern recognition, shapes, forms, or configurations of data must be identified and isolated from a larger group; the process here is similar to that used by a doctor in classifying medical problems on the basis of symptoms. Natural language processing is an analysis of current or colloquial language usage without the sometimes misleading effect of formal grammars; it is an attempt to model the learning process of a translator faced with the phrase ?throw mama from the train a kiss.? Cybernetics is the analysis of the communication and control processes of biological organisms and their relationship to mechanical and electrical systems; this study could ultimately lead to the development of ?thinking? robots (see robotics). Machine learning occurs when a computer improves its performance of a task on the basis of its programmed application of AI principles to its past performance of that task.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the study of computer systems and devices that simulate or operate in a way that is usually associates with human intelligence, such as learning, reasoning, intelligent processing, understanding symbolic information and pattern recognition, and producing knowledge. Although AI is commonly viewed as a branch of computer science, AI is multi-disciplinary because it combines several branches of learning including algorithms, heuristics, databases, artificial languages, natural language processing, and theoretical computer science. It also has close ties with psychology, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, biology, mathematical logic, system studies, business intelligence, and knowledge management.


AM: Economic Theory



AN: Ergonomics

What is ergonomics? Most people have heard of ergonomics and think it is something to do with seating or with the design of car controls and instruments. It is...but it is much more! Ergonomics is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use. Ergonomics comes into everything which involves people. Work systems, sports and leisure, health and safety should all embody ergonomics principles if well designed.



AO: Political Science

political science, the study of government and political processes, institutions, and behavior. Government and politics have been studied and commented on since the time of the ancient Greeks. However, it is only with the general systematization of the social sciences in the last 100 years that political science has emerged as a separate definable area of study. Political science is commonly divided into a number of subfields, the most prominent being political theory, national government, comparative government, international relations, and special areas shared with other social sciences such as sociology, psychology, and economics. In practice, these subfields overlap. Political theory encompasses the following related areas: the study of the history of political thought; the examination of questions of justice and morality in the context of the relationships between individuals, society, and government; and the formulation of conceptual approaches and models in order to understand more fully political and governmental processes. The study of national government focuses on the political system of the researcher's particular country, including the legal and constitutional arrangements and institutions; the interaction of various levels of government, other social and political groups, and the individual; and proposals for improving governmental structure and policy. Comparative government covers many of the same subjects but from the perspective of parallel political behavior in several countries, regions, or time periods. International relations deals both with the more traditional areas of study, such as international law, diplomacy, political economy, international organizations, and other forms of contact between nation states, and with the development of general, scientific models of international political systems. None of the political science subfields can be clearly separated. All of them, for example, deal with questions closely associated with political theory. Valuable and sophisticated discussions of almost all the areas of political science, including the areas now generally classified under such titles as political sociology, can be found throughout intellectual history as far back as Plato and Aristotle. Through the centuries, the questions of political science have been discussed in contexts varying with the changing perspectives of the time. During the Middle Ages, for example, the major concerns revolved around the problem of where the state stood in relation to man and his God. Karl Marx, on the other hand, viewed political questions in the context of society's economic structure. Modern political science stresses the importance of using political concepts and models that are subject to empirical validation and that may be employed in solving practical political problems.

AP: Psychology

psychology, science or study of the thought processes and behavior of humans and other animals in their interaction with the environment. Psychologists study processes of sense perception, thinking, learning, cognition, emotions and motivations, personality, abnormal behavior, interactions between individuals, and interactions with the environment. The field is closely allied with such disciplines as anthropology and sociology in its concerns with social and environmental influences on behavior; physics in its treatment of vision, hearing, and touch; and biology in the study of the physiological basis of behavior. In its earliest speculative period, psychological study was chiefly embodied in philosophical and theological discussions of the soul.

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Smith, Mark. (11 Jul 2001) "The Learning Organization and Knowledge Economy." The Learning Organization. Last updated 11 May 2004. Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.infed.org/biblio/learning organization.htm#_The_knowledge_economy

Thacker, S.M. (2000) "Customer Relationship Management." Retrieved 21 Jan 2005 at http://www.smthacker.co.uk/customer_relationship_management_CRM.htm

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