Crack Cocaine Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Crack Cocaine College Essay Examples

Title: composition

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1127
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I need a three page essay on the following info.

Expository essays attempt to educate an audience about a topic and, ultimately, explain ideas they may not have understood before reading your essay. You can use the expository style for multiple purposes such as informing, persuading, and explaining. In our course, we will focus on the informative style of expository writing. To be convincing, essays must be justified by evidence and be logically sound.

You should document all sources using APA citation.
Introduction
A. Crack cocaine is one of the most addictive and destructive illicit recreational drugs ever introduced into American society.
B. The crack cocaine epidemic that resulted from its introduction to society was one of the most destructive things to occur to many urban societies. Until it was properly and successfully addressed by law enforcement efforts throughout the 1990s, it was responsible for more addiction and more drug-trade-related deaths than any other illicit drug in American history.
C. Crack cocaine is a popular drug that leads to crime; however, there are solutions to the problem.
II. What crack is and why it is so popular
A. Crack is another name for free-base cocaine. It was invented in the early 1980s by innovative street drug dealers who recognized that smokable freebase cocaine would be tremendously profitable, precisely because it allowed the sale of minute quantities of a drug that normally required large quantities of powdered cocaine to produce. Smoking freebase cocaine is the most addictive form of ingesting cocaine, already a profoundly addictive drug for many users (Baumer, 2007).
B. Freebase refers to the chemical process of changing the chemical structure of the cocaine molecule by one of several methods such as by using ether solvents or baking soda solutions (Baumer, 2007).
C. Until the invention of pre-prepared small quantities of “crackcocaine, freebase cocaine was only available to relatively wealthy individuals because the chemical process requires much more cocaine that poor drug users can afford to procure at any one time (Baumer, 2007; Schmalleger, 2008).

III. How does crack lead to crime? What crimes?
A. Crack cocaine was the direct cause of the most dramatic increase in violent crime in many American cities in the modern era of law enforcement (Schmalleger, 2008).
B. During the 1990s, the turf wars that erupted on the streets on many New York City neighborhoods (for just one example) were the direct result of the incredible profitability of crack cocaine and the competition among dealers for business (Safir, 2003).
In Washington Heights, a largely Hispanic community in Northern Manhattan, crack cocaine-related violence among street dealers led to the highest murder rate that New York City had ever recorded (Safir, 2003).
IV. What are solutions to the crack and crime problems?
A. Until law enforcement succeeded in redressing the problem through proactive enforcement and prosecution, crack cocaine was responsible for the most violent era of drug-related crime in modern American law enforcement history. The problem of crack cocaine has not been addressed very effectively. Although there was great concern about the drug in the mid-80's through the 1990s, crack use and all its negative consequences are now part of our country's socio-cultural landscape. It is not a pretty picture.
We need to do a better job of reaching out to and treating crack cocaine users. We also need to rethink our prevention efforts since they are generally geared to young people and crack cocaine use is most often initiated after people leave high school. (Local Study on Crack Cocaine Have National Implications, 2007, September 5).
B.Substance use is a major public health problem: it affects the health of a vast number

of Americans and results in tremendous costs to US society overall. The public health

community must provide strong and decisive leadership in informing policy,

advocating for needed research funds, and bringing practice in line with scientific

advances in substance abuse prevention and treatment, The current treatment gap

unduly affects children, who through the failure of US society to address their

parents' addictions, are at profound risk of becoming the next generation in

need of treatment. (Amaro, 1999)
V. Conclusion
A. Crack cocaine is a popular drug that leads to crime; however, there are solutions to the problem.
B. Crack tears apart individuals as well as communities; the drug can lead to permanent deleterious effects on the body and mind and even affect future generations.
C. Crack is a highly processed form of cocaine hydrochloride that has been around since the 1980s. Unlike powdered cocaine, crack is cheap and is usually smoked. Crack wreaks havoc on individuals and whole communities.



References

American Council for Drug Education (2001). Basic facts about drugs: cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.acde.org/common/Cocaine.htm

Baumer, E. (2007). Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 31, No. 3, 311-327

Cowen, T. (2005). Crime and crack. Out of the Crooked Timber. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://crookedtimber.org/2005/05/23/looking-forward/

Crack Addicts Face Added Stigma in Housing (2007). Join Together. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2007/crack-addicts-face-added.html

Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.

“In Search of the Big Bang.” (nd). Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.cocaine.org/

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2009). Crack and cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/cocaine.html

Safir, H. (2003). Security: An Inside Look at the Tactics of the NYPD. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
(2007, September 5). Results of Local Study on Crack Cocaine Have National Implications. Ascribe Newswire: Health, p. 1. Retrieved from Health Source - Consumer Edition database.
Amaro, H. (1999, May). An Expensive Policy: The Impact of Inadequate Funding for Substance Abuse Treatment. American Journal of Public Health, pp. 657-659. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database.

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REFERENCES

Amaro, H. (May 1999). An Expensive Policy: The Impact of Inadequate Funding for Substance Abuse Treatment. American Journal of Public Health, pp. 657-659. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database

American Council for Drug Education (2001). Basic facts about drugs: cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.acde.org/common/cocaine.htm.

Baumer, E. (2007). Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 31, No. 3, 311-327

Cowen, T. (2005). Crime and crack. Out of the Crooked Timber. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://crookedtimber.org/2005/05/23/looking-forward.

"In Search of the Big Bang." (n.d.). Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.cocaine.org.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2009). Crack and cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/cocaine.html.

"Results of Local Study on Crack Cocaine Have National Implications." (September 7, 2007). Ascribe Newswire: Health, p. 1. Retrieved from Health Source - Consumer Edition database.

Safir, H. (2003). Security: An Inside Look at the Tactics of the NYPD. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Shmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century.

Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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Title: Crack Cocaine vs Powder Cocaine

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 896
  • Sources:3
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: This paper need to contain an ABSTRACT. Also discuss the current crack cocaine policy vs powder cocaine as it relates to African American males being arrested and sentenced and the current adminstration efforts to reform the current policy.

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References

Borders, T., Booth, B., Han, X., Wright, P, Leukefeld, C., Falck, R., Carlson, R. (May 2008). Longitudinal changes in methamphetamine and cocaine use in untreated rural stimulant users. Addiction, 103(5). Retrieved May 18, 2009, from CINAHL.

Papa, A. (22 Nov 2007). Congress must change racist crack cocaine laws. New York Amsterdam News, 98(48). Retrieved May 18, 2009, from MasterFILE Premier.

Restoring fairness to federal sentencing: Addressing the crack-powder disparity. (29 Apr 2009). Retrieved May 18, 2009, from http://www.civilrights.org/advocacy/testimony/henderson-crack.html.

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Title: SENTENCING DISPARITIES BETWEEN CRACK COCAINE

  • Total Pages: 32
  • Words: 8900
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: 1. Type of Document: Thesis (Complete)
2. Perferred Academic level: Master
3. Date needed: February 20, 2005
4. General subject: Criminal Justice
5. Specific topic: Is Justice Really Blind? A comparative
Analysis of Crack Cocaine vs. Powder Cocaine Sentencing
Disparities: Issues and Factors Associated With Race,
Arrest, Indices, Convections, and Incarceration
6. Number of pages: 40
7. Perferred citation style: Turabian with Footnotes
8. Number of cited sources: 50
9. Format: Times New Roman font, 12-point font size, at
least 275 words per page, 1-inch margines
10. Features: 5-Chapters, Proposal,Title Page, Signature page, Approval Sheet, Permission Statement, Preface, Acknowledgements page, Dedication page, Table of Contents, List of Tables/Charts/Figures, List of Symbols/Abbreviation, Abstract, Synopsis, Executive Summary, Introduction, Statement of the Problem, Operatonal Assumptions, Significance of the Study, Hypothesis, Rationale, Design of the Study, Plan of the Study, Theoretical Orientation, Review of Related Literature, Methodology, Specification and Definition of Variables, Independent Variables, Dependent Variables, Statistical Analysis, Data Collection, Conclusion, Research Findings, Results, Discussion, Summary, Recommendations, Appendices, Bibliography, Works Cited, Plates, Vita

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Bibliography

Becker, Edward R. 1993. Insuring Reliable Fact Finding in Guidelines Sentencing:

Must the Guarantees of the Confrontation and Due Process Clauses Be Applied?

Cap. L. Rev. 22 (1).

Borman, Paul D., J. 1999. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines. T.M. Cooley L. Rev. 16

1). Davis, Martha S. 2000. Standards of Review: Judicial Review of Discretionary

Decision Making. J. App.Prac. & Process 2(47).

Frontline. 2004. Thirty Years of America's Drug War [online]. PBS Frontline; available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/cron/. Internet. Accessed 20 February 2005.

Gelacak, Michael S., Illene H. Nagel & Barry L. Johnson. 1996. Departures Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines: An Empirical and Jurisprudential Analysis. 81 Minn.

L. Rev. 299.

Hatsukami, Dorothy & Fischman, Marian. 1996. Crack Cocaine and Cocaine

Hydrochloride: Are the Differences Myth or Reality? JAMA 276: 1580-1582.

Hecht, Jonathan H. 1999. Airing the Dirty Laundry: The Application of the United

States Sentencing Guidelines to White Collar Money Laundering Offenses.

49 Am.

U.L. Rev. 289 (October).

Hill, Rachael a. 1998. Character, Choice, and 'Aberrant Behavior': Aligning Criminal

Sentencing with Concepts of Moral Blame. 65 U. Chi. L. Rev. 975 (Summer).

Lockwood, Dorothy, Pottieger, Anne E. And Inciardi, James. 1995. Crack Use, Crime by Crack Users, and Ethnicity. New York: State University of New York Press.

Meier, Thomas J. 1993. A Proposal to Resolve the Interpretation of 'Mixture or Substance' Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 84 J. Crim. L. & Criminology.

Miller, Victor J. 1992. An End Run Around the Exclusionary Rule: The Use of Illegally

Seized Evidence Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 34 Wm. & Mary L. Rev.

O'Sullivan, Julie R. 1997. The Federal sentencing Guidelines: Ten Years Later: In Defense of the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines' Modified Real-Offense System. 91 U.L.

Poate, Rebecca. 2000. Beyond Relevant Conduct - the Federal Sentencing

Commission's (in) Discretion: How U.S.S.G. Section 2G2.2(B)(4) Illustrates the Future of Sentencing Guidelines. 51 Hastings L.J.1363 (August).

Parsons, Elizabeth a. 1995. Shifting the Balance of Power: Prosecutorial Discretion

Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 29 Val.U.L.Rev. 417.

Racz, Gregory N. 1997. Exploring Collateral Consequences: Koon v. United States,

Third Party Harm, and Departures from Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 72 N.Y.U.L.

Rev. 1462.

Scher, Edward F. 1996. A Defense Guide to Departures from the Federal Sentencing

Guidelines. Vol. 22,No. 3, Virginia Bar Assn. Jour. 6 (Summer 1996).

Special Report to Congress. 1997. Cocaine and Federal Sentencing policy [online].

United States Sentencing Commission; available at http://www.ussc.gov/r_congress/NEWCRACK;Internet; accessed 20 February

Spiro, Rebecca L. 2000. Federal Sentencing Guidelines and the Rehnquist Court:

Theories of Statutory Interpretation. 13 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 7103.

Stith, Kate. 1993. The Politics of Sentencing Reform: The Legislative History of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 28 Wake Forest L. Rev. 223 (Summer).

Stith, Kate & Jose a. Cabranes. 1997. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Ten Years

Later: Judging Under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 91 Nw. U.L. Rev. 1247.

Troutt, David Dante. 1999. Screws, Koon, and Routine Aberrations: The Use of Fictional Narratives in Federal Police Brutality Prosecutions. 74 N.Y.U.L. Rev 18.

U.S. Department of Justice. 1994. An Analysis of Non-Violent Drug Offenders with Minimal Criminal Histories. U.S. Department of Justice, Table 19 (February) Part I.

USSC Gov. 2004. Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Federal Sentencing Today online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/15_year/chap4.pdf;

Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Federal Cocaine Offenses: An Analysis of Crack and Powder Penalties [online]. U.S. Department of Justice; available from: http://www.usdoj.gov/olp/cocaine.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

1993. Sentencing in the Federal Courts: Does Race Matter? (November).

USSC Gov. The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984: Principal Features [online]. USSC

Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/SIMPLE/sra.htm;Internet; accessed 20

February 2005.

Wilkins, W.W. Jr. And J.R. Steer. 1990. Relevant Conduct: The Cornerstone of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 41 S.C.L. Rev. 495.

Wilkins, W.W. Jr. 1988. Plea Negotiations, Acceptance of Responsibility, Role of the Offender, and Departures: Policy Decisions in the Promulgation of Federal

Sentencing Guidelines. 23 Wake ForestL. Rev. 181.

Williams, Jack F. 1999. Distrust: The Rhetoric and Reality of Means-testing. 7 Am.

Bankr. Inst. L. Rev.105.

Wilson, Andrea. 1998. Federal Sentencing Guidelines. 49 Mercer L. Rev. 1065.

Winick, Bruce J. 1999. Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Preventive Law's

Transformative Potential for Particular Areas of Legal Practice: Criminal Law:

Redefining the Role of the Criminal Defense Lawyer at Plea Bargaining and Sentencing: A Therapeutic Jurisprudence / Preventive Law Model. 5 Psych.Pub. Pol.

L. 1034.

Frontline. 2004. Thirty Years of America's Drug War [online]. PBS Frontline; available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/cron/;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005. The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 was signed by President Reagan, appropriating $1.7 billion to fight the drug crisis. $97 million is allocated to build new prisons, $200 million for drug education and $241 million for treatment. The bill's most consequential action is the creation of mandatory minimum penalties for drug offenses. Possession of at least one kilogram of heroin or five kilograms of cocaine is punishable by at least ten years in prison. In response to the crack epidemic, the sale of five grams of the drug leads to a mandatory five-year sentence. Mandatory minimums become increasingly criticized over the years for promoting significant racial disparities in the prison population, because of the differences in sentencing for crack vs. powder cocaine.

U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Federal Cocaine Offenses: An Analysis of Crack and Powder Penalties [online]. U.S. Department of Justice; available at http://www.usdoj.gov/olp/cocaine.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Federal Cocaine Offenses: An Analysis of Crack and Powder Penalties [online]. U.S. Department of Justice; available at http://www.usdoj.gov/olp/cocaine.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005. The legislative history is ambiguous as to whether Congress intended the penalty structure for crack cocaine offenses to fit within the general two-tiered, five and ten-year penalty structure for serious and major traffickers created by the 1986 Act.

Hatsukami, Dorothy & Fischman, Marian. 1996. Crack Cocaine and Cocaine Hydrochloride: Are the Differences Myth or Reality? JAMA 276: 1580-1582.

USSC Gov. The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984: Principal Features [online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/SIMPLE/sra.htm;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005. The principal purposes of the Sentencing Reform Act were: (1) to establish comprehensive and coordinated statutory authority for sentencing (through the sentencing provisions currently found in chapters 227-235 of title 18, United States Code), (2) to address the seemingly intractable problem of unwarranted sentencing disparity and enhance crime control by creating an independent, expert sentencing commission to devise and update periodically a system of mandatory sentencing guidelines, and (3) principally through the sentencing commission, to create a means of assembling and distributing sentencing data, coordinating sentencing research and education, and generally advancing the state of knowledge about criminal behavior

USSC Gov. The Sentencing Reform Act of 1984: Principal Features [online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/SIMPLE/sra.htm;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Federal Cocaine Offenses: An Analysis of Crack and Powder Penalties [online]. U.S. Department of Justice; available at http://www.usdoj.gov/olp/cocaine.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

Hatsukami, Dorothy & Fischman, Marian. 1996. Crack Cocaine and Cocaine Hydrochloride: Are the Differences Myth or Reality? JAMA 276: 1580-1582

U.S. Department of Justice. 2002. Federal Cocaine Offenses: An Analysis of Crack and Powder Penalties [online]. U.S. Department of Justice; available at http://www.usdoj.gov/olp/cocaine.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

USSC Gov. 2004. Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Federal Sentencing Today [online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/15_year/chap4.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

Dorothy Lockwood, Anne E. Pottieger, and James a. Inciardi. 1995. Crack Use, Crime by Crack Users, and Ethnicity. New York: State University of New York Press.

Section 841 of title 21, U.S.C., identifies seven drugs (including powder and crack cocaine) and assigns each differing quantity levels that trigger five- and ten-year mandatory minimum penalties.

USSG 2D1.1(a)(1) or (2); USSG 2D1.1(b)(1); USSG 2D1.1(b)(2); USSG 2D1.1(d)(1).

USSG, 4A1.1(d).

USSG, 4A1.1(f).

28 U.S.C. 994(h).

18 U.S.C. 3553(b) and USSG 5K2.0.

USSC Gov. 2004. Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Federal Sentencing Today [online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/15_year/chap4.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

18 U.S.C. 3553(f), and USSG 5C1.2.

USSC Gov. 2004. Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Federal Sentencing Today [online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/15_year/chap4.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 1993. Sentencing in the Federal Courts: Does Race Matter? (November).

U.S. Department of Justice. 1994. An Analysis of Non-Violent Drug Offenders with Minimal Criminal Histories. U.S. Department of Justice, Table 26 (February) Part I.

USSG 2D1.1(b)(1)

U.S. Department of Justice. 1994. An Analysis of Non-Violent Drug Offenders with Minimal Criminal Histories. U.S. Department of Justice, Table 26 (February) Part I.

U.S. Department of Justice. 1994. An Analysis of Non-Violent Drug Offenders with Minimal Criminal Histories. U.S. Department of Justice, Table 17 (February) Part I.

U.S. Department of Justice. 1994. An Analysis of Non-Violent Drug Offenders with Minimal Criminal Histories. U.S. Department of Justice, Table 19 (February) Part I.

USSC Gov. 2004. Racial, Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Federal Sentencing Today [online]. USSC Gov; available at http://www.ussc.gov/15_year/chap4.pdf;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

Special Report to Congress. 1997. Cocaine and Federal Sentencing policy [online]. United States Sentencing Commission; available at http://www.ussc.gov/r_congress/NEWCRACK;Internet; accessed 20 February 2005.

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Title: Crack vs Poweder Sentencing disparites

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 2022
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: The body of the paper should be six pages long and sources totaling 18. It should included an abstract. The paper should be separted with Abstract title in bold and then give abstract, the word Research typed in bold and then give body under that and cooclusion typed in bold and the give the conclusion and the the References typed in bold and then give cited sources (18).The sources need to be scholary articles, studies, and researched, journals and other college acceptable materials research should be all over the united states not just in one state. The cited information needs to be included. The paper should be about the disparities in crack and powder sentencing dealing with blacks verus whites.It should tell how it has been researched that blacks receive harsher punishments compared to whites. It should also tell how it has been researched that it isnt based on racial issues, but that it is based on other things. My professor wants a full circle research on how their is disparites in sentencing when it comes to crack cocaine and powder dealing with the blacks and how it isnt just about blacks.

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Works Cited

BJS, [Bureau of Justice Statistics] Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 1994 (Washington, DC: March 1998) Table 6.11, p. 85.

BJS, Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2003. Washington, DC: Oct. 2004. Table 7.16, p. 112.

Compendium of Federal Statistics, 2003. Oct. 2004, Table 7.16, p. 112.

Drugs and Racial Discrimination." New York Times; Editorial Desk, Late Edition - Final, Section a, Page 30, January 12, 2006.

Federal Crack Cocaine Sentencing: Race and class penalties in crack cocaine sentencing." The Sentencing Project. Washington, D.C. 2007, http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/dp_cracksentencing.pdf.

Hatsukami, Dorothy K., and Fischman, Marian W., "Crack Cocaine and Cocaine Hydrochloride: Are the Differences Myth or Reality?" Journal of the American Medical Association, November 20, 1996.

Lockwood, Dorothy; Pottieger, Anne E.and Inciardi, James a. "Crack Use, Crime by Crack Users, and Ethnicity," Darnell F. Hawkins' (ed.)., Ethnicity, Race and Crime. New York: State University of New York Press, 1995, p.21.

Mauer, Marc. "The disparity on crack-cocaine sentencing." The Boston Globe. July 5, 2006.

Schuster, Charles. Testimony of Charles Schuster before the Subcommittee on Crime and Drugs of the Senate Judiciary Committee, May 22, 2002.

Sentencing Project: Research and Advocacy for Reform. Washington, D.C., 2007, http://www.sentencingproject.org/Publications.aspx?IssueID=3.

State Rates of Incarceration by State." The Sentencing Project 2004. Washington, D.C., 2004

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration," 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, Population Estimates 1995, Washington, DC: Sept. 2005, Table 1.43a.

Testimony of Commissioner John R. Steer." Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources, May 11, 2000.

U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Cocaine Offenses: An analysis of Crack and Powder Penalties, March 17, 2002.

USSC, Special Report to Congress: Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy, (April 1997), p. 7.

USSC [United States Sentencing Commission], Report to Congress: Cocaine and Federal Sentencing Policy, May 2002.

USSC, Fifteen Years of Guidelines Sentencing, Nov. 2004.

USSC, 2005 Sourcebook of Federal Sentencing Statistics, 2006, Table 34.

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