Appendices and References
Create the Time Schedule for the proposed research and resources needed, as well as additional personnel, budget details, the consent forms, and the questions used for the surveys/questionnaires/interviews. The questions and possible responses must support the research objectives and the hypothesis. (Estimated length ? five pages)
1. Time Schedule/Time Line: Propose how long the research process could take (hypothetically). Remember that a proposal stops at the proposal stage and that there is no actual research conducted by you. You are to propose what you will do and when to carry out the study. (Estimated length ? two paragraphs)
2. Resources Needed: List and explain all proposed resources (e.g., computers, programs, surveys, etc.). (Estimated length ? two paragraphs)
3. Personnel: List the categories or types of assistance needed from others (not the participants) to conduct the proposed research. (Estimated length ? one paragraph)
4. Budget: List all expenses proposed to incur during the research. Include all details for the proposed budget, and then add them up for a total proposed budget. (Estimated length ? half a page)
5. Needed Assurances/Clearances: Include the proposed releases needed for tests, surveys, or other instruments that may be used to conduct the research. Research involving humans require consent forms. Create and include the voluntary consent form for participant permission.. (Estimated length ? one page)
6. Surveys/Questionnaires/Interviews: Create and include the list of questions proposed to be asked for the research. Make sure the questions pertain to and support the problem statement, the objectives of the study, and the hypothesis. Include the possible answers when using a multiple-choice or Likert format. (Estimated length ? one to two pages)
7. References: List a minimum of five references used for the Literature Review of this Research Proposal. Follow APA guidelines regarding use of references in text and in the references page. Only references cited in the text are to be included in the references page. (Estimated length ? one page)
The following will help with this project.
The issue of conscription
has led to a great deal of debate and contentious argument in our society. On the one hand the view is put forward that conscription
impinges on the right to freedom of choice of the individual (Greenberg, 2010). However, an equally strong argument can be made for conscription
as both a responsibility and a duty of the individual in society, as well as a necessary social aspect that supports the ethics and ethos of the society and its defense.
In the United States the Army is the only branch of the defense force that has exercised conscription
or The Draft. Very briefly, the history of and necessity for conscription
begins with the need for national defense during the First World War with the approval by the United States Congress on May 18, 1917 (Selective Service Act of 1917, pp. 76-83). However, since this date conscription
has undergone many revisions and has been vigorously debated. The draft expired on July 1, 1973, was eliminated in 1975, and then reinstated in 1980. Conscription
was terminated in the United Sates in 1973 with the end of the Vietnam War (Powers). Bill H.R. 5741, the Universal National Service Act, has been in the House of Representatives since July 2010. If passed, this bill would require all persons, male and female, between the ages of 18 and 42, to perform national service for two years, either military or civilian.
There are many opponents to conscription
who are in support of maintaining an all volunteer military. Some argue that you can?t force nationalism, or pride. Others say that we should not force people to serve their country (All-Volunteer Military: Issues and Performance, p. 6). However, the debate also extends beyond an argument about ethics, principles and patriotism. Another dimension that has become equally important is the practical value and the advantage that a system of conscription
offers for both the society as a whole and the individual.
2. Problem Statement
The central problem that this research will explore is predicated on the view that conscription
is based on the rights and duties of the citizen and furthermore, that conscription
adds a positive dimension to both social life and the life of the individual. The argument against conscription
often does not take into account the value that conscription
can bring in terms of social and individual improvement and the alleviation of both individual and socials problems. This is a central aspect that should be focused on in understanding the advantages of conscription
The problem statement that will therefore be investigated is as follows. The youth in our country are living a sedentary life with many young people having no direction or discipline. This affects society in many ways and includes issues such as unemployment and poor health among young people. Consequently, conscription
should be enforced as it serves to solve a number of problematic issues in society and for the individual.
3. Rationale for the Research
The rationale that underlies this study is based on the view that conscription
provides practical as well as moral and ethical advantages for both the society and the individual. A number of studies and commentaries on modern society refer to the fact that many young Americans have no idea what they want to do with their lives when they graduate from High School. This can result in them becoming unproductive members of society. For example, this view is echoed by NewsMax.com columnist, Armstrong Williams, who writes that, ??each passing generation produces teenagers who are more and more brazen, disrespectful, lazy and ill-qualified for success in the real world? (Williams, 2006). One could relate these views to other studies, which suggest a serious lack of direction and motivation among young people. Other variables can also be linked to the assessment of modern youth in the country, such as a sedentary lifestyle. .
In essence the above examples could be amplified in many ways to show that conscription
could provide a possible solution to social and individual problems. For instance the view that military service would foster integrity and positive values in the minds of young Americans .One of the Army?s core values is integrity; therefore, Young citizens who serve in the military will be better equipped to lead a successful life because they will have learned what integrity is.
Furthermore, this is in line with the view that young people need a purpose in life, a reason to get up every day, and discipline would teach them that they could do anything they set their minds to (The Call-Up: Conscription
, Again). In this sense the military would provide methods and techniques of instilling a sense of discipline into young minds. Therefore, the rationale that underlies the argument for conscription
therefore is based on the view that the values learned during the period of conscription
would be carried over into public and social life and provide a groundwork that would make the individual a more productive member of society.
4. Statement of the Research Objectives
The research objectives for this study are firmly based on the rationale discussed above. The central research objective is to ascertain whether the proposed hypothesis is valid. In essence, this refers to the view that conscription
provides a positive and valuable contribution to society and to the lives of the individuals in that society. In more detail, the proposed objectives would include a thorough investigation of the advantages that conscription
can provide; for example, the way in which it can help young people to be more disciplined, motivated and directed in their approach to life.
Allied with the above, the research objectives would include reports, literature and various methodologies relating to the extent to which conscription
does, or does not, provide value to society and advantages for the individual; for example, whether it is true to say that more directed, disciplined and motivated youth leads to a decrease in factors such as unemployment and crime, and whether this can be linked to the outcomes of conscription
The central hypothesis that will be explored in this study is as follows: conscription
as a societal mechanism adds value to the lives of individuals and is a valuable asset in creating a more stable, motivated and healthy society. The variables that would be considered as part of this hypothesis are: the central variable of positive value in relation to variables such as discipline, mental and physical health, goals orientation and task directedness, as well as the effect of variables such as crime and productivity in society.
6. Definition of Terms:
: compulsory enrollment of persons for military or naval service; also referred to as 'the draft'.
Value: For the purposes of research the term value refers to positive as opposed to negative indications of the relative scores of a number of central variables. These variables would include: positive approach to life, goal directedness, social improvement, and reduction of crime and unemployment.
Social problems: this refers to problems that occur in society that impact negatively on the growth, development and integrity of that society. More specifically and in terms of this research, this term refers to problems that can be linked to a lack of direction on the part of the youth, such as lack of discipline and a work?related ethos.
Discipline: Discipline refers to behavior and behavior pattern that accord with rules of society and which are maintained by training and selfcontrol.
Interlinking variables: this refers to variables that have an effect on one another. In this research this refers for example to variables such as lack of direction and sedentary lifestyle, which tend to be associated with other variables, such as lack of discipline.
This study will therefore put forward the argument that the introduction of a system of conscription
will be a valuable and advantageous institution in our society. This view is based not only on the view that serving one's country is the duty of every citizen but that the best argument for conscription
lies in the positive and beneficial effects that it has for the society and the individual. This study will therefore attempt to show the extent and range of the value of conscription
in terms of certain pertinent and interlinking variables.
Review of the Literature
All citizens of the United States are members of the country?s political community and have a fundamental obligation to demonstrate allegiance. For instance, according to Black?s Law Dictionary, a citizen is ?one who, under the Constitution and laws of the United States, or of a particular state, is a member of the political community, owing allegiance and being entitled to the enjoyment of full civil rights? (p. 244). The form that such allegiance assumes varies, of course, but one act that has historically been accepted as satisfying this obligation to country is military service. In this regard, Bandow suggests that, ?Conscription
enforces the moral duties of citizenship? (p. 23). Although military draft, ended in the United States in 1973 and was replaced with an all-volunteer military force. According to Bandow (2000), ?Despite a rocky start, the All-Volunteer Force (AVF) now provides America with the highest quality military in its history and the finest armed services in the world. Yet recruiting and retention problems have begun to appear. As a result, there are an increasing number of calls for a return to conscription
? (p. 23). The draft was discontinued in 1973 in the United States based on several factors. For instance, according to Jehn and Selden (2002), ?The end of the cold war and the increasing sophistication of weapons systems are often cited as reasons for eliminating conscription
? (p. 93).
In 2003, concerned about manpower shortages and the expanding role of America in world affairs, the U.S. Department of Defense issued so-called ?stop/loss? orders that applied to every branch of the armed forces that prevented all service members, including those whose terms of service had ended, from leaving the military service until further notice (Schaeffer-Duffy, 2003). Since that time, the United States has been engaged in two shooting wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, with the potential for hostilities to break out elsewhere in the Middle East as well as the potential for North Korea adventurism to demand an increased military presence on the peninsula. In this environment, the U.S. military is being spread far too thin to accomplish its battle-ready mission in an effective fashion. In this regard, Hauser and Slater (2010) emphasize that, ?The president has chosen to increase our military commitment, but it is hardly certain that success can be achieved with our nation's current system for raising military manpower? (p. 75).
At present, the U.S. Selective Service all U.S. male citizens and residents between the ages of 18 and 26 years to register with the U.S. government, typically at a local post office (Schaeffer-Duffy, 2003). The Selective Service emphasizes the fairness of this approach compared to an all-out draft and emphasizes that, ?For every man who fails to register, another man would be required to take his place? (quoted in Schaeffer-Duffy, 2003 at p. 16). Moreover, the Selective Service has eliminated many of the exceptions that were provided during the Vietnam War that allowed such luminaries as former Vice President Dick Cheney to receive six draft deferments because he had ?other priorities besides military service? during the 1960s. According to Schaeffer-Duffy, other changes include ?college students who are called up will only be allowed to finish the semester; although seniors can graduate? and ?twenty-year-olds will be the first to be drafted? (p. 16).
A renewed conscription
would provide the United States with the expanded, robust military force it needs to prosecute its global war on terrorism while fulfilling its other global obligations. According to two military veterans and current professors of political science, ?The creation of larger, higher-quality forces--with a credible capability to intervene massively on the ground--would have a powerful deterrent effect, not only against terrorists themselves but also against states that currently support or tolerate terrorist activities? (Hauser & Slater, 2010, p. 76). These and like-minded authorities who support a return of the draft argue that in order to ?speak softly? in world affairs, the United States needs a ?bigger stick? to ensure other countries listen. As Hauser and Slater conclude, ?Indeed, the existence of such a ground-combat deterrent might well result in fewer future U.S. military interventions, rather than more? (2010, p. 77).
Given the recent violent events that took place in Libya and Egypt, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance. Although the nature of the threat may have changed and the types of warfare that are being employed differ dramatically from years past, asymmetrical warfare is still war and war demands a fighting force to win it. In this regard, Hauser and Slater add that, ?In the long-term struggle against radical Islamism and comparable threats, the United States is going to need larger standing forces of considerably improved quality, along with greater protection against executive misuse of those forces? (2010, p. 77). Proponents of the all-volunteer force maintain that this approach ensures that only motivated individuals will join the military, contributing to more professional armed forces. Unfortunately, this reliance on volunteers only has resulted in a gutted military that is undermanned for the global missions they have been assigned. Without more manpower, the U.S. military?s efforts will be doomed to failure before they ever begin. In this regard, Hauser and Slater (2010) conclude that, ?Committing the nation to a major military campaign (in Afghanistan or elsewhere) with qualitatively and quantitatively inadequate manpower offers a guarantee of disaster? (p. 77).
All-Volunteer Military: Issues and Performance. (2007). Retrieved from
Bandow, D. (2000, February). What ain't broke: The renewed call for conscription
. Ideas on Liberty, 50(2), 23-25.
Black?s law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Greenberg, N. ( 2010). A submission to the United Nations Universal Periodic Review
Process for the: 9th Session of the HRC UPR Working Group, November 2010.
Retrieved from http://www.cpti.ws/resources/greenberg_jenkins/Greenberg_Jenkins_UPR_Submission_US_Nov_2010.pdf
Jehn, C. & Selden, Z. (2002, April). The end of conscription
in Europe? Contemporary Economic Policy, 20(2), 93-97.
Powers, R. U.S. Military 101. About.com Guide. Retrieved from
Selective Service Act of 1917( 2011). Sess. 1. Web.
Schaeffer-Duffy, C. (2003, March 21). Conscription
returns to public discussion. National Catholic Reporter, 39(20), 16.
The Call-Up: Conscription
, Again. World Affairs Journal. Retrieved from
Williams, Armstrong. ( 2006). Mandatory Military Service Would Benefit the U.S
Retrieved from NewsMax.com. http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2006/6/18/162837.shtm
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