Essay Instructions: Discuss the extent to which langston hughes and adrienne rich use poetry as a means of challenging cultural or social complacency.
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Essay Instructions: Article Analysis-Using an article from electronic Reserve Readings as a research source, prepare a 350-700-word article analysis on managerial communication. The reserve reading chosen is Capozzoli,T.K. (1999,November).Conflict Resolution-a key ingrediant in successful teams. supervisons, 60(11), 14-16. read reserve reading below. Also use the article analysis guidlines to organize your thoughts. dont need to include in paper only to help with doing the outline of paper.Article Summary Guidelines
Criteria required in the presentation summary should include the following:
1. List three key points from the article.
2. List two critical thinking questions to ask the class about the article.
3. Explain how this article relates to you or your profession.
4. Source of article (MLA or APA style).
Begining of Reserve Readings:
Conflict resolution - a key ingredient in successful teams
Thomas K Capozzoli. SuperVision. Burlington: Nov 1999.Vol.60, Iss. 11; pg. 14, 3 pgs
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Subjects: Managerial skills, Conflict resolution, Teams, Guidelines
Classification Codes 9190 US, 2200 Managerial skills, 9150 Guidelines
Author(s): Thomas K Capozzoli
Publication title: SuperVision. Burlington: Nov 1999. Vol. 60, Iss. 11; pg. 14, 3 pgs
Source Type: Periodical
ProQuest document ID: 45982839
Text Word Count 1388
Article URL: http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:pqd&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&rft_dat=xri:pqd:did=982839&svc_dat=xri:pqil:fmt=text&req_dat=xri:pqil:pq_clntid=13118
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Abstract (Article Summary)
Although many people and organizations view conflict as an activity that is usually negative and should be avoided, conflict is a natural result of people working together. Without conflict, complacency in teams can occur and the development of the team and/or the team member can be seriously impeded. Appropriate skills in dealing with conflict can help teams and anyone else in the organization to deal with and effectively resolve disagreements which ultimately will lead to an overall more productive organization as a whole.
Full Text (1388 words)
Copyright National Research Bureau Nov 1999
Gary and Justin are a part of a self-directed workteam.
They are working on a problem of material delivery to their work stations. Gary has one point of view which he sees as very logical and has been trying to get the team to accept his solution. However, Justin views the problem in a different manner and is in total disagreement with Gary as to how to solve the problem and he does not know what to do. Because of this disagreement, the productivity of their workteam has suffered and there seems to be no solution to the problem. Gary and Justin are caught in a dispute and they need the skills to resolve it.
Although many people and organizations view conflict as an activity that is usually negative and should be avoided, conflict is a natural result of people working together. Without conflict, complacency in teams can occur and the development of the team and/ or the team member can be seriously impeded. However, many people who work in teams have never been taught how to deal with conflict and controversy effectively. Appropriate skills in dealing with conflict can help teams and anyone else in the organization to deal with and effectively resolve disagreements which ultimately will lead to an overall more productive organization as a whole.
The Nature Of Conflict
Boulding (1962) defines conflict as, "a situation of competition in which the parties are aware of the incompatibility of potential future positions and in which each party wishes to occupy a position which is incompatible with the wishes of the other." Theoretically, conflict is neither good nor bad. Conflict is not something that is a tangible product but it lies in the minds of the people who are parties to it. However, it does become tangible when it manifests itself in arguing, brooding or fighting. The problem lies with the inability for people to manage and resolve it effectively. If managed effectively, conflict can be constructive. If not, conflict can be a destructive force in people and organizations.
Conflict can be considered constructive if:
People change and grow personally from the conflict.
The conflict results in a solution to a problem.
It increases the involvement of everyone affected by the conflict.
It builds cohesiveness among the members of a team.
Conflict can be considered destructive if:
No decision is reached and the problem still exists.
It diverts energy from more important activities or issues.
It destroys the morale of teams or individual team members.
It polarizes or divides teams or groups of people.
Causes Of Conflict
Just because people are members of the same team at work does not mean they will get along with one another or they will agree with one another in specific situations. Conflict in teams can be caused by several different reasons:
Values - the diverse cultural values of people who work in teams may not be the same and when it comes to dealing with problems in which values are an issue, conflict can erupt.
Attitudes - the attitudes of team members may be different on issues which arise. These differing attitudes may cause the goals of one person to be different than the goals of another person in the team.
Needs - needs of people in teams are different and if those needs are not satisfied, it can cause frustration and conflict.
Expectations - people in teams have expectations of how the process will work and what the outcomes will be. If for some reason these expectations are not met, conflict may arise.
Perception - all people do not view the world in the same way. One person's perception of a situation or problem may be totally different than another person on the same team. Even if they have the same information, they may not interpret it the same way.
Resources - when any kind of resources are scarce, conflict will eventually happen.
Personalities - members of the same team may not like one another because they do not have the same personality type or same interests.
The mainstream culture of most American organizations is based on individualism and competition. These two ingredients do not make for an easy method to resolve conflicts which occurs in teams. However, productive conflict resolution involves learning how to disagree over issues and situations and coming up with a solution that can benefit the entire team. To engage in productive resolution, people have to learn and practice the skills of resolving conflict. The following process will help team members to engage in productive conflict resolution:
1. Explore the reasons for the disagreement.
If there is strong emotion connected to the disagreement, by either side, don't continue until the emotion has subsided.
This may take counting to 10 or for the parties to walk away from the disagreement until emotions have calmed. (Perhaps a quick walk around the building will help cool the emotions). Emotions are a very strong deterrent to communications and when trying to resolve a disagreement, the ability to communicate with the other persons) is critical. When the emotions do subside, the parties should feel free to discuss why there were strong emotions connected with the disagreement. When doing so, the parties must be aware this discussion could rekindle the emotions. This can be a delicate task and must be done with extreme care by the parties.
The specific reasons for the disagreement must be determined. Is there a misperception of the situation? Have goals of the parties been misinterpreted? Do the parties have different values? Are there personality conflicts between people?
Each party must be willing to discuss their perceptions of the situation and be willing to try to understand the other person's perception of the situation. Active listening, by all parties, is very important. It is necessary to not only hear what the other party is saying but also to comprehend both the factual and emotional message being delivered.
Don't criticize the other
person's perceptions. Each person must try to remain as objective as possible and remain open and flexible to the other's perceptions of the situation.
2. Once the reasons for the disagreement are determined, alternative solutions must be advanced.
Each party to the disagreement must have the opportunity to present their solutions) to the others involved. Time should be given for each person to fully explain their solution.
All solutions must be considered.
3. The parties need to agree on the most appropriate solution.
All of the reasons why each solution is appropriate should be explored.
Negotiation techniques may be applied by each party where appropriate. This gives the parties a chance to modify their positions and move toward another solution which seems more practical for the situation. Negotiation involves giving and taking and enables the participants to collaborate on a solution.
If necessary, a neutral third party may be brought in to help resolve the disagreement.
4. After the best s-ition has been identified, it must be implemented.
Times frames for implementation must be discussed so each person understands and agrees when the solution will be implemented.
Be sure each party understands what their responsibilities are in implementing the solution.
If necessary, write down anything that might be misunderstood by either party to avoid a misinterpretation of the solution.
5. Evaluate the solution.
Find out if the solution is adequate for solving the disagreement. If not, determine what caused the failure and look at another solution.
6. Practice the conflict resolution process.
As with any new process, the ability to use it successfully depends on the willingness of people to practice. Knowing about the process and even understanding it really does nothing until it can be successfully applied on a consistent basis. Learn from both successes and failures and how to apply them to the next situation.
In many organizations, conflict, controversy or dissent are discouraged by members who want only to maintain the @status quo." Such thinking Is dangerous because it can only lead to a path of failure and ultimate decline of the organization. Only when people are allowed to draw out and value different points of view and discuss them in an open atmosphere will conflict become a successful ingredient. To do this, all members of an organization must be taught and encouraged to use a positive conflict resolution process.
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Essay Instructions: “You May Say I’m a Dreamer, but I’m Not The Only One” John Lennon
For Wendell Berry, imagination is a starting point, “a way of knowing things that can be known in no other way” (25). Imagination exists, in his mind, as a means to discovery, making it a necessity in something like the belief in God, which requires faith, and a vital, but missing component of scientific inquiry. In a way, Berry sets up a kind of dualism, where imagination and rigid dogmatic belief, what he labels fundamentalism, are at odds. Berry, nonetheless, believes, pardon the pun, that imagination is missing in the cold rigidity of fundamentalist religion and science, and that its restoration opens new avenues of possibilities.
Similarly, de Botton asks his readers to consider the benefits of opening one’s mind to a “traveling mindset” in order to militate against the complacency of habituation. And, Hochschild’s understanding of Capitalism as religion further points to the necessity to open the eyes to the unseen, yet powerful pull of the more nefarious aspects of Capitalism that seep out the essence of family life. In each essay, we see a dualism established that pits imagination, or an open mind, against the dogmatic or closed mind, and wherein a change in perspective seeks to overturn or pose an alternative to rigid ideology.
For essay #3, discuss the degree to which humans cannot escape dogmatism, or, in Berry’s words, a type of fundamentalist way of seeing the world? In seeking to overturn one ideology, or way of looking at the world, do we instead merely substitute a new narrow-mindedness? Can humans live in a perpetual state of imagination, or open-mindedness? What ramifications might that have on such things as religion, political systems, scientific inquiry, or the way one sees one’s world?
Use Wendell Berry’s “God, Science, and Imagination” pp. 21-28 as your primary text and one of the other two essays we’ve read:
“On Habit” by Alain de Botton pp. 59-65
“From the Frying Pan into the Fire” by Arlie Russell Hochschild pp. 183-192
Rough Draft due Tuesday October 18, 3+ pages, bring 2 copies to class
Final Draft due Tuesday October 25, 5+ pages, bring 1 copy to class.
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Essay Instructions: What is the common thread that makes all of these approaches romantic? Use one poem each from three poets that exhibit the various approaches to prove your argument, i.e. use a poem showing one approach from one poet, then do the same for another approach using a different poet, and the same for a third approach from a third poet. Poets Blake-The Chimney Sweeper,Wordsworth-Ode:Imtimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood and Wordworth-I sign the Body Electric
Notes/Back ground: We are children of the Enlightenment, but we are also shaped by the movement in the arts and in philosophy called Romanticism. The Enlightenment views the individual shaping his world through reason, industriousness and productivity. The Romantic, by contrast, emphasizes the inner world of feelings, imagination and our deeper sense of ourselves some call the soul.
Romanticism swept across Europe in the first half of the Nineteenth Century and transformed the way people thought about themselves in every national culture from Russia to England. We study English Romanticism both because it happened in the language we know and because the English version had a great impact upon the culture of the United States. But it would be a mistake not to recognize also the deep influence of German philosophy, French painting and Italian Opera.
Romanticism represents a rebellion against Enlightenment thinking. It replaces a faith in reason with feeling as the stronger expression of what we are. It is restless with practical reality and prefers visionary longing and excitement to the complacency of everyday reality. In its more radical phases-- Blake, for example -- Romanticism sees reason itself as a shadow cast by the power system that rules society, a regime hostile to our sanity. Though less radical, Wordsworth shares Blake's distrust of the commercial city, and with it, the apportionment of roles and sentiments that hide us from our deeper selves. Only a return to nature and the freedom of our childhoods can save us from the exhausting routines of what is called reality. Whitman, our American Romantic, is a poet of great visionary power. He imagines great unities in a grand architecture of time. His constructive Romanticism breaks every familiar category of reason and good sense.
The Romanticism of social protest reflects the revolutionary fervor on the Continent and especially in France in the last decade of the Eighteenth Century. There, every certainty was overturned and every institution uprooted. Unlike the American Revolution, which was primarily political, the French Revolution aspired to give birth to a new society, purged of the evils of the past. Even the calendar was replaced, with the year one being 1789 and the months renamed. The French Revolution inspired many people to look at their societies as temporary and unnatural -- indeed, nothing had the force of necessity other than the urgent need for ultimate liberation from an Old Order that had ceased to mean anything at all.
Blake looks through the surfaces of supposed good sense and orderliness and discovers instead cruelty and injustice. Poems like "London" and "The Chimney Sweeper" are meant to unsettle the confidence of the complacent Middle Class reader by forcing him to recognize the evils at the heart of the Imperial city. When you look at the splendor of the King's Palace, you need to see the blood of young men dripping down the palace walls, young men who die daily to extend the Empire in far corners of the world. The conjunction of these shockingly divergent images provides a stinging recognition of reality, as does the grandeur of the Church darkened by the suffering of abused working children (for what had Christ taught about disregarding the misery of children?!). Blake's outlook is political and moral and entirely hostile to the endorsed reality of things. To be free, people must cleanse the doors of perception in order to know the world and themselves as they really are and are meant to be. Like Socrates, Blake believes that everything we know is wrong, mere confused shadows; unlike Socrates and the Enlightenment thinkers, however, he asserts that feelings and great leaps of perspective reveal the secrets of our being.
Wordsworth is similarly at war not only with the way things are in society but also within himself. He is weary of the bland self society has constructed for him, especially of the routines of the commercial city, where everything has a purpose measured by time and money. He knew his true self in childhood and in the vibrant bond with nature of his youth. He experiences what we have come to call alienation, a severe doubleness in which the social self is opposed to an original self that comes from God and is measureless and immortal. For Wordsworth, Nature represents a Divinity, a source of energy that can return him to his true self, now eclipsed by everyday routines. Like Blake, Wordsworth invites us to see beneath the surface reality and reason and replace it with feeling and emotion, a more original and authentic version of ourselves. The world within offers us peace and richness of being that is lost to us in everyday petty affairs.
Whitman represents visionary Romanticism. Here again the conventional world is a sad illusion. True being rests in our capacity to realize the energies of life all around us. Whitman celebrates the glory of everyday activity, the grandeur of work, the stupendous miracle of our body and its pleasures in sex and work, and the marvelous forces set loose in the industrious modern city. Like Blake and Wordsworth, Whitman honors the greater truth of simple working people and their experience of life. He sings of democratic aspirations set free by the overthrow of the old order, in his case all the encrusted social forms of Europe now being swept into oblivion in America. Whitman's poetry is often outrageous, an assault on reason and good sense and propriety. In its place he would install joy, love, and pleasure, and the dizzying whirl of creativity and the ferment of change.
Where the Enlightenment is sober and sensible, Romanticism is dazzling, full of danger and delight. What is strongly felt and imagined is real; thought is merely a gray reflection of the moment that has passed, or the cold calculation of illusory power. Natural feeling is the best index of the Laws of Nature and of our being. For the Enlightenment, human nature is best discovered among people who by virtue of education and freedom from the laboring burdens of the poor have been able to cultivate that part of us which is not harnessed to beastly labor, the refinement of our higher powers. For the Romantic, this rarification of our nature is an illusion and takes us away from our essential selves. To find human nature at its best, Romantics look toward simple laboring people whose feelings are strong, or to children who have not yet lost their original powers of wonder and imagination, or to the criminal who knows best how badly unjust the laws of social reality truly are. For the Romantic, savage and unruly cultures offer an opportunity for renewal and reconnection with our raw and true nature. All this should be familiar to us.
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