Citation Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Citation College Essay Examples

Title: Nursing Theory Application and Integration of AACN Synergy Care Model and Clinical Practice adapted from Fawcett 2005

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3582
  • References:10
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Citation must be 5 years old or less (2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, and 2008)

Individual Paper Application and Integration of AACN Synergy Care model in Clinical Practice ? 30% (Adapted from Fawcett, 2005).

Each student will select a nursing practice relevant model or a nursing model developed by one of the nurse theorists. Identify the compatibility of the model with your philosophy of nursing practice. In assisting you to obtain information for the development of your paper, include use of primary resources (up-to-date articles and books written by the theorist), secondary sources, research articles, and clinical practice articles. Excellent resources are the journals; Advances in Nursing Science, Image, and Nursing Science Quarterly. Use the following criteria to guide the development of your nursing models paper. This Paper should be 8 - 10 pages of content excluding figure and reference pages.

1. Provide a synopsis of the theory?s background. What is the historical evolution of the model? What motivated development of the model? On what philosophical beliefs and values about nursing is the model based? What strategies for knowledge development were used to formulate the model? What scholars influenced the model author?s thinking?

2. What is the unique focus of the model?

3. Present an organized overview of the model and its major concepts, including definitions of key terms and major concepts. How are human beings defined and described? How is environment defined and described? How is health defined? How are wellness and illness differentiated? How is nursing defined? What is the goal of nursing? How is nursing practice described? What statements are made about the relations among the four metaparadigm concepts?

4. What theories have been generated from the model? What is the overall contribution of the model to the discipline of nursing? To what extent is the model actually used to guide nursing practice and research? Identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model for nursing practice.

5. Summarize at least one clinical or research study that has tested an aspect of the model or used this model as a conceptual framework.

6. Apply the domains of the model in the real world of nursing practice. Discuss theory-based nursing practice using the model for a chosen patient population. Include QSEN Competencies.

7. Discuss the application of the model in addressing the priority in patient care in the organizations and work environment, and the potential integration with useful leadership principles to improve patient outcomes
Excerpt From Essay:

Watson, J. And Smith, M. (2001). Caring Science and the Science of Unitary Human Beings.

Journal of Advanced Nursing. 37 (5): 452-61.

Quoted and documented citation

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Title: History of Film

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2904
  • Bibliography:7
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Citation Guide: you need to cite everything that is taken from another source, even if you are not
directly quoting. This means you have to footnote each idea, and provide the citation and page number that it is taken from. It is not enough to simply put at the end in a works cited

Sources: You should use 7 sources or more and all your sources should be cited and be Peer reviewed Scholarly Journals and books. Please integrate the use of all your sources. Don't rely on just two or three peer reviewed journals for example. Spread them out. Provide a bibliography and use the Chicago citation method.

I have access to JSTOR and can provide you with relevant peer reviewed journals if need be

Spelling, word usage, spelling punctuation and sentence structure will be assessed. The paper needs to be organized with a clear structure, logical flow, and be coherent. Avoid personal pronouns and long quotations.

The idea is to show your ability to assess whether the films "work" as history, and why they do or why they do not. Do they contribute to our appreciation of the event, or trivialize/ sensationalize it? Are they a serious contribution to our understanding, and if not, what is missing?

An effective essay will also try to explain the director's thesis, which will be a function of their worldview. Is the story explained through a racial, class or gendered lens? Is this a feminist reading or is religion being privileged, or economics? Finally, is there one interpretation of a complex historiography being put forward, and if so, what is it? This last question may be the most interesting of all, if your films deal in contested and controversial topics that are well covered in the historical literature. (Such as, for example, the Cold War)

To be clear, this essay will not work if it makes claims and generalizations that are not backed up by the historical literature on the topic. If your bibliography has only, or mostly film journal titles, it is a clear indication that the research here is inadequate to whatever argument you are making, re: the films' effectiveness. When writing the paper the Introduction should not exceed one page. Furthermore, explain the plot of the film and significant characters in one paragraph. The rest of the paper should be used to evaluate the themes and analyze if its relationship and relevance with history. Your sources have to prove this relevance or argument.

There's a huge scholarship on film as history and you will easily find reams of material on most serious films, but more importantly there is a limitless historiography on the events that Hollywood films depict, so you should include credible sources from historians in your discussion, either from peer reviewed journals or from books, or (especially in the case of biopics), from credible biographies or primary documents.
As with the short essay, this written assignment will be formatted using Chicago style - footnotes and a bibliography. Have a title page and ensure your argument is spelled out in the introduction.

There are two avenues you may choose from for this essay:

1 Compare the effectiveness, or contribution to our historical understanding, of two films released at roughly the same time that are about the same era or event in Anglo-American history, or offer an interpretation of that history. The films do not necessarily have to be in the genre of historical films. A quality drama that is based on events, but uses composite characters and a fictional story can work as well. Comparing a British and American film will offer an additional analytical avenue for this assignment, though it is not necessary.
Some examples that you may consider could include the following:

on contact, The New World (2005) and 1492: Conquest of Paradise (1992)

on the abolition movement, Amazing Grace (2006) and Amistad (1997)

on the theme of Irish American gangs/ mobsters, Road to Perdition (2002) and Miller's Crossing (1990)

on the Irish War of Independence/Civil War, Michael Collins (1996) and The Wind that Shakes the Barley (2006)

on the American Revolution, Revolution! (1985) and The Patriot (2000)

on decolonization, India, Gandhi (1982) and The Legend of Baghrat Singh (2002) or Empire of the Sun (1987)

on decolonization, British East Africa, White Mischief (1988) and Out of Africa (1985) or Wah Wah (2005)

on D-Day/ Battle of Normandy, The Dirty Dozen (1967) and The Longest Day (1970)

on Thatcher's England, Sid and Nancy (1986) or Sammy and Rosie Get Laid (1987) and Letter to Brezhnev (1985)

2 )Alternatively you may wish to choose two films that were produced in different eras and analyze how they reflect contemporary concerns, or offer a better/worse/different approach to the subject matter. Examples here include films such as:
The Scarlet Letter (1995) and The Crucible (1957) -the colonial era, New England
All Quiet on the Western Front (1930), or Paths of Glory (1957) and Lawrence of Arabia (1970) -World War OneWorld War OneWorld War One

The Battle of Britain (1943) and The Battle of Britain (1969)

The Longest Day (1962) or The Dirty Dozen (1969) and Saving Private Ryan (1998) -D-Day/ Battle of Normandy

Mrs Miniver (1942) and Hope and Glory (1987) -British home front, WW2WW2WW2
Catch 22 (1970) and Memphis Belle (1990) -Aerial bombing campaign, WW2WW2WW2
A Bridge Too Far (1977) and The Last Drop (2005) -Operation Market Garden, WW2WW2WW2

Dr Strangelove (1964) and Thirteen Days (2000) -Cold War brinkmanship

Thank you
Excerpt From Essay:

Beevor, Anthony. D-Day: The Battle for Normandy. New York: Viking Penguin, 2009.

Churchill, Ron. "Saving Private Ryan" a real life drama." UB Reporter 30, no. 2 (September

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Title: The International Court of Justice has repeatedly stated that it will not refuse to resolve a legal dispute that is conected to or is an aspect of a broader political dispute Critically analyse whether the Court has adopted a convincing and consistent approach to this issue of justiciability

  • Total Pages: 14
  • Words: 3716
  • References:10
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Citation: Melbourne Manual for International Law Citation ( Or Sydney Law Review which can be found on the WebCT page for this unit.
Thank You.
Excerpt From Essay:

Allee, Todd L. And Huth, Paul K. (2006) Legitimizing Dispute Settlement: International Legal Rulings as Domestic Political Cover. Vol. 100 No.2 May 2006. Online available at

Coleman, Andrew (2003) the International Court of justice and Highly Political Matters. Melbourne Journal of International Law. 3 May 2003.

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  • Total Pages: 9
  • Words: 3744
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Citation Style: Turabian with Endnotes (I have my own Information System Type in
EndNote which I will have to change it to)
Number of Cited Sources: 15
Topic: E-commerce and Business Redesign ( I need a particular research question to be
answered in the essay on the topic stated)
Faxing: No
Requirements: Noted Below


Essay Format:

Main text
Font Times Roman
Font Size 12 point
Line spacing 1_
Quotations Use single line spacing and indent
block quotations
Paper size A4
Justification Use full justification
Header No headers
Footers Page number at bottom centre
Widow/orphan Switch on widow/orphan control
Page numbers Have the page number at the bottom
centre of the page
Margins 1 inch (2.54 cm) on all sides
Word Limit Part of the skill of writing the
essay is keeping to the word limit.
We do, however, allow a 10% margin
for error
Headings You may number your headings and
subheadings if you wish. Do not go
below two levels of heading (i.e.
5, 5.1 but not 5.1.1)
Footnotes Use sparingly, if at all
Colour printing Use sparingly, if at all
Paragraphs Use indentation or a blank line to
mark the start of paragraphs

IT MUST Address a particular research question BASED ON ABOVE TOPIC

Information Systems ? Essay
You are required to write a 3000 word critical literature review essay on an IS topic following the guidelines provided below. The upper limit for this essay is 5000 words.

You can choose any IS topic for your essay, but make sure there is substantial literature for it. You should ensure that your essay is addressing a major issue. The issue should be clearly located within the information systems field and you will demonstrate this by making reference to the appropriate body of literature. Examples of topics you may study:
Groupware and group-work
e-government ? e.g. e-government and administrative reform, e-government and democracy
e-commerce ? e.g. e-commerce and business redesign, e-commerce and competitiveness, e-commerce and development
outsourcing ? e.g. the significance of the legal contract and/or trust
the significance of user participation in IS development
IS evaluation
The economic value of ICT innovation
Governing the internet
ERP implementation
Industrial networks
ICT and work conditions
ICT and organizational change

You should include the following:
? Profiling of the review topic: how is the essay topic discussed in the literature - what issues are identified as related to your chosen topic, what theoretical concepts express relevant issues
? What theories or models have been used?
? Is the relevant literature normative, explanatory, critical, etc
? What knowledge has been produced, and what controversies (arguments and counter arguments) have been raised?
? What is the current state of knowledge and debate? ? i.e. what are the prevailing lessons, theoretical views and professional practices, and what are the most interesting unun-resolved questions?
? Essential insights that you gained from the literature review. What is your preferred perspective / argument? Why?
? Where would you like to see further development of knowledge on this topic?
? Reflection on the limitations of your literature review.

You are advised to pay particular attention to the way you reference other people?s ideas in your essay. You should also be careful when paraphrasing / summarising the work of other authors.

The essay must have an abstract of around 150 words, be properly referenced and include a full bibliography. The essay must be word processed and securely bound and any graphics, images etc. should be prepared using suitable drawing packages. Part of the assessment will be based on the presentation of the report.

Marking scheme:
Critical discussion of literature (40%)

Excellent answers:

-Follows the guidelines suggested above and addresses the following:
-How is the essay topic discussed in the literature - what issues are identified as related to your chosen topic, what theoretical concepts express relevant issues?
-What theories or models have been used?
-Is the relevant literature normative, explanatory, critical, etc?
-What knowledge has been produced, and what controversies (arguments and counter arguments) have been raised?
-What is the current state of knowledge and debate? ? i.e. what are the prevailing lessons, theoretical views and professional practices, and what are the most interesting unun-resolved questions?

Poor Answers:

-Relies on a superficial repeat of textbooks; no significant use of literature; no discussion of theory; narrow focus on one perspective, one theory or model; omission of major streams of relevant knowledge.
Understanding of topic (30%)

Excellent answers:

-Demonstrates understanding of the concepts and theoretical perspectives through which the essay topic is discussed in the literature; awareness and clear exposition of relevant issues; insightful and well-informed arguments; good awareness of nuances and complexities.

Poor answers:

-Establish a few relevant points but are superficial and confused; much irrelevant material; very little or no understanding of the issues raised by the topic or topic misunderstood; content largely irrelevant; no discussion of theory; essay almost wholly descriptive; no grasp of analysis with many errors and/or omissions

Structure and presentation of arguments (30%)

Excellent answers:

Essay is clearly structured and arguments are logically developed; sensible weighting of parts; meaningful use of diagrams and clarification examples.
Use endnotes for references.
Clear conclusions that flow from the review, suggest areas for further development, reflection on essential insights gained from the study as well as limitations of the essay.

Poor answers:

Arguments often confused and undeveloped; no logical structure; poor organisation of material; many meaningless diagrams, irrelevant examples; no conclusions, or conclusions containing irrelevant and wrong points. Mistakes in content and format of references. Language problems.

Writing academic pieces:

A piece of prose with:
- an argument
- a beginning ? in the literature
- a middle ? where you present your argument
- an end ? where you establish a contribution
- proper references

An Academic Piece:
- Addresses a particular research question
- Written in prose with supporting diagrams and figures
- Gains its credibility in terms of its relationship to a wider academic literature
- Referencing the relevant literature
- Analysing the topic critically
- Supporting Your Position

It is important to tell a "story" in your essay:

- Convey your understanding of the knowledge and state of debate about a topic
- Make a point
- Assess the literature
- Reach a defendable conclusion

Make reasonable assumptions about what the reader already knows
- MSc makes more assumptions

Having a well defined topic helps you decide whether to include or exclude something
- Leaving things out is often the most painful/creative aspect
- Demonstrate your understand by not describing everything you?ve read

A Useful Tip:

You should be able to summarise your "story" by completing the phrase: "In this essay, I will show that I have understood that the main issue in this are is that?."

How to find a good topic to review, with a critical literature

A good research question has an answer that is not obvious
- It should be possible to argue convincingly for a point and its opposite and not
sit on the fence
- The only way to determine which is the case will be through the presentation of
supporting evidence

Moving from a topic to a question

- Don?t just present the issues affecting the topic
- Present an argument for which issues
- are most important
- are most likely to apply in practice
- offer most opportunity for contribution

Use evidence to support your argument

Draw on relevant literature

Why does your evidence support your argument?
- could it be used to support the opposite opinion?
- how do you know that your evidence is of high quality?

Your Discussion / Conclusion

- not a summary
- your distinctive method clearly stated
- an answer to the question you posed at the beginning
- limitations of your work
- implications for theory and/or practice
- suggestions for further research

Using Theoretical concepts / arguments

Two kinds of theoretical arguments:
"Big" Theories

An encompassing framework to work within
- Seek to explain a range of related phenomena
- Introduce concepts and linkages between them

An example: Transaction Cost Economics
- Concepts of costs, transactions
- Linkages in terms of forms of organisation (teams, markets, systems)

"Little Theories"

A conceptual lense to view the situation
- Introduce refined concepts which have been discussed in the literature
- Don?t (necessarily) introduce linkages between concepts

An example: Zuboff?s concept of "informating"
- A particular idea (that technology is used to support the informational aspects of work)
- Discussed and criticised in the literature

What is meant by proper referencing?

- Marking the main text with a reference to where ideas were taken from
- Providing a complete list of sources at the end of the paper

This is the style of referencing I prefer to use in this paper:

Ex. At a closer look, this picture of organizational decision making, which seems to rule out improvisation completely, is due to a bundle of assumptions embedded in a particular perspective of analyzing and designing organizations, the information-processing perspective (Galbraith, 1977). The adoption of other perspectives (eg. The one which looks at organizations as interpretative systems ? see Daft & Weick, 1984), coupled with the study of the organizing processes which take place daily in any work organization, would delineate a quite different picture, where procedures and plans are abstract and distant constructs, while improvisation is real and delivers (Crossan, Lane, Klus & White, 1996).


Automatically formats in text citations and provides a full list of references at the end of the document

What is needed for the references at the end of the document?

For Books
Author?s surname
Author?s initials
Place Of Publication
Year Of Publication

For Journal Articles (Preferred)
Author?s surname
Author?s initials
Title Of Article
Title Of Journal
Volume And Issue Number

What sort of references should I be using?

- Provide good introduction to topics
- Provide detailed accounts of case studies
- Develop sophisticated theories and arguments

Journal Articles (Preferred)
- More likely to be up-to-date
- Can be more focussed
- More of them and easier to access (e-journals)
- Varying quality and consistency

Here is one site that could be useful for Journals and there are many others:

How many references should I have?

- Enough to support your argument
- Judge by journal articles (15+)
- Quality and Depth of Reading counts
Excerpt From Essay:
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