Total Pages: 20 Words: 8434 References: 9 Citation Style: Turabian Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I need an 20 page research paper, 12 font, Times New Romans, Standard Academic Form (Kate Turabian , a manual of style). Paper title : Jarena Lee during the 18th and 19th Century Transformation. The paaper must utilize solid historial method (emphasizing primary sources and context). the paper will be gradedfor 1) development 2) content 3) analysis 4) effectivenss of summary and conclusion and 5) academic form. If not written using the turabian style, the grade will be reduced by one (1) letter grade.
I have already completed three pages of this paper and would like to be able to email them to you for changes toward incorporation into this total paper of 20 pages. I amhave abibliography of books that I have either read or reviewed portions of for completion of this paper. The bibliography included the following:
Albanese, Catherine L., Stein, Stephen (ed.), Sisters of the Spirit; Three Black Women?s Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Bloomingdale and Indianapolis, Indiana University Press, 1986.
Brekus, Catherine. Female Preaching in the Early Nineteenth - Century America. The Center for Christian Ethics at Baylor University (2009): pp. 20-29.
Ditmire, Susan."Cape May County." usgennet. http//www.usgennet.org/usa/nj capemay/Jarena
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Spiritual Narratives, The Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Women Writers. (Lee, Jarena, Religious Experience and Journal of Mrs. Jarena Lee, Giving an Account of her Call to Preach the Gospel). New York and Oxford, et al, Oxford University Press, 1988. pp. 3-97
Lee, Jarena. Religious Experience and Journal of Jarena Lee, Giving an Account of her Call to Preach the Gospel. Philadelphia, Kessinger Legacy, 1849.
McMickle, Marvin A. An Encyclopedia of African American Heritage. Valley forge, Pa., Judson Press, 2002. pp. 70-71.
Raboteau, Albert J., Canaan Land; A Religious History of African Americans. New York, Oxford University Press, 2001.pp.37-39, 128-129. pp. 18-35, 36-55.
Sernett, Milton C., African American Religious History A Documentary Witness, 2nd Edition. Durham and London, Duke University Press, 1999. pp. 13-32, 164-184.
Tyson, John R. Invitation To Christian Spirituality-An Ecumenical Spirituality. New York and Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1999. pp 342-50.
I have also attached the first three pages to be re-written, changed, done away with, etc????
As the state of religion entered the 18th Century, there appears a revival, the growth was overwhelming. More people were attending church than had been realized in centuries before. Churches from all denominations were popping up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. This religious growth was also occurring in England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as ?The Great Awakening.? Evangelism was front and center; preaching of the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected-both grand and small/by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word.
The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.
It was during the 18th century (1787) that the Constitution of the US was written. Thomas Jefferson and John Adams were both on the committee. They were both in agreement that religion was a freedom and religious beliefs should not be dictated to anyone. Many people that had migrated from England and other countries enjoyed this new found religious freedom. They were no longer told (forced) into participating and following the dictate of any particular religion, e.g., Catholicism.
It is also in the 18th Century that we find the family of the Wesley?s, a mother of fortitude and conviction, who through her efforts assured the success of her children. Two of her sons, John and Charles Wesley became ministers and were prominent in the Methodist Revival. The brothers traveled from city to city preaching 3 to 4 times a day promoting Christian consciousness and Methodism.
It is interesting to note that during the time of this ?Second Great Awakening? (beginning of the19th Century) that Thomas Jefferson (President of the US from 1801-1809) did not share the orthodox belief of most of that present day society. He believed rather in Deism which is the belief that God created the world; however he does not become involved with the activities of the world and those therein. He believed that Jesus was a decent and moral character, however not one that performed miracles and not the son of God. His good friend, John Adams? (President from 1797-1801) was reared in the Congregationalist denomination. As an adult he rejected the belief in the Trinity and became a Unitarian. Two presidents, back to back dared to have beliefs strangely different from the Christian community of that era.
As we moved further into the 19th (1863) century we find President Abraham Lincoln and the writing of the Emancipation Proclamation. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves are, and henceforward shall be free." During this time church attendance once again is on the rise.
Synonymous with the Second Great Awakening brought Camp meetings lead by Francis Asbury (1745-1816), a Circuit Riding Methodist Bishop. During these meetings there was what was referred to ?falling exercises.? Gospel music was full of emotionalism and excessive behavior. Many lay persons were involved and women were even participants in bringing the word. Revivalism was on the move, law books had scriptural responses and Social Reform as it pertained to religion was on the move.
Here we see the likes of Charles Finney (1792-1875), a school teacher turned Lawyer turned Preacher. ?Quotations from Finney?s law books pointed him to the Bible; he soon purchased a copy of the holy book and became involved in a local church. In 1821, Finney experienced a dramatic conversion, with his conversion came a profound sense of a call to preach the gospel.? A staunch believer in revivalism he traveled through many states preaching the word of God. His goal was for men to bear fruit demonstrating their beliefs through working with the poor, living a simplistic life, speaking against slavery of other human beings and surprisingly enough, women?s rights.
Although extremely limited, it was with the Emancipation Proclamation the beginning of where we find ourselves (even today) regarding race relations. Obviously we have come to realize how deeply embedded this hatred was for the African American. Many gains have been made, but in many situations we continue to struggle. Why did Lincoln do this, what motivated him? Why was he not afraid? Was it as the movie portrayed? We know that Lincoln grew up in a very religious household, his parents were staunch Baptists; however he never joined a church himself. He did periodically attend a protestant church with his wife and children and there were snatches of scripture found in his speeches. It appears that he was just a good and faithful man; one with the wits to out think and out maneuver a congress toward passing the 13th amendment which reads ?Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.?
In our studies in this class, History of Christianity during this time period has had no mention of African Americans, not even of slavery. The African and African American presence is totally obliterated. I found this to be unthinkable, unconscionable and unacceptable. It is true that the African American was thought of as less than human. To add to the pain of this, the only women mentioned were those that were married to prominent men. Let it suffice to say that research is in order.
As I begin to focus on the plight of Jarena Lee, an African American who although born during slavery, was born to free parents. Lest we forget it was still the time of the slave, colored, Negro, Black, Afro-American, African, and African-American. In spite of enslavement, we are able to find a rich Christian heritage and legacy. It is in the African History of African Americans (1766) that we find the first talk of religion within the African community. ?The natives believed that there is one creator of all things and that he lives in the sun, is girded around with a belt, that he may never eat or drink; but according to some he smokes a pipe. They believe he governs events, especially our deaths or captivity.?
i Tyson, John R., Invitation to Christian Spirituality-An Ecumenical Theology. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford. 1999. Chapter 4, Modern Spirituality, page 342
ii Sernett, Milton C., African American Religious History, a Documentary Witness. Second Edition. Duke University Press, Durham and London, 1999. Page 13
I have used this source once before, I was satisfied with writer writergrrl101. Do not hold the paper up if the writer is unavailable. I had difficulty accessing my paper last time and do not recall where I finally found it; I am not clear on what you mean by bulk mail. Please email me at email@example.com to let me know if you have received this email and if your are able to meet the specifications described. Thank you
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Essay Instructions: The paper must answer the following question. Each answer must be 250 words each. So one topic per page.
Please use materials from the following authors:
McBrien, "The Christian Understanding of God", "What is the Kingdom of God","Faith Theology and Belief"(Catholic Update) Guinan,"Christian Spirituality"
Langenbrunner,"How to Understand the Bible"
John R.Sachs,"The Christian Vision for Humanity"
Brokenkotter,"The Creed:Faith Essentials for Catholics," Catholic Update
Hampl,"Listening for God"
McBride,"Ten Peak Moments of Church History"Catholic Update...and any other sources you may deem appropriate.
1. Explain what is an exegesis and demonstrate what is needed in order to do a proper exegesis of a passage of scripture. In doing so name at least three different methods of scriptual critisicm and explain how they assist in the exegetical task.
2. Explain Jesus' understanding of the kingdom of god and how it related to his preaching and what was the basic message proclaimed. How does the christian church today relate to th Kingdom of God? Explain their similarities and differences.
3. Delineate a proper theology of the resurrection of the body in relationship to jesus' death and resurrection and how that relates to the contemporary church and its mission today.
4. Explain how a theology of God emerged in the early church primarily as a christological reflection. Similarly explain how christological reflection in the early church generates a "doctrine" of God.
5. Explain the difference between the Jesus of History and the Jesus of faith. Explain how a theology of the resurrection relates to these concepts.
6. Explain what is creed and the creeds originated in the church and how they were related to scripture. Define the terms Dogma and Doctrine, giving an example of each and then show how these terms relate to the creeds.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Search for an article related to
the use of Christianity in secular media, music or advertising. Write a
one-page review of the article, with a summary and analysis. If we could get this done in 12hrs I would greatly appreciate it!!
Here is the article provided below...
Source:Commonweal, 2/27/2004, Vol. 131 Issue 4, p21-22, 2p, 2 Black and White Photographs.
Subject Terms:COCKBURN, Bruce
YOU'VE Never Seen Everything (Music)
Abstract:Features Bruce Cockburn, a Canadian singer-songwriter. Music produced by Cockburn for three decades; Influence of Christianity on his music; Information on his album "You've Never Seen Everything," a combination of Christian spirituality and political critique..
Full Text Word Count:1307.
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Section: MUSIC Three decades of Bruce Cockburn's music
Somewhere between pure pop music--music that succeeds or fails on the basis of its popularity--and genre music lies a kind of music that critic Robert Christgau defined many years ago as semipopular: music with a smaller, more sustainable audience than pop, though its strategems and aesthetics are essentially the same. An analogy would be the movie that lies somewhere between a blockbuster and the art house; the little movie that probably won't but may become the next My Big Fat Greek Wedding.
Canadian singer-songwriter Bruce Cockburn has been producing such music for more than thirty years. His new CD, You've Never Seen Everything, arrives after last year's career-spanning singles compilation Anything, Anytime, Anywhere, and in the middle of a reissue series on Rounder Records that stretches all the way back to 1971. A semipopular musical creative output over that many years is unusual, but not unique. What is unique is the way he's done it: by combining Christian spirituality with a global political critique. Why that's so unusual requires a quick and admittedly simplified tour of the past fifty years.
Around 1955, an older urban-based pop gave way to a new music, rock 'n' roll, that borrowed much of its explosive energy from Southern religion. This wasn't the first time that the North looked south for music (don't forget Stephen Foster and Al Jolson), but it was the first time so much of the borrowing was from religion. If the secular fervor of rock 'n' roll was inclusive--you didn't have to be a Baptist to attend this revival meeting--it still contained a problem. The music inherited a cultural split between secular and sacred.
Little Richard, Sam Cooke, Al Green--the number of African-American singers who came out of the church is beyond measure. Yet even those who broke from the sacred, became secular, and then went back again could never be both. This Pentecostal schizophrenia was shared with white singers. Rocker Jerry Lee Lewis and TV preacher Jimmy Swaggart are cousins, after all, and although their singing and piano playing are remarkably similar, their careers are unbreachable halves of a sacred/secular divide. Only cultural titans like Elvis Presley and Aretha Franklin were able to cross back and forth at will or even straddle both sides.
In the 1960s, rock 'n' roll collided with the urban folk-music tradition, whose brain may have been in Greenwich Village, but whose heart was also in the South. Again, much of the secular energy derived from Southern religion, at times by simply substituting the word "freedom" for "Jesus" in the lyrics. The archetype here, of course, is Bob Dylan who, famously and conveniently, has divided his career into distinct, and frequently antagonistic phases: folk-music-protest Bob, electric-rock 'n' roll Bob, born-again-Christian Bob, rejuvenated cosmic-yet-secular Bob. A lot of this is just Dylan, but it illuminates dilemmas that were revealed in the music as the decades went by.
Some problems derive from the politics of the folk-music scene: How do you maintain the optimism and anger of the music over decades without running into the spiritual issues of hope and despair? You don't. Dylan perceived the limitations in his earlier career but in the process ran into the secular/sacred split. When he got religion, it was framed as a rejection of the rest of his career, and he had to backpedal or move on (depending on how you look at it), before he had a chance to speak to his wider audience again.
Bruce Cockburn began as a country-based folksinger with the somewhat fuzzy cosmic concerns of that era's counterculture. By the middle of the 1970s, though, he had moved to Toronto, converted to Christianity, and engaged for the long haul with the city's refugee, political, and musical communities. So why did his conversion lead to connecting with rather than breaking from the secular world?
Some of it is the music: although as a kid he was inspired by Elvis, Cockburn's musical influences are more thoughtful than apocalyptic. His virtuoso guitar playing is rooted in the techniques of the acoustic blues masters rediscovered and idolized during the sixties' folk boom. He studied at the Harvard of jazz, Berklee School of Music in Boston, before dropping out and returning to Canada to begin his career. An accessible rock beat anchors most of Cockburn's songs, but over the years his music has sustained an atypical curiosity and variety. On the new CD, he collaborates with an experimental New York City jazz group, Dapp Theory, which includes a rapper in its lineup.
Some of it is Cockburn's persona, to use an over-used rock-critic term. He's got an unpretentious everyman kind of voice that works well over the musical virtuosity, and helps him navigate between the twin dangers of pomposity and crabbiness. His lyrics are frequently angry--"there's a parasite feeding on / everybody's bag of rage" who appears to be President George W. Bush--but he never comes across as a scold. He paints himself as a lonely world traveler, spiritual seeker, and bemused homebody. On You've Never Seen Everything, "Trickle Down," a tirade against institutionalized greed, is followed by "Everywhere Dance," where he sings "And we cry out for grace to lay truth bare / The dance is the truth...and it's everywhere."
Which leads us to another possible reason for Cockburn's productive longevity: his particular take on religion. Christians can find familiar terrain in his lyrics, usually in imagery that's not exclusively religious. Sunlight, for instance, often stands in for divine grace or revelation. That may sound trite, but as Cockburn has worked it out over the years, it has allowed him to pull off something profound. He has been able to write about the issues of a complex world in the format of the popular song without becoming bitter or burned out.
The tour de force of his latest CD is a "song" (much of it is recitation) about Cockburn's visit to the killing fields of Cambodia. Personal observations from Phnom Penh are mixed with domestic details from back home in Canada, all tied together by a chorus that begins "Ibis is too big for anger / It's too big for blame." Cockburn's politics are obviously on the left; his big hit, "If I Had a Rocket Launcher" (the video was on MTV), describes his reaction to a helicopter attack on refugees by the Guatemalan military. Pol Pot's genocide is an even less likely subject for a song. Like the Gulag, it's often skipped over on the left-wing tour of history's atrocities.
No one produces thirty-plus years of interesting music without a lot of skill and intelligence, but maybe geography helps too. Maybe the history of the United States can be described as a series of clashes and accommodations between North and South and African and European, and rock 'n' roll can be described as one of the happier results of that dynamic, and as, in some ways, a Northern acceptance of the secularized religion of the South. If so, then Canada can be described as a series of clashes and accommodations between Anglo Protestant Ontario and French Catholic Quebec, and when rock 'n' roll crossed the border to the north, maybe it was able to absorb a different religious dynamic, and Cockburn's career is the proof.
As I write, Cockburn is returning from a visit to Iraq with a delegation headed by Bishop Thomas Gumbleton of Detroit. He's not the type of writer to whip out a new song at a moment's notice, but it's hard to imagine anyone else who's been on MTV worth waiting for.
Still crazy after all these years.
PHOTO (BLACK & WHITE)
By Tom Smucker
Tom Smucker is a freelance writer in New York. He writes on music for the Village Voice
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Essay Instructions: My assignment is to write a 2-3 page essay that answers two basic questions. first based on the evidence in the life, why do you think sculpicius wrote this account of St martin's life? Second, and this is the most important part, how would you characterize St. Martin's spirituality? You may need to begin asking, "what is christian spirituality"?.
It has to be double spaced and in a 12 point roman font with 1 inch margins. Pages must be numbered in the upper right hand corner. name, date, and course info is on the upper left hand of the first page. all pages are stapled in the upper left corner.
must have a thesis statement.
There are faxes for this order.
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