Chinese Philosophy Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Chinese Philosophy College Essay Examples

Title: Human Nature

  • Total Pages: 9
  • Words: 3211
  • Bibliography:5
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Human Nature

Thesis: Although it is imperfect, human nature is an essential part of man. Throughout time many philosophers and religious scholars have debated its value to individuals and its impact on society. Is human nature fundamentally good? Is human nature innate or learned? This essay will examine these questions as they relate to Confucianism, Xunzi?s philosophy, Mencius? philosophy, and Christian beliefs. A brief summary for each perspective?s opinion on human nature will be provided. In addition to these summaries, I will compare and contrast these points of view. Finally, I will evaluate which philosophy of human nature I believe to have the most merit omitting Christianity. This omission is necessary due to the personal bias it poses.



Bibliography:
Ames, Roger T., and Henry Rosemont, Jr., trans. The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical Translation. A New Translation Based on the Dingzhou Fragments and Other Recent Archaeological Finds. Classics of Ancient China. New York: Ballantine, 1998.

Cua, Antonio S. Human Nature, Ritual, and History: Studies in Xunzi and Chinese Philosophy. Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy 43. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2005.

Holy Bible. Web. .

Ivanhoe, Philip J., and Bryan W. Van Norden. Mozi, in Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy, ed. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2001, 55-107.

Machle, Edward J. Nature and Heaven in the Xunzi: A Study of the Tian lun. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Van Norden, Bryan. The Essential Mengzi: Selected Passages with Traditional Commentary. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2009.

NOTE:

Evidence:

Support your argument with evidence (especially textual evidence from primary sources).
Be sure that your evidence is reliable and relevant to your thesis (and vice versa).
Do not just cite your evidence and expect it to speak for itself. All evidence should be analyzed.

Sources:

Papers are expected to be the result of substantial independent research, involving both primary and secondary sources.

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Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

Works Cited

Ames, Roger T., and Henry Rosemont, Jr., trans. The Analects of Confucius: A Philosophical

Translation. A New Translation Based on the Dingzhou Fragments and Other Recent Archaeological Finds. Classics of Ancient China. New York: Ballantine, 1998. Print.

Bevir, Mark. Encyclopedia of Political Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010. Print.

Cua, Antonio S. "Human Nature, Ritual, and History: Studies in Xunzi and Chinese Philosophy."

Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy. 43. Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 2005. Print.

Dunn, J. & Rogerson, J. Eerdman's Commentary on the Bible. Cambridge, U.K: Eerdmans

Publishing. 2003. Print.

Habel, N. The Book of Job. Philadelphia, PA: Westminster. 1985. Print.

Hartley, J.E.. The Book of Job. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing. 1988. Print.

Hooke, S.H. The Bible in Basic English. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1982. Print.

Hubbard, R. The go'el in ancient Israel: theological reflections on an Israelite institution.

Bulletin for Biblical Research. 1991. 3-19. Print.

Ivanhoe, Philip J., and Bryan W. Van Norden. Mozi, in Readings in Classical Chinese

Philosophy, ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 2001, 55-107. Print.

Machle, Edward J. Nature and Heaven in the Xunzi: A Study of the Tian lun. SUNY Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. Print.

Runes, Dagobert D. Dictionary of Philosophy. Philosophical Library, 1983. Print.

Van Norden, Bryan. The Essential Mengzi: Selected Passages with Traditional Commentary.

Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2009. Print.

Waley, Arthur. The Analects of Confucius. CreateSpace Independent, 2013. eBook.

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Title: Individual Management Theory Consultant Presentation Select organization familiar interested The organization a civic religious business nonprofit organization

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 932
  • Sources:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I would like to use the same Writer as in my previous orders ID: A2086426, A2087288, and A2087929
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Individual
Management Theory Consultant Presentation Select an organization with which you are familiar or one in which you are interested. The organization can be a civic, religious, business, or nonprofit organization.

Imagine you are an expert, hired by this organization to evaluate their management practice, and provide recommendations for how it may adopt a specific management philosophy.

Use the management philosophy topic discussed in your papers from Weeks Three through Five.

Balance the organization?s management needs with the reality of bottom-line effectiveness.

Prepare your deliverable as a presentation, use a Microsoft? PowerPoint? presentation Six Slides Including References, include detailed speaker notes.

Some useful References
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Kerr, S. (2002). The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Beamish, P.W., Morrison, A., Inkpen, A., & Rosenzweig, P. M. (2003). International management: Text and cases (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

All electronic materials are available on the student website.

Supplemental Resource

Hoopes, J. (2003). False prophets. The gurus who created modern management and why their ideas are bad

Previous Topic for your reference Week Five: Foundational Philosophies of Management Paper

Foundational Philosophies of Management Paper Identify a foundational management philosopher using the articles for your Journal Article Analysis assignment as a guide.

Locate at least one document, article, or work from the foundational philosopher.

Write a 550 -word essay detailing the differences you perceive between the management philosophy espoused by the foundational philosopher and the version of the philosophy described by at least 2 authors from your articles.

Include a flowchart and a 350-word narrative of the research trail or path that led you to the foundational management philosopher, including the following:

? The list of references you followed to get to the philosopher.
? The author, source, and year of publication for each item.
? Recount how you found the articles in the Journal Article Analysis assignment.
? Recount how these led you to your philosopher.
? Note what other sources your articles led you to.
? Describe how the articles you found are useful to you.
? How did you assess each article?s credibility, reliability, and validity?

Format your essay consistent with APA guidelines.

The area of management philosophy regarding construction of thought and understanding that assists with the adaption of knowledge in society is known as constructivism (Leonard, 2002). . Constructivism is a theory of knowledge that derives from philosophy and psychology. Many philosophers and educators have embraced the learning theory of constructivism. Jean Piaget was one of the initial philosophers who provided clarity and a precise breakdown of what constructivism entails. Jean Piaget is known to be the first to compose a logical study of cognitive development. Jean Piaget contributions include the theory of cognitive child development, a detailed observational analysis of cognition in a child and a progression of basic effective tests to show different cognitive abilities (Leonard, 2002).
Constructivism is a philosophy by Jean Piaget where the ideas and level of cognition from children undergo analysis in an attempt to provide a way of higher learning (Mvududu & Thiel-Burgess, 2012). Piaget?s philosophy on constructivism holds much controversy because there isn?t one way to define what constructivism is and his primary belief stems from a concept that focuses on discovery (Mvududu & Thiel-Burgess, 2012). Piaget influences several individuals, such as ?Charles Darwin (1809-1882)? (Wozniak, 2009, p. 93), in psychology. The developments of Piaget?s philosophies continue to evolve. According to Wozniak (2009), Piaget?s philosophy of constructivism encourages discovery and evolution. There is also a close relation between how a child processes information in the attempt to reproduce the information or action. As an example when a child watches a parent, the parent makes a motion to open a jar, and the child attempts to reproduce that behavior (Wozniak, 2009). The child is attempting to reproduce the action by way of watching the parent, and in this way begins the formulation of development toward an understanding of the requirements for that specific task and learning an action (Wozniak, 2009; Ruth-Sahd, 2011).

According to Leonard (2002), Jean Piaget developed two principles that guide intellectual growth and biological development which assist individuals with adapting to physical and mental stimuli.
Jean Piaget?s first stage, sensorimotor, begins at birth and lasts until 18 months-2 years of age and entails the use of motor activity without the use of symbols (Leonard, 2002). The knowledge is limited in this stage because it is based on physical interactions and experiences. Jean Piaget?s second stage, preoperational, usually occurs during the period between a toddler (18-24months) and early childhood (3 -7 years) during which children begin to use language with their memory and imagination developing (Leonard, 2002). Jean Piaget?s third stage, concrete operational, typically develops between the ages of 7-11 years during which intellectual development in this stage is demonstrated through the use of logical and systematic manipulation of symbols, which are related to concrete objects (Leonard, 2002). The thought process in this stage becomes less self-centered with increased awareness of external events, and involves concrete references. Jean Piaget?s fourth stage, derives from the period of adolescence through adulthood is known as the formal operational stage during which adolescents, adults use symbols related to abstract concepts; adolescents think about multiple variables in methodological ways, formulate hypotheses, and think about abstract relationships combined with concepts (Leonard, 2002). Piaget?s understandings of the thought processes in children are still in use (Wavering, 2011). His constructivist philosophy uses an understanding of how logic and understanding arises as well as how the evolution on thought and logic persist (Wavering, 2011). In Piaget?s understanding, children use a rationale with many subjects they encounter, such as mathematics, where an element is necessary to examine to formulate an answer and understanding (Wavering, 2011).
An important implication of Piaget's theory is adaptation of instruction to the learner's developmental level. The two articles that were chosen to provide a comparison between constructivism supported by Jean Piaget are parallel in the theory of learning. In the first article, Consciousness, social heredity, and development: The evolutionary thought of James Mark Baldwin, the author focused on the theory of Baldwin also known as the Baldwin effect which examines the evolutionary of thinking Wozniak?s (2009). The intellectual background of James Baldwin?s thinking development regarding the emergence of intellectual conception involves individual learning adaption and social heredity concept if adaptions are acquired within the life of an individual, a direct influence on progression by natural selection will happen Wozniak?s (2009). The Baldwin effect focuses on systems of actions and meanings regarding beliefs, standards, and habits of a new generation inherited from those individuals prior which are gradually accepted (Wozniak?s (2009). The emergence of intellectual conception depends upon the association between reason, reality, and the growth of logic Wozniak?s (2009) .
Baldwin and Piaget both were motivated by the theory of evolution. Mark Baldwin believed the that one?s cognitive and senses grow through he imitation of others through observation while Jean Piaget incorporated four stages of growth. Both the cognitive development theory by jean Piaget and evolutionary theory by Mark Baldwin have a point of reference regarding the influence of perceptive concepts which affects one?s reaction and performance of learning throughout one?s life span.
The second article involved an experimental learning theme promoted in Ruth-Sahd?s (2011) article. The article entailed a social collectivism based on the concepts of observations and personal experiences from a nursing clinical setting. This new approach to learning outside of the traditional classroom is synchronized with the foundational management philosophy of constructivism advocated by Piaget. After several years of working with patients, novice nurses will use their theoretical skills to develop more advanced knowledge but nothing prepares them better at the earliest stage of cognitive and social enrichment than early exposure and collaboration.
Piaget?s foundational management philosophy of constructivism argued that knowledge formation is a process that follows some progressive stages in relation to time, experiences, and observations (Powell & Kalina, 2009). The experimental and cooperative learning philosophy identified in Ruth-Sahd?s (2011) article differs from Piaget?s constructivist view of cognitive and social development in the sense that a nursing student does not need to master the nursing theoretical concepts before moving to practical experimentations in the clinical setting. According to Ruth-Sahd?s (2011), ?cooperative learning in the clinical setting with the same level student in an entry level baccalaureate nursing course? enhances long-tern learning (p. 2446). The objective of the collaborative learning philosophy is to promote diversity in the way students share both explicit and implicit knowledge in the workplace. Constructivists argued that learners cannot establish higher level relationship with ?what they see unless they bring certain level of knowledge to it? (Kamii &Ewing, 1996, p. 261). In contrast, the article noted that ?cooperative learning methodology results in greater retention of material and increased transfer of learning? (Ruth-Sahd, 2011, p. 2445). The experimental cooperative learning philosophy supports Piaget?s constructivist views that learning is based on the personal experiences and observations of activities in daily life.
Piaget?s definition of constructivism develops the natural thought and logical processes that children may perceive. In the evolution of comprehension and logic, cognition becomes an important factor that eventually becomes even further extensive than Piaget?s initial perceptions. Piaget?s constructivism advances into other philosophical theories as the ideas are innovative and his concepts can change with the times.





















Narrative
The experimental learning theme promoted in Ruth-Sahd?s (2011) article was about social collectivism based on the concepts of observations and personal experiences from a nursing clinical setting. This new approach to learning outside the traditional classroom matches with the foundational management philosophy of constructivism advocated by Piaget. After several years of working with patients, novice nurses will use their theoretical skills to develop more advanced knowledge, but nothing prepares them better at the earliest stage of cognitive and social enrichment than early exposure and collaboration.
Dimensions of learning that individuals incorporate into concepts derives from thought and understanding. The two articles in the Journal Article Analysis chosen pertained to conceptions of learning and evolving theories of learning which led to the foundational management philosophy of constructivism and other facets of constructivism. Constructivism is an indefinite concept but is the best method for teaching and comprehension (Powell & Kalina, 2009).
Each reference was assessed for quality and credibility as evidence of considering the origins of the research, primary as opposed to secondary research and scholarly as opposed to popular sources. The article passed the quality and credibility test based on the fact that it was the original work of the author and came from the Journal of Advanced Nursing which remains a reputable and reliable academic source. The literature is judged valid because the author followed strict scientific research methodology the findings are supported by other studies. Each of these articles are also useful to this topic as the content contains information specific to constructivism, Piaget?s ideas behind personal constructivism, how it is useful to understanding the comprehension patterns of children, and the behaviors patterns when the children attempt to reproduce logical instances.
Flowchart

CONSTRUCTIVISM

PHILOSOPHY OF LEARNING PHILOSOPHY OF TEACHING


COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ? JEAN PIAGET


Sensorimotor
(birth-2 years) Preoperational
(2 - 7 years) Concrete Operational (7 - 11 years) Formal Operational (adolescence - adulthood)




COOPERATIVE LEARNING CONSCIOUSNESS, EVOLUTION




References

Kamii, C., Ewing, J. K. (1996). Basing teaching on Piaget's constructivism. Childhood
Education, 72(5), 260-264.
Leonard, D. (2002). Learning Theories: A to Z. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing Group
Mvududu, N., & Thiel-Burgess, J. (Sept 2012). Constructivism in practice: the case for English Language Learners. International Journal of Education, 4(3), 108(11). doi: 10.5296/ije.v4i3.2223
Powell, K. C. & Kalina, C. J. (2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: Developing tools for
an effective classroom. Education, 130(2), 241-250.
Ruth-Sahd, L. A. (2011). Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(11), 2445?2454. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05690.x
Wavering, M. (2011). Piaget's Logic of Meanings: Still Relevant Today. School Science & Mathematics, 111(5), 249-252. doi:10.1111/j.1949-8594.2011.00083.x
Wozniak, R. H. (2009). Consciousness, social heredity, and development: The
evolutionary thought of James Mark Baldwin. American Psychologist, 64(2), 93-101. doi:10.1037/a0013850


Previous Topic for your reference Week Four: Journal Article Analysis

Individual
Journal Article Analysis Submit a 1,400 -word analysis of the articles from the Management Philosophy Table assignment. If you include different articles or make changes to your table, create and submit a new table.

Include the following:

? Briefly summarize each article?s contribution to your topic. Even though the articles belong to the same theory, the authors may have different opinions.

o Include the main theorist on whom the authors based their writings and in what management school of thought the research exists.

o What influences of the main theorist are found in the articles?

? Using your table as a guide, compare and contrast the articles, highlighting similarities and differences.

? Synthesize the articles into a single observation regarding your topic.

? If your table has changed, include a revised table.

Format your analysis consistent with APA guidelines.

References
Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom-responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263-283.
He, N. (2011). Case study on the influence of Chinese traditional philosophy to the enterprise management. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3), 73.
Kralev, T. (2011). Management by objectives: Management philosophy for prosperous tourism organizations. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 83-87.
Wang, Y. (2011). Mission-driven organizations in japan: Management philosophy and individual outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 111-126.

Extra References
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Kerr, S. (2002). The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Beamish, P.W., Morrison, A., Inkpen, A., & Rosenzweig, P. M. (2003). International management: Text and cases (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Hoopes, J. (2003). False prophets. The gurus who created modern management and why their ideas are bad for business. Cambridge, MA. Perseus.

Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.


Introduction
Management?s principal characteristic is the directing and leading towards the achievement of predetermined objectives. An organization runs and works based on defined specific objectives, and the role of management to direct efforts and resources towards the achievement of these objectives. Over the decades, different management approaches and strategies formulation entail in an attempt to find the most suitable approach that can effectively and sustainably direct towards achievement of organizational strategies. This report makes a summary of management philosophies and approaches proposed by different scholars. The work identifies the different opinions on management and the theories proposed on management thought.
Of interest is the article by Kralev (2011) that identifies the importance of the Management by Objectives approach. The scholar proposes this management thought for it defines and uses organizational objectives in directing processes and functions in an organization. Kralev (2011) identifies that in today?s business world a manager should lead by emphasizing on organizational objectives, which are directed towards the broad environment, achieving profits, and define paths of operations. Kralev (2011) that the core concept of MBO requires the management processes of planning, organizing, leading, staffing, and controlling, be directed to the achievement of key organizational objectives.
Drucker (1955) derives management by objectives, which is described by Kralev (2011), from MBO theory. Drucker (1955) conceptualized management by objectives as a system of management that is founded on goal congruence for the improvement of performance. The Drucker (1955) believes that the organization is more successful if, ?...their efforts ... all pull in the same direction, and their contributions ... fit together to produce a whole, without gaps, without friction, without unnecessary duplication of effort...? (Dinesh & Palmer, 1998). Therefore, Kralev?s (2011) management approach derives its basic principle from the management by objective theory as stipulated by Drucker (1955). In this management philosophy, the manager is required to focus on goal alignment as a means to improve organizational performance by providing the goal and path towards increased profitability.
The focus on organizational objectives is a key theme in Yingyan Wang?s (2011) article that identifies management philosophy and organizations driven by missions. Wang (2011) proposes that mission driven organizations in Japan are founded on management philosophy. However, his management philosophy is based on the pursuit of a mission, emphasizes on ethics, harmony, trust, honesty, environmental protection and social responsibility. These are all geared towards creating an organizational mission and philosophy that affect management and individual adoption of vision. This is a means to increase job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, the role of management is the creation of an ethical philosophy and a mission-driven culture.
Based on a research analysis, Wang (2011) finds that management that has a well-articulated and enacted philosophy can facilitate transformation of commitment towards productive efforts. This is because this philosophy offers direction to individuals, puts in place constraints on behavior, and emphasizes on individual motivation by creating a clear picture of organizational values, norms, and goals. Wang?s (2011) mission-driven management approach borrows heavily from the management by objectives theory. Wang (2011) sought to prove that mission-driven management leads to organizational practice or culture that influences outcomes of individuals towards success.
The third article by He (2011) proposes that traditional strategy plans cannot apply in today?s business environment, which requires flexible and rapid responses to changes. He?s (2011) article uses information from a case study of NTT DoCoMo and Silicon organizations in China following the Confucian principles. The article proposes a management approach that continually changes and adapts to changing situations. He (2011) approach is based on the Chinese traditional philosophy of constructivism perspective. In this perspective, the management must change strategy to cope with uncertainties and complexities. In addition, the management model proposed by He (2011) follows the philosophy that management must design strategic alignment, where individual behavior and organizational strategy are in alignment.
This Chinese management philosophy entails an alignment that leads to harmony in the organization. This alignment entails a fit between people, people and work, business strategy and environment (He, 2011). This management philosophy leads management to create an environment in the organization where the people?s thinking is attuned to achievement of individual and organizational strategies for success. This is because the Confucian philosophy affects the thinking of individuals, as it strives to change behavior. Therefore, following this management philosophy implies that management creates strategies that tune the thinking of employees, with the goal of aligning their behavior to organizational objectives.
The fourth article by Claus Dierksmeier (2011) discusses the relationship between management philosophy and business ethics. The author believes that ethical responsibility among managers must be part of the overall management philosophy in an organization. the manager must have responsible freedom to lead to corporate social responsibility. The author believes management approaches must be based on moral action in economic theories like quantitative reductionism and epistemological materialism. This is to create moral freedom and responsibility among managers and consequently the organization. The article puts an emphasis on managerial direction and responsibility in corporate decision-making. Dierksmeier (2011) management philosophy is based on the philosophies of Adam Smith (1723-1790) on moral philosophy, Theory of Moral Sentiments, and The wealth of Nations. In these theories, a manager?s pursuit of gain can lead to social benefits if, legal structures against exploitation and fraudulent are lay down. This is though the existence of political governance, which regulates individual morality, social morals, and customs. In this manner, management must entail intellectual and practical realization of individual and social responsibility in managerial freedom, to achieve corporate social responsibility. This is though the homo economicus and conditio humana models of economics that will lead to the realization that responsible freedom is part of management.
The four articles are similar in that they all discuss management philosophy approaches. The main difference between the four articles is their approach to management philosophy and their method of research to prove their theory. Wang (2011) uses a quantitative survey approach to prove the influence of management philosophy in Japanese companies, while Dierksmeier (2011) opts for the phenomenological research method to investigate management freedom in classical economics. Wang?s (2011) approach entails the survey of 1019 Japanese employees to assess their experiences with management. Dierksmeier?s (2011) epistemology approach makes an argument against the classical economic philosophy, which severed ethical standards from normative ethical standards. He (2011) uses the case study approach on NTT DoCoMo and Silicon organizations to test his theory, of the success of the Chinese Confucian theory on business. this investigates the degree to which the case studies have successfully integrated Confucian ethics and principles, to show they can be applied to organizations. This is different from the approach used by Kralev (2011), who opts to review literature on management by objectives on tourist-driven organizations.
The management principle promoted by the articles is the management philosophy approach. However, each article has some differential in their approach as compared to others. Wang (2011) focuses on the management philosophies of Japanese companies that emphasize on philosophy, mission statements, and objectives in mission-driven management. The article advocates that mission statements can lead companies to efficiency and productivity. This is almost similar to the management approach promoted by Kralev (2011). Kralev (2011) discusses the interaction between the management by objective approach and matching it to practical demands of business. This analysis finds this management approach similar to the mission-driven approach by Wang (2011). This is because both management approaches advocate for management strategies that focus on planning, organizing, and directing processes, practices, and individuals towards attainment of organizational objectives. At the core of both approaches are goals identified as individual or organizational objectives and mission. Wang (2011) and Kralev (2011) approaches are goal oriented. However, the difference is that Wang?s (2011) approach advocates organizational philosophy as a mediating actor between the needs of the enterprise and individuals. Kralev (2011) approach believes organizational philosophy is concerned with structured philosophy of objectives that are focused, time-defined, realistic, specific, measurable, and are long, middle, or long term.
These management philosophies are different from the management approach proposed by He (2011). He (2011) identifies the Chinese approach based on the Confucian Philosophy, which identifies that the key idea is the achievement of strategic alignment. The philosophy especially identifies the creation of alignment between individual?s behavior and organizational strategy. This is different from other management philosophies for He (2011) proposes that teamwork is essential in creating individual drive in the larger organization, which is part of Confucian values. The article identifies that this management philosophy follows Confucian values, which make the heart of management strategies for Chinese companies in the Silicon Valley. The article finds from the analysis of case studies that the alignment of management strategies with Confucian values has led to the success of organizations proving they are applicable to western organizations. There is no similarity between Kralev (2011), Wang (2011), Dierksmeier (2010) and He (2011) management philosophies. Dierksmeier (2011) believes that management education should focus on ideal moral freedom for managers, not the concept of capitalist freedom proposed by classical economists. In this management philosophy, the manager must adopt moral and ethical standards at the individual and firm level to attain sustainability.
Overall, the articles provide evidence that the success of an organization is pegged on the ability of management to create a philosophy. The responsibility of management in creating organizational philosophy lies in the fact that management has the role of planning, organizing, controlling, and directing. The articles show there is a connection between management philosophy, organizational culture and practice, and performance. The manager sets the goals, objectives, and mission of the organization, which directs and influences business processes and practices. Through personal philosophy and moral and ethical principles, the manager can influence the behavior of employees and cause corporate social responsibility.


References
Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwi
Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom-responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263-283.
Dinesh, D., & Palmer, E. (1998). Management by objectives and the balanced scorecard: Will rome fall again? Management Decision, 36(6), 363-369.
He, N. (2011). Case study on the influence of Chinese traditional philosophy to the enterprise management. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3), 73.
Kralev, T. (2011). Management by objectives: Management philosophy for prosperous tourism organizations. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 83-87.
Wang, Y. (2011). Mission-driven organizations in Japan: Management philosophy and individual outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 111-126.


____________________________________________________________________

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University of Phoenix Material
Management Philosophy Table
Table 1
To what extent do academic philosophies affect actual decision-making of managers?

Authors Article Type and Context Dynamics Differentiation Integration
Purpose
Wang Quantitative survey
The influence of managerial philosophy within Japanese companies Japanese companies have been traditionally viewed as being more influenced by philosophy and mission statements than organizations in other nations Surveying 1019 Japanese employees, evaluating their experiences supports this conventional wisdom Organizational philosophy acts as a mediator between individuals and the needs of the enterprise in Japan Mission statements have the ability to render companies more effective and also potentially more ethical by offering a buffer between employee and organizational needs
Dierksmeier Phenomenology
The extent to which the self-interested model of firm behavior of classical economics really advances firm interests Increasing calls for firms to have ethical and moral standards, such as observing principles of sustainability
The article argues against the classical firm philosophy which is to sever corporate ethical standards from normative ethical standards
A qualitative model for evaluating choices versus a model driven by quantitative analysis is proposed
Management education must be founded on an ideal of moral freedom, not just a conception of capitalist freedom
He Case study of the influence of traditional Chinese philosophy on business ?The key idea of Confucianism is to achieve strategic alignment, for instance, the alignment between organizational strategy and individuals' behavior? (He 2011). The degree to which Confucianism, which is once again popular in China, can be useful in businesses cross-culturally. Case study of successful integration of Confucian ethics and principles at NTT DoCoMo and in Silicon Valley organizations to show how Confucian principles can be useful in a variety of organizational settings Teamwork, a sense of individual ?embeddedness? in a larger whole are all Confucian virtues and have shown themselves useful in China?s new, budding enterprises and also in organizations around the world. Confucian virtues are what make many Silicon Valley organizations so successful.
Kralev Review
Management by Objectives: The advantages of implementing them in an tourist-driven organization Interactions of MBO and practical demands of business Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of MBO: defines what needs to be done, encourages organizational loyalty as success for employees is clearly defined by meeting objectives. Disadvantages include the time and money taken to create objectives. The virtue of MBO is offering a clear, structured philosophy of what type of objectives (long, middle, and short) a firm should set and to make sure that they are ?realistic? and ?time-defined? (Kralev 2011) How MBO as a philosophy can be applied within the context of a specific industry




References
Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom-responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263-283.
He, N. (2011). Case study on the influence of Chinese traditional philosophy to the enterprise management. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3), 73.
Kralev, T. (2011). Management by objectives: Management philosophy for prosperous tourism organizations. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 83-87.
Wang, Y. (2011). Mission-driven organizations in japan: Management philosophy and individual outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 111-126.

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Excerpt From Essay:
Sources:

References

Kamii, C., Ewing, J.K. (1996). Basing teaching on Piaget's constructivism. Childhood Education, 72(5), 260-264.

Leonard, D. (2002). Learning Theories: A to Z. Westport, CT. Greenwood Publishing Group

Powell, K.C. & Kalina, C.J. (2009). Cognitive and social constructivism: Developing tools for an effective classroom. Education, 130(2), 241-250.

Ruth-Sahd, L.A. (2011). Student nurse dyads create a community of learning: proposing a holistic clinical education theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(11), 2445 -- 2454. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05690.x

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Title: New Topic Journal Article Analysis Submit a 1 600 word analysis articles Management Philosophy Table assignment If include articles make table create submit a table

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1685
  • References:6
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
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New Topic: Journal Article Analysis

Submit a 1,600 word analysis of the articles from the Management Philosophy Table assignment. If you include different articles or make changes to your table, create and submit a new table.

Include the following:

? Briefly summarize each article?s contribution to your topic. Even though the articles belong to the same theory, the authors may have different opinions.

o Include the main theorist on whom the authors based their writings and in what management school of thought the research exists.

o What influences of the main theorist are found in the articles?

? Using your table as a guide, compare and contrast the articles, highlighting similarities and differences.

? Synthesize the articles into a single observation regarding your topic.

? If your table has changed, include a revised table.

Format your analysis consistent with APA guidelines.


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New Topic: Journal Article Analysis

Individual
Journal Article Analysis Submit a 1,400- to 2,100-word analysis of the articles from the Management Philosophy Table assignment. If you include different articles or make changes to your table, create and submit a new table.

Include the following:

? Briefly summarize each article?s contribution to your topic. Even though the articles belong to the same theory, the authors may have different opinions.

o Include the main theorist on whom the authors based their writings and in what management school of thought the research exists.

o What influences of the main theorist are found in the articles?

? Using your table as a guide, compare and contrast the articles, highlighting similarities and differences.

? Synthesize the articles into a single observation regarding your topic.

? If your table has changed, include a revised table.

Format your analysis consistent with APA guidelines.

References
Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom-responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263-283.
He, N. (2011). Case study on the influence of Chinese traditional philosophy to the enterprise management. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3), 73.
Kralev, T. (2011). Management by objectives: Management philosophy for prosperous tourism organizations. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 83-87.
Wang, Y. (2011). Mission-driven organizations in japan: Management philosophy and individual outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 111-126.

Extra References
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Kerr, S. (2002). The boundaryless organization: Breaking the chains of organizational structure (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Bateman, T. S., & Snell, S. A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Beamish, P.W., Morrison, A., Inkpen, A., & Rosenzweig, P. M. (2003). International management: Text and cases (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Hoopes, J. (2003). False prophets. The gurus who created modern management and why their ideas are bad for business. Cambridge, MA. Perseus.

Jones, G. R. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change. (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.


Previous Topic: Management Philosophies Table

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University of Phoenix Material
Management Philosophy Table
Table 1
To what extent do academic philosophies affect actual decision-making of managers?

Authors Article Type and Context Dynamics Differentiation Integration
Purpose
Wang Quantitative survey
The influence of managerial philosophy within Japanese companies Japanese companies have been traditionally viewed as being more influenced by philosophy and mission statements than organizations in other nations Surveying 1019 Japanese employees, evaluating their experiences supports this conventional wisdom Organizational philosophy acts as a mediator between individuals and the needs of the enterprise in Japan Mission statements have the ability to render companies more effective and also potentially more ethical by offering a buffer between employee and organizational needs
Dierksmeier Phenomenology
The extent to which the self-interested model of firm behavior of classical economics really advances firm interests Increasing calls for firms to have ethical and moral standards, such as observing principles of sustainability
The article argues against the classical firm philosophy which is to sever corporate ethical standards from normative ethical standards
A qualitative model for evaluating choices versus a model driven by quantitative analysis is proposed
Management education must be founded on an ideal of moral freedom, not just a conception of capitalist freedom
He Case study of the influence of traditional Chinese philosophy on business ?The key idea of Confucianism is to achieve strategic alignment, for instance, the alignment between organizational strategy and individuals' behavior? (He 2011). The degree to which Confucianism, which is once again popular in China, can be useful in businesses cross-culturally. Case study of successful integration of Confucian ethics and principles at NTT DoCoMo and in Silicon Valley organizations to show how Confucian principles can be useful in a variety of organizational settings Teamwork, a sense of individual ?embeddedness? in a larger whole are all Confucian virtues and have shown themselves useful in China?s new, budding enterprises and also in organizations around the world. Confucian virtues are what make many Silicon Valley organizations so successful.
Kralev Review
Management by Objectives: The advantages of implementing them in an tourist-driven organization Interactions of MBO and practical demands of business Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of MBO: defines what needs to be done, encourages organizational loyalty as success for employees is clearly defined by meeting objectives. Disadvantages include the time and money taken to create objectives. The virtue of MBO is offering a clear, structured philosophy of what type of objectives (long, middle, and short) a firm should set and to make sure that they are ?realistic? and ?time-defined? (Kralev 2011) How MBO as a philosophy can be applied within the context of a specific industry




References
Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom-responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263-283.
He, N. (2011). Case study on the influence of Chinese traditional philosophy to the enterprise management. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3), 73.
Kralev, T. (2011). Management by objectives: Management philosophy for prosperous tourism organizations. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 83-87.
Wang, Y. (2011). Mission-driven organizations in japan: Management philosophy and individual outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 111-126.

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Excerpt From Essay:
References:

References

Bateman, T.S., & Snell, S.A. (2007). Management: Leading and collaborating in a competitive world (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwi

Dierksmeier, C. (2011). The freedom-responsibility nexus in management philosophy and business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(2), 263-283.

Dinesh, D., & Palmer, E. (1998). Management by objectives and the balanced scorecard: Will rome fall again? Management Decision, 36(6), 363-369.

He, N. (2011). Case study on the influence of Chinese traditional philosophy to the enterprise management. Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3), 73.

Kralev, T. (2011). Management by objectives: Management philosophy for prosperous tourism organizations. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 83-87.

Wang, Y. (2011). Mission-driven organizations in Japan: Management philosophy and individual outcomes. Journal of Business Ethics, 101(1), 111-126.

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