China Trade Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for China Trade College Essay Examples

Title: China IV 1 The rule thumb evaluating cash flows organization The cash flows operations positive increasing year ideally sufficient cover negative cash flows investing activities How evaluate China Trade terms cash flows light rule thumb measure 2

  • Total Pages: 1
  • Words: 400
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: China IV

1. The rule-of-thumb in evaluating the cash flows of an organization is:

The cash flows from operations should be positive, and increasing each year, and ideally should be sufficient to cover any negative cash flows from investing activities.

How would you evaluate China Trade in terms of cash flows, in light of this rule-of-thumb measure?

2. China Trade's income statement (after adjusting for depreciation expense and adjusting entries) shows net income of $300. Yet, its cash flows from operations were a negative $3,000. What caused a $300 accrual basis profit to become a $3,000 "loss" in terms of cash flows from operations?

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Title: Is China's Currency Too Strong

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 819
  • Sources:5
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Case 2-2

Is China Currency Too Strong?

In July 2005, the People Bank of China announced the end of 10-year effort to peg the value of the Chinese currency, the Yuan, to the value of the US dollar. Instead, the Yuan would be linked to a basket of several foreign currencies. The announcement signaled Beijing’s decision to abandon a policy of fixed exchange rates, according to which 8.28 Yuan equaled $1, and adopt a policy of flexible rates. In short, by ending the peg, china’s central bank was finally allowing the Yuan to float.

The United States and other key trading partners had been urging such an action for years. The New York times called the Chinese central bank’s decision “the most hotly anticipated event for the foreign-exchange world in years.” Many economists believed that the Yuan had been undervalued relative to the dollar and the other currencies by as much as 40 percent, and this weakness was cited as one of the factors contributing to growing trade deficits with china. For example, the US trade deficit with china was more than $200 billion in 2006. This had occurred, it was argued, because the Chinese government had deliberately manipulated its currency to give Chinese exports a price advantage compared to goods from the United States and other countries.

Some observers favored a quick change in the Yuan’s value; others argued for a go-slow, gradualist approach. The immediate result of the reevaluation was a 2.1 percent increase in the Yuan’s value, to 8.11 Yuan equals $1. The stronger Yuan was expected to have a ripple effect on the economies of china’s top trading partners. For one thing, it was likely to result in increased prices for Chinese exports to the United States and elsewhere. This would be good news to some of the 12,000 members of the national association of manufacturers (N.A.M). Many small factory owners in the United States are worried about competing with low priced Chinese goods. However, a stronger Yuan could be bad news for the wal-mart and other retailers that buy billions of dollars worth of goods from china each year. Likewise, American-based global companies such as whirlpool that source manufactured goods in china might be forced to raise prices.

By mid-2007, the Yuan had appreciated about 8.5 percent against the dollar. However, that was not enough to satisfy some policymakers. Impatient with slow pace of reevaluation, some members of the US congress introduced legislation designed to punish china for its currency policy. One bill, co-sponsored by senate finance chairman Max Baucus, a democrat, and Charles Grassley, the Republican senator from Iowa, was contingent on the US Treasury department determining that a “currency misalignment” had occurred. Following such a finding, the United States would impose fines in the form of antidumping penalties and the Chinese government would have six months to make the required currency adjustments. If china didn’t take action, the US trade representative would request dispute settlement at the WTO. A final ruling would be issued in 2010.

The introduction of the Congressional bill raised several questions. For example, it was unclear whether a dispute involving currency issues was a legitimate trade issue that the WTO would agree to hear. Another issue was whether it was possible to determine exactly how much the Yuan would have to appreciate for it to be fairly aligned with the dollar.

Some observers warned that the Baucus-Grassley bill and others like it could undermine the trade relationship between the United States and China and actually harm US companies that do business with china. Since joining the WTO in 2001, china has become America’s fourth largest export market. According to a study by the American chamber of commerce in china, American companies sold $61 billion worth of goods to china in 2005. Chamber chairman James Zimmerman noted, “A revalued Yuan will not force the Chinese to buy American goods and services.” Others warned that the Chinese companies could diversify their export base by expanding trade with other countries. A trade war was another possibility. Scott Miller, director of trade policy for Procter & Gamble, said, “You can’t rule out a backlash. That ought to be part of the calculus that lawmakers should consider.” Some observers raised concerns that, in retaliation for trade sanctions, china might restrict market access for American goods.

Answer Discussion Questions 1-3, Microsoft formatted document (.doc)with in-text citations "APA style" in the body of the report.

1. Consumer goods, including shoes and electronics, represent about 80% of U.S. Imports from China. American consumers have saved an estimated $600 billion over the past 10 years by buying inexpensive Chinese goods. If the Chinese government revalues the Yuan by 20 percent or more and American consumers pay higher prices, is this a desirable outcome?

2. Protectionist sentiments in the United States are fueled by the argument that China is to blame for the flood of imports, the giant U.S. current account deficit, and downward pressure on wages in some industries. Do you agree? (Support your answers with more than agree/disagree).

3. Do you think an aggressive legislative posture with respect to China's currency is the best approach for any trade partner to take? (Be specific).

Sources: John McCary and Andrew Batson, “Punishing China: Will it Fly?” The wall street journal, June 23-24, 2007, p.A4;Wu Yi, “It’s Win-Win on U.S. China Trade,”
The Wall Street Journal, May 17, 2007, p.A21; Martin Wolf, “How China has Managed to keep the Renminbi Pinned Down,” Financial Times, October 11, 2006, p.13; E.S. Browning, “Yuan Move Might Stir Big Ripples,” The Wall Street Journal, July 25, 2005, pp.C1, C4; Sue Kirchhoff, “First step: China Will Stop Pegging Yuan to Dollar,” USA Today, July 22, 2005, pp. 1B, 2B; Keith Bradsher, “ A Chinese Revaluation May Not Help U.S.,” The New York Times, January 4, 2005, pp. C1, C5.

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Martin Wolf, "How China has Managed to keep the Renminbi Pinned Down," Financial Times, October 11, 2006, p.13

Sue Kirchhoff, "First step: China Will Stop Pegging Yuan to Dollar," USA Today, July 22, 2005, pp. 1B, 2B

Keith Bradsher, " a Chinese Revaluation May Not Help U.S.," the New York Times, January 4, 2005, pp. C1, C5

Ronald McKinnon, "The International Dollar Standard and Sustainability of the U.S. Current Account Deficit," Stanford University, March 29/30, 2001, retrieved online June 11, 2008 at

John McCary and Andrew Batson, "Punishing China: Will it Fly?" The wall street journal, June 23-24, 2007, p.A4

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Title: Energy policy of the People's Republic of China

  • Total Pages: 29
  • Words: 7690
  • References:9
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Overall question is 'What energy policy/plan is China most likely going to transition to after coal?'

Possible points to hit include:

-Explanation of the current energy reliance on coal, and why this is changing.
-Exploration of oil, nuclear, renewal, other energy options. Why oil/gas and nuclear will be the most likely candidates for replacing coal.
- What this might mean for US-China trade relations given the placement of oil reserves and uranium deposits in the world.

Or if you come up with a better thesis, roll with it, things aren't really set in stone. As long as it's as technical as possible with a focus on the economic side and not on the political/environmental.
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Bradsher, Keith. "China's Energy Use Threatens Goals on Warming." New York Times. May 6,

2010. Retrieved from

07 energy.html?pagewanted=all.

Campbell, Richard J. "China and the United States -- a Comparison of Green Energy Programs

and Policies." June 14, 2010. Congressional Research Service 7-5700.

Chasek, Pamela S. The Global Environment in the Twenty-First Century: Prospects for International Cooperation. New York, United Nations University Press, 2000.

"China." CIA World Factbook. 2010. Retrieved from / the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html.

Gee, Robert W., Songbin Zhu and Xiaolin Li. "China's Power Sector: Global Economic and Environmental Implications." Energy Law Journal 2007: 28(2): 421-423.

Gregson, Jonathan. "Life beyond the Oil Rush." Global Finance March 2005: 19(3): 8-9.

Khare, Sanjay V. "China's Energy Supply and Consumption." University of Toledo. 2008.

Retrieved from


Leggett, Jane a., Jeffrey Logan and Anna Mackey. September 10, 2008. "China's Greenhouse

Gas Emissions and Mitigation Policies." Congressional Research Service 7-5700.

Ma, Ying. "China's View of Climate Change." Policy Review 2010: 161, 27-29.

Prakash, Aseem and Jeffrey a. Hart. Responding to Globalization. London: Routledge.

Quin, Dai and Lawrence R. Sullivan. "The Three Gorges Dam and China's Energy Dilemma."

Journal of International Affairs 1999: 53(1): 53.

Rashid, Ahmed and Saywell, Trish. "Beijing gusher: China pays hugely to bag energy supplies abroad." Far Eastern Economic Review February 1998: 26.

Schmidt, Charles W. "Economy and Environment: China Seeks a Balance." Environmental

Health Perspectives 2002: 110(9): 516-518.

World Bank. "The private sector and power generation in China." 2000 World Bank Discussion

Paper No. 406, Washington, DC.

Wu, Yanrui. China's Economic Growth: A Miracle with Chinese Characteristics. New York:

Routledge Curzon, 2004.

Zang, Dongsheng. "Green from Above: Climate Change, New Developmental Strategy, and Regulatory Choice in China." Texas International Law Journal 2009: 45(1): 201-203.

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Title: Personal Statement Public Policy

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 980
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Instruction:
1. Please use 12 point font and choose New Times Roman.
2. Please double space .
3. Please type each question in bold font into your document and then follow the question with your response.

First Question (500 Word Maximum)

What distinct impact do you hope to have on the world in the future? Please be as clear as possible about your future goals, the policy/public service issue(s) you are passionate about, and your personal motivation(s). Be sure to include details regarding the features of SIPA that you believe are integral to helping you in your pursuits and what skills you need to develop to achieve a lasting impact.

** Please use file ( Liberalization economic policy in China.doc) and (us china trade relation.doc) to write this question. My goal would be international policy, focus in China.

Second Question (300 Word Maximum)

1. Describe a policy issue that has impacted your life, either in a negative or positive way. If given the opportunity to amend the policy, what action would you take and why?

** Please use file (policymemo.doc) to write this essay

Third Question/Response (200 Word Maximum)
Please share any additional information about yourself that you believe would be of interest to the Admissions Committee. Please focus on information that is not already reflected in the other parts of your application or might not be clear in the information submitted.

** I learned honor, courage and committment throughout my public servant experience. I have learned how to become a good leader. (navy.leadership.doc) and copy of my resume
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