Total Pages: 4 Words: 1251 References: 3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: CE100 UNIT 8 ASSIGNMENT
In this unit, we have been continuing our exploration of the field of early childhood development. As you know, this field consists of countless services, which include programs for infants and toddlers, preschool programs, family childcare, childcare centers, kindergarten, and schooling for primary age children. Each has the potential to foster healthy development and learning as well as positively impact children's lives; and many of these require professionals to have similar characteristics as they partake in the role of working with children and their families. It?s also interesting to consider some of the historical events/changes that have occurred within this field.
This week?s Assignment allows you to reflect on what you have learned about professional roles, responsibilities, standards and events that have influenced this field. You will create a 6-slide PowerPoint presentation, using the template in DocSharing, highlighting the early childhood professional roles/responsibilities, standards and historical events that have influenced this field. You should use the following format:
?Slide 1: Title Slide
Create a title for your presentation (e.g., ?The Early Childhood Profession?), include your own name, course number/section and the date
?Slide 2: Early Childhood Roles/Responsibilities
Identify examples of roles and responsibilities that early childhood professionals take on. Include at least 4 examples.
?Slide 3: Standards in the field
Identify examples of standards in the field (at least 5)
?Slide 4: Historical event that influenced the field
Identify an example of an historical event/change that affected the field; note when these changes occurred.
?Slide 5: Historical Event that influenced the field
Note how the historical event changed the field and your work as an early childhood professional, personally. Note how it affects children.
?Slide 6: References
Include all sources of your information in APA format
Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations at https://kucampus.kaplan.edu/DocumentStore/Docs11/pdf/WC/EffectivePowerPointPresentations_KUWC2014.pdf
Basic Guidelines for APA https://kucampus.kaplan.edu/DocumentStore/Docs11/pdf/WC/Basic_Citation_Guidelines_April_2010.pdf
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Essay Instructions: This paper is for a Cultural Anthropology Course. Following are the instructions as per the syllabus:
- Projects are to be 6 pages minimum. Use MLA format for documentation and bibliography.
- Cross-cultural study: for this option, select a facet of culture to explore in two different NON-Western societies.
- I need the paper to explore EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT/EDUCATION in two different non-western cultures (as stated above). The paper should be a comparison of the two different cultures.
If possible, KENYA is one of the countries/cultures I would like included in the paper, the other can be the choice of the writer.
**There are no specific instructions regarding quotations, parenthetical citations, footnotes, etc. The only requirement noted is MLA format for documentation and bibliography.
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Essay Instructions: This paper should be an extension of the paper below and it should also describe LONG TERM INPLICATIONS OF CURRENT CONDITIONS- REVIEW THE SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ON THE SHORT AND LONG-TERM IMPLICATIONS OF RISKS CONFRONTING YOUNG CHILDREN IN OUR COMMUNITY (E.G.: CRITICAL DEMENSIONS MIGHT INCLUDE SCHOOL READINESS, ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT, GRADUATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION RATES, EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS, FAMILY FORMATION PATTERNS,INVOLVEMENT IN CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR,LEVELS OF SATISFACTION IN LIFE...):
FACTORS THAT PROTECT AT RISK CHILDREN FROM NEGATIVE OUTCOMES
One of the unfortunate consequences of the human condition is that some children will
not enjoy the same level of support and resources as their peers because of various
socioeconomic and family situational factors. Nevertheless, history has demonstrated time and
again that some children are able to overcome whatever adversities life throws at them to emerge
as well adjusted and intelligent members of society who go on to achieve their personal and
professional goals irrespective of these challenges and obstacles. These children, though, appear
to be the exception rather than the rule and it is reasonable to suggest that children who are at
risk will suffer from these experiences rather than benefit from them no matter how resilient they
may be. To determine those factors that can serve to protect at-risk children from negative
outcomes, this paper reviews the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to collect and
evaluate the strongest available evidence concerning those protective factors that support optimal
early childhood development. An analysis of how these factors protect against the effects of an
unequal start in life and their implications for later life outcomes is followed by a summary of
the research and important findings.
In their timely report, “The Long Term Effects of Recession-Induced Child Poverty,”
First Focus (2009) emphasizes that children who experience the effects of poverty are at
particularly high risk for experiencing a number of adverse academic and health-related
outcomes during their childhood as well as poorer health and diminished earning potential later
in life. These are particularly salient issues as the global economic recession continues to
adversely affect the ability of parents and the government to provide desperately needed early
childhood development interventions. According to Yarrow (2009), “The economic crisis that
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began in 2008 and the 2009 federal stimulus package posed roadblocks and opportunities for an
ambitious child-policy agenda, given both fiscal constraints and calls for ‘investment’ in school
buildings, teachers, and children’s education and health” (p. 27). Unfortunately, the longer young
children spend in impoverished conditions, the more serious the consequences are across the
broad range of measures, including higher rates of dropping out of school, and an inability to
gain meaningful employment later in life (Brooks-Gunn & Duncan, 1997).
Because resources are by definition scarce, then, it is important to spend whatever money
is available where it will do the most good for these at-risk children. While it is reasonable to
posit that all impoverished families could benefit from increased income levels, a realistic
approach demands that whatever money is available be spent on those interventions with proven
efficacy. In this regard, according to Pati, Hashim, Brown and Forrest (2009), the resources that
are spent on early childhood development initiatives represent some of the most important
interventions available to help at-risk children avoid the negative outcomes that are generally
associated with their status. These authors emphasize that, “From a life course perspective,
investing in improving early school success by nurturing children’s adaptability -- promoting
resilience factors while reducing risks -- is both worthwhile and cost-effective” (Pati et al., 2009,
Indeed, early childhood development interventions can help young children overcome the
risk factors they may be forced to deal with on a day-to-day basis, but studies have shown that
such interventions carry important implications throughout the life span (Pati et al., 2009). In
order to formulate effective early childhood development interventions, though, it is important to
determine what risk factors are involved and what coping skills young children possess. In this
regard, Pati and her associates add that, “Identifying critical risk and resilience factors is the first
Student Network Resources Inc. ©2003-2009
step in developing interventions to promote early school success” (p. 5). These
recommendations, though, will not magically produce the resources needed to eradicate poverty,
but they do emphasize the need to determine what specific factors must be addressed in order to
develop effective interventions to address them. These recommendations also make it clear that
all children and their families are unique and some may require more assistance than others in
certain areas. This recommendation is congruent with Pati et al.’s observations that, “From a
treatment perspective, separating patients into different service intensity levels is also
commonplace in clinical practice” (p. 13).
No matter what other risk factors might be involved, Pati et al. also point to the need to
ensure that young children are provided with the services they need to remain healthy during
early childhood development initiatives. For example, Pati and her colleagues emphasize that,
“Health supervision is the bedrock of early childhood preventive care” (p. 5). Such health
supervision consists of counseling concerning health and normative developmental changes that
is age appropriate, ensuring that young people receive the recommended regimen of
vaccinations, the provision of support and counseling services to families concerning the rigors
of raising a child in a challenging environment, and teaching both children and their families
how to make informed healthy choices (Pati et al., 2009). In addition, Pati and her associates cite
the need to promote literacy initiatives for the parents of at-risk children, the use of
developmental screenings with standardized instruments to identify at-risk children that can
provide the opportunity to implement intervention services in a more timely fashion, referral of
family members to the resources that are available in their communities, and an increased
frequency of health monitoring services in the home as well as at school.
Student Network Resources Inc. ©2003-2009
Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of
Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.memphis.edu/
Pati, S., Hashim, K., Brown, B. & Forrest, C. B. (2009, May). Early childhood predictors of
early school success: A selective review of the literature. Child Trends. [Online].
Turning point: The long term effects of recession-induced child poverty. (2009). First Focus.
[Online]. Available: http://www.firstfocus.net/Download/TurningPoint.pdf/.
Yarrow, A. L. (2009, April). History of U.S. children’s policy: 1900-present. First Focus.
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Essay Instructions: BELOW IS INFORMATION THAT IS REQUIRED FOR THIS POLICY PAPER:
Over the semester, students will write five short policy papers on a single topic.
Collectively, these papers will provide an opportunity for students to review the best
available information concerning the LONG-TERM POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF
IMPOVERISHMENT IN EARLY CHILDHOOD, and then will offer a tangible policy
solution to address a key component of child poverty in order to improve early
childhood well-being and later life outcomes.
? There will be a final exam covering key concepts discussed in the course. We will
review topics and questions that are fair game for the exam in class on December 8th.
Guidelines for the Written Assignments:
? Students will undertake a series of brief writing assignments. In sequence, these
projects will address the following topics:
? CURRENT CONDITIONS ~ Collect, distill and evaluate the best available
information on the current condition of children 0-5 on a specific dimension of
child well-being (e.g.: some specific component of health, economics, family
stability, early brain development). This review will include information on
Memphis and Shelby County, and will place this information in the context of
state, regional, cross-city, and national comparisons.
? LONG TERM IMPLICATIONS OF CURRENT CONDITIONS ~ Review the
scientific and social scientific research on the short and long-term implications of
the risks confronting young children in our community (e.g.: critical dimensions
might include school readiness, academic achievement, graduation and higher
Introduction to Public Policy
education rates, employment patterns, family formation patterns, involvement in
criminal behavior, levels of satisfaction in life …)
? FACTORS THAT PROTECT AT-RISK CHILDREN FROM NEGATIVE
OUTCOMES ~ Collect and evaluate the strongest available evidence concerning
protective factors that support optimal early childhood development. How do
these factors protect against the effects of an unequal start in life? What are their
implications for later life outcomes? (In other words, many children do well even
though they start life at a disadvantage. Why?)
? RESEARCH-EVALUATED INTERVENTIONS ~ Review evaluations of
interventions designed to improve the odds for at-risk children. What seems to
work when communities and their governments band together to try to improve
the well-being of young children?
? AN APPROPRIATE EARLY CHILDHOOD INTERVENTION FOR SHELBY
COUNTY ~ Select an intervention appropriate for addressing one dimension of
risk to early childhood development in Memphis and Shelby County. What
problem does your intervention address? Why is the current situation troubling?
What difference does the research literature attribute to this intervention? What
would this intervention mean for the future of Memphis and Shelby County?
Collectively, these five policy briefs are your research project for the course. Policy
briefs should be exactly three pages each (double spaced, 12 pt. Times Roman font), and
free of grammatical errors. Additionally, each policy brief must have a bibliography
attached containing 10 or more academic citations in addition to relevant media and other
sources. All papers must follow APA style. Do not use covers or bindings of any kind.
Simply begin with a cover sheet with a specific and clear title, relevant identifying
information for the author and course, and staple papers once in the upper left corner.
Required Readings for the Course
Clarke E. Cochran, Lawrence C. Mayer, TR Carr, N. Joseph Cayer 2008. American
Public Policy: An Introduction. 9th Edition.
Benjamin I. Page & Lawrence R. Jacobs. 2009. Class War? What Americans Really
Think About Economic Inequality Chicago. University of Chicago.
Catherine F. Smith. 2005. Writing Public Policy A Practical Guide to Communicating
in the Policy-Making Process. New York: Oxford University Press.
Deborah Stone. 2001. Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. New
York: WW Norton.
Articles and Research Monographs:
Barton, Paul E., et. al. 2007. “The Family: America’s Smallest School.” Princeton NJ:
Educational Testing Service.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne and Greg J. Duncan. 1997. “The Effects of Poverty on Children.”
The Future of Children. 7(2) 55-71.
First Focus. 2009. “Turning Point: The Long Term Effects of Recession-Induced Child
Poverty.” Washington DC: Author.
Pati, Susmita, et. al., 2009. “Early childhood predictors of early school success: A
selective review of the literature.” Child Trends.
Joyce, Cate, et. al., 2009. “The State of Children in Memphis and Shelby County: Data
Book 2009” Memphis: The Urban Child Institute.
Yarrow, Andrew L. 2009. “History of U.S. Children’s Policy, 1900-Present” Washington
DC: First Focus.
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