Child Care Education Institute. (2008). The Roles and Responsibilities of an Early Childhood Teacher. Child Care Education Institute. Retrieved 16 December 2014 from https://www.cceionline.com/newsletters/August_08.html
NAEYC. (2010). 2010 Standards for Initial Early Childhood Professional Preparation. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Retrieved 16 December 2014 from http://www.naeyc.org/ncate/files/ncate/Stds_1pager.pdf
Humphreys, J.T. (1985). The Child Study Movement and Public School Music Education. Journal of Research in Music Education, 33(2), 79-86.
Evans J. Childrearing practices in Sub-Saharan Africa. 1994. April 30, 2005. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:BhcaLY5u9HwJ:www.ecdgroup.com/download/cc115bca.pdf+early+childhood+development+malawi+culture&hl=en&start=5&client=firefox-a
Malawi: World Education Forum) May 1, 2005. http://www2.unesco.org/wef/countryreports/malawi/rapport_1_1.html
Mbugua, Tata J. "Early Childhood Care and Education in Kenya." Childhood Education 80.4 (2004): 191+. Questia. 3 May 2005
Myers, G. Towards an analysis of the costs and effectiveness of community-based early childhood education in Kenya. 1992.
May 2, 2005. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:_kUvf0ojpcgJ:www.ecdgroup.com/download/aa1tacea.pdf+EARLY+CHILDHOOD+DEVELOPMENT+EDUCATION+kenya+&hl=en&start=9&client=firefox-a
NIU Early Childhood Education. http://www.cedu.niu.edu/tlrn/kenyasummerstudy.html. May 1, 2006.
This is largely due to the eating patterns established in poverty; lack of food during childhood has the tendency to increase over-eating when food is available, and instills a strong compulsion to avoid food insecurities in adulthood, leading to unhealthy eating habits (Olson et al. 2007). Such habits obviously cause health deterioration, which limits productivity and creates bigger expenses, and so assists in the intergenerational perpetuation of poverty and the likely creation of similar or related issues in the children of the adult overeaters. This also ties into other social factors of adult life that stem from issues related to childhood poverty.
Employment in adulthood can be heavily affected by poverty in childhood, as noted above. There are several complex and interrelated ways in which this can occur. First, there is a strong indication that childhood poverty creates a pattern of psychological stress that becomes all but inescapable in adulthood (Evans & Kim 2007). The prolonged stress that this can lead to has been linked to many health problems, like any other form of prolonged stress, but the cumulative effects of continued conditions of poverty often exacerbate the problem still further (Evans & Kim 2007). It can even lead to a lack of ability to fully regulate stress, and this leads to many issues in the employment world, including memory issues, the ability to handle work-related stress including deadlines and other common features of modern jobs, which simply leads to more stress and again, reduced productivity (Evans & Schamberg 2009). The problems of childhood poverty easily become self-perpetuating due to the reduced productivity of adults that grew up in poverty.
This is not merely evidenced from a medical and psychological perspective, but by direct economic research as well. Writing in the New York Times, Eckholm (2007) details recent findings that adults who were raised in poverty not only end up less productive, but typically also have higher costs associated with health problems and other issues. Intervention, then, must occur early and must come form an outside source if the cycle is to be broken. It is, of course, unfortunately impractical to think that poverty could simply be alleviated, but there are ways to mitigate the effects of childhood poverty so that they are not as exposed to risks either in childhood or in adulthood, giving greater
Aber, L. (2007, December). Changing the climate on early childhood: The science of early childhood development is as persuasive as the science of global climate change. The American Prospect, 18(12), 4-5.
Barnett, W.S. & Belfield, C.R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 73-74.
Bornstein, M.H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C.L. & Moore, K.A. (2003). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.memphis.edu / stable/1602387?cookieSet=1.
Evans, J.L. (2001). Eight is too late: Investment in early childhood development. Journal of International Affairs, 55(1), 91-92.
Joyce, C, et. al. (2009). The state of children in Memphis and Shelby County: Data book 2009.
Memphis: The Urban Child Institute. [Online]. Available: http://www.theurbanchild institute.org/get_involved.php.
Pati, S., Hashim, K., Brown, B. & Forrest, C.B. (2009, May). Early childhood predictors of early school success: A selective review of the literature. Child Trends. [Online].
Turning point: The long-term effects of recession-induced child poverty. (2009). First Focus.
[Online]. Available: http://www.firstfocus.net/Download/TurningPoint.pdf/.
White, L.A. (2004). Trends in child care/early childhood education/early childhood development policy in Canada and the United States. American Review of Canadian
Studies, 34(4), 665-667.
Yarrow, a.L. (2009, April). History of U.S. children's policy: 1900-present. First Focus.