Censorship Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Censorship College Essay Examples

Title: Censorship

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1377
  • Works Cited:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Censorship is not limited just to the internet. You must take a definite stand requiring researched support in a compelling and cohesive persuasive argument.

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Works Cited:

Works Cited

Allen, Jennifer and George Norris. "International Comparisons of Approaches to Hate Speech."

Race, Racism, and the Law. 1-5. 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.

Freedom Forum. "Limits of Freedom of Speech." Education for Freedom. N.p. 2012. Web.

14 Nov. 2012.

Linder, Doug. "Free Speech and the State Action Requirement." Exploring Constitutional

Conflicts. N.p. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.

U.S. Const. amend. I.

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Title: Media Censorship

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 2303
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: "censorship and state containment of the media is typical of Islamic or Soviet countries. It would never happen in the USA and Britain." Discuss with reference to specific case studies.

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References

"Censorship in the United States" (September 16, 2004) Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Censorship-in-the-United-States Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Clark. Andrew. "Trouble in Paradise: A Study of Media Censorship in the South Pacific." Retrieved from www.beaweb.org/bea2000/papers/clark.pdf Accessed on 15 October, 2004

'FAQs: Causes & consequences of corruption" Retrieved from http://www.u4.no/document/faqs1.cfm Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Garmong, Robert. (September 23, 2004) "It's the FCC that should be banned" Retrieved from http://www.mondopolitico.com/discus/messages/26/1861.html?1095940865 Accessed on 15 October, 2004

'Global Issues" Retrieved from http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0401/ijge/ijge0401.htm Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Hall, Wayne. (August 1992) "Building Free and Independent Media" Freedom Papers Series. Retrieved from http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/archive/freedom/freedom1.htm Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Heins, Marjorie; Cho, Christina. (Fall, 2003) "Media Literacy: An Alternative to Censorship" Retrieved from http://www.fepproject.org/policyreports/medialiteracy.html Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Hippler, Jochen. "Foreign Policy, the Media, and Western Perception of the Middle East" Retrieved from http://www.jochen-hippler.de/Aufsatze/Islam__the_Media__Perceptions/islam__the_media__perceptions.html Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Jabbar, Javed. "Missing in action: The Muslim global media" Retrieved from http://www.indexonline.org/news/110901/20011010_pakistan.shtml Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Nider, Steven J. (January 16, 2002) "Fighting the Image War So Far, We're Losing" Blueprint Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.ppionline.org/ppi_ci.cfm?knlgAreaID=450004& subsecID=900021& contentID=250031 Accessed on 15 October, 2004

'Seeking Free & Responsible Media" Retrieved from http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0203/ijge/ijge0203.htm Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Shah, Anup. (November 27, 2001) "Mainstream Media" Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/HumanRights/Media.asp Accessed on 15 October, 2004

Volkov, Vladimir. (28 September 2000) "Russian President Putin tries to break Berezovsky's grip" Retrieved from http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/sep2000/russ-s28.shtml Accessed on 15 October, 2004

'Who Rules America? The Alien Grip on Our News and Entertainment Media Must Be Broken" (December, 2002) Retrieved from http://www.natvan.com/who-rules-america / Accessed on 15 October, 2004

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Title: i read article Columbine Whose Fault Is It Marilyn Manson The Morality Police Charles Taylor Both book The Conscious Reader 12th edition Caroline Shrodes Michael Shugrue Marc DiPaolo Christian J

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1025
  • Sources:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: i need you to read two article, one is Columbine: Whose Fault Is It? by Marilyn Manson, another is The Morality Police by Charles Taylor. Both in the book The Conscious Reader, 12th edition by Caroline Shrodes, Michael Shugrue, Marc DiPaolo and Christian J. Matuschek. (better to write down the page your used, if you cannot find the book, just mark it)
Write a paper exploring your own opinion about censorship, using these two essays to support your writing.
quotation 3-5 sentence from these two article.
I am an international student, do not use much difficult words.
this topic is asked for many students in out class, please do not write similar.

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Sources:

Works Cited:

Manson, Marilyn. "Columbine: Whose Fault is it?" The Conscious Reader. 12th edition.

Longman. 2011. Print.

Taylor, Charles. "The Morality Police." The Conscious Reader. 12th edition. Longman. 2011.

Print.

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Title: Censorship in Music

  • Total Pages: 36
  • Words: 12976
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Proposal
Explain why the problem is significant enough to warrant investigation.
Title page
Is Censorship in Music viable and does it make a difference to Society?
Signature page
NOT NEEDED
Preface
A personal statement about the project. Thanking the Ajogbe Family for their continued support, Mr Reuben Christian for his advice, Ms Alev Adil for her understanding and advice, Mr Steve Kenedy for his help, Mr Stuart Castle for his help.
Quote copyrighted material here. At the bottom of the page, include the month (April) and the year (2004).
This is the first page in which Roman numerals should appear.
Dedication page
This piece of work is dedicated to my grandmothers. For the teaching of my first teachers.
Table of Contents
The table of contents must accurately reflect the exact organization of the project. Chapter or Section titles, the Bibliography (and/or Works Cited), and the Appendix(ces), if any, must be included. Page numbers given for the Bibliography and Appendix should be those assigned to the separation sheet preceding each of those items. It is not necessary to include all levels of headings, but there should be consistency. If a particular level is included at any point, all headings of that level must be included. Pages with Roman numerals should not be included; the Table of Contents entries start with page 1.
List of Tables, Charts, Figures
Include charts showing the rise/fall in gun crime as opposed to the rise in sales of hip hop music please.
If there are five or more tables, charts, and/or figures, this list must be included. A List of Plates must be included if plates are used. There must be separate lists for tables, charts, figures, and/or plates. Any tables or figures appearing in the appendix should be included in the appropriate list. Each title must be different from the other titles. Each title must appear in an appropriate list with the exact wording that appears on the corresponding table, chart, figure, and/or plate.
Abstract
The abstract should be a concise statement of the content and significance of the project. The following information should be included:
? short statement about the area of investigation
? brief discussion of the methods and procedures used in gathering data
? condensed summary of the findings
? conclusions reached in the study
Any mathematical formulas and words in foreign languages should be identified clearly and accurately. There must be no errors or inconsistencies. The title of the abstract must be the same as that of the finished project.

Synopsis
A brief outline or general view of the main points of the argument or theory behind a project; similar to an abstract or a summary.

Executive Summary
This should summarise the project in a clear, concise, persuasive manner. Providing the reader with an introduction to the purpose of the project. Ideally, it will also serve to spark the reader?s interest. The Executive Summary should always be written last.
Introduction
The Introduction should identify the topic and explain why it is important. It must be adequately informative, yet easy to follow. It should state the problem as simply as possible, taking into account the broader view of the discipline as a whole.
Please do not overestimate the reader?s familiarity with the topic. The Introduction will be read by those who are somewhat acquainted with the general area, but not all readers will be specialists in the particular topic. Please write in an intelligent, logical, concise manner, but the Introduction should be presented in such a way that one who knows little of the literature or particular topic will gain a solid understanding of the project?s purpose and subject matter. The Introduction must be interesting, as well. If the reader becomes bored while reading the first section of the project, he or she is unlikely to regain interest in the following sections. In fact, the reader may stop reading altogether! To prevent such disaster, tradition permits prose in the first few paragraphs that is less dry than the formal, scientific, or literary norm.

Statement of the problem
There should be a clear rationale for the hypothesis. Such rationale should be presented in the form of a problem statement that explains what issue or controversy needs to be resolved. The writer?s hypothesis will make a prediction about the problem?s likely resolution.

Hypothesis
The hypothesis section of a project should identify the problem to be explored and its importance to the field of study. It should assert the research may help to solve the problem under investigation. The hypothesis is essentially a statement of what is believed the study will prove and/or solve.
Rationale
The rationale for a study is based on the writer?s belief in the need for additional or completely new research on a unique problem in a given field. The rationale should explain, defend, and/or prove that the current literature (if any) and current findings (if any) on the given problem are inadequate, outdated, and/or inaccurate. Basically, the rationale should identify the student?s reasoning and justification for writing a project on the particular subject.

Literature Review
The Literature Review is a thorough summary of the recognized facts and information in academic literature about a given subject. Most cited sources in a project are listed in the Literature Review. Please locate previous research studies (usually found in professional journal articles) that have contributed to the field in a manner similar to what his or her own project proposes. If little academic writing exists on a given subject, composing the Literature Review will be a very difficult task. The standard Literature Review should:
? justify the reason for the student?s research. The student must convince the reader that his or her research is important and beneficial.
? allow the student to establish his or her theoretical framework and methodological focus.
The Literature Review often becomes the basis for the entire project.
? summarize each piece of literature in a few sentences and identify the approach taken by each author.
? evaluate the approach of each author and put it into a context.
? explain why each piece of literature was chosen as reference material for the project.
? demonstrate the student?s knowledge of the field. The student should not merely report what he or she has read. Instead, the student must show that he or she has a thorough, deep connection to the area of study; knows what the most important issues are and their relevance to his or her investigation; understands the controversies; recognizes what has been neglected; knows where previous studies have gone and anticipates where the field will go as a result of his or her study.
Methodology
The Methodology section can vary significantly in length and content, depending on the subject matter, type of experiment being conducted, and particular requirements. Most academic institutions require this section to include a detailed explanation of the subject population, procedures, timelines, objectives, limitations, instruments, data collection, ethical considerations, tools, and statistical analysis. The writer must be extremely thorough and detailed.
Statistical Analysis
Included in the methodology section should be a thorough explanation of data and the methods by which data was obtained. Instruments of data collection vary, but common methods include surveys, interviews, questionnaires, and case studies. The writer must show methodological expertise through analyzing the benefits and limitations of every method of data collection used in preparing the project.
Data Collection
Data collection should not not conclude until a sufficient number of subjects are evaluated, establishing a solid basis for assertions and the applicability of findings for the subject population. The writer must display knowledge and understanding of the differences between qualitative and quantitative data. 10-15 subjects should be enough
Questionnaires
A set of interview-style questions designed by the student to obtain pertinent data from the subject population or anyone with a connection to the subject population.
Subject Population
The people, places, or things that are the focus of research.
Results
The results section is not the place for opinion or conjecture. The writer should limit this section to clear, concrete facts. The findings and results should be completely and accurately stated, regardless of whether or not they support the writer?s hypothesis.
Discussion
The writer must critically analyze the unbiased results of the research. One should present
statistical data and analyze the resulting figures in an attempt to judge the suggestions inherent in his or her findings. The writer may also reference the Literature Review in order to show how his or her research builds upon previous work in the field of study.
Conclusion
The conclusion may be the most important part of the project. The writer must not merely repeat the introduction, but explain in expert-like detail what has been learned, explained, decided, proven, etc. The writer must reveal the ways in which the paper?s thesis might have significance in society. A conclusion should strive to answer questions that readers logically raise--?Why are you telling me this? Why do you think I need to understand your main point?? The conclusion may place the paper in a larger context, serve as a call for action, set forth a warning or hypothesis, intentionally complicate the issues already introduced, raise a question or questions, introduce a relevant quote, or tell an appropriate anecdote.
Again, the writer should not depend on the conclusion to sum up the body paragraphs. Paragraphs should flow naturally into one another and connections should be made among them. Summary can be an important function of a conclusion, but this part must be brief; readers know what they?ve just read. The writer should point out the importance or implications of the research on an area of societal concern. The writer could also mention the lack of conclusion in the field. This demonstrates understanding of the subject?s complexity. The writer may choose to propose what may be the natural next step to take in light of what the argument is attempting to convince. The conclusion should not end with a quotation or statement that could very well be the subject of another paper. The former deflects attention away from one as writer and thinker; the latter deflects attention from what one is conveying in the paper.
Recommendations
This section should be included in a report when the results and conclusions indicate that further work must be done or when the writer needs to discuss several possible options to best remedy a problem. The writer should not introduce new ideas in the recommendations section, but rely on the evidence presented in the results and conclusions sections. Via the recommendations section, the writer is able to demonstrate that he or she fully understands the importance and implications of his or her research by suggesting ways in which it may be further developed.
Endnotes
Endnotes (citations and reference lists gathered at the end of each chapter or at the end of the paper) have been popular among academic writers, primarily because they make the transition from a submitted manuscript to published resource so much easier. Even so, parenthetical documentation styles (and their corresponding ?Works Cited? and/or ?Bibliography? list) have supplanted both footnotes and endnotes in most academic disciplines. Because of its relative ease in both writing and reading, parenthetical documentation is greatly preferred by most instructors. For writers in some disciplines, however--most notably in some of the humanities disciplines such as music, art, religion, theology, and even history--footnotes are still widely in use. A student must
check with his or her instructor to make sure that parenthetical documentation is an acceptable method of citing resources. If used, the placement of footnotes can be at the bottom of the page, the end of the chapter, within the text (e.g., Johnson, 2003), or combined at the end of the text of the thesis, depending on the manuscript style. The writer must be consistent, however. An advisor or professor should approve of the footnote style. Remember, if consistent with the style sheet, footnotes or endnotes can be single-spaced.
Footnotes and endnotes appear with their corresponding superscript number and are written with the first line indented.
Bibliography, References, Works Cited, Footnotes
The bibliography lists books, articles, or other works consulted in preparing the paper. It must be included even if endnotes or footnotes are used. The arrangement of the bibliography and the information in each entry is determined by the chosen style (MLA, APA, Harvard, Turabian, Chicago, etc.).
In the Works Cited section, all cited sources should be listed in alphabetical order. These sources may include books, articles, magazines, newspapers, electronic resources, audio-visual materials, etc. Within the text of the paper, parentheses should show readers where the writer found each piece of cited information. These textual citations allow the reader to refer to the Works Cited page(s) for further information.
Appendix(ces)
Materials that are peripheral but relevant to the main text of the project should be placed in
appendices. These may include survey instruments, additional data, computer printouts, details of a procedure or analysis, a relevant paper written by the student, etc. Appendix material must meet the same requirements of page composition, pagination, legibility, and paper quality as the text itself. On the first page of each appendix the page number is placed at the bottom of the page, centered between the margins.
Appendices should be designated A, B, C, etc. If there is only one appendix, it is simply called
Appendix, not Appendix A. Each appendix and its title are listed in the Table of Contents. A
separate display page, giving the appendix designation and title, may precede each appendix. If used, the page number of the display page is the one listed in the Table of Contents.

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References:

Works Cited

Clockwork Orange in Central Park" 1989, U.S. News & World Report, 8 May, p. 10.

Bar Protest Songs from Europe GI's" 1965, Variety, Aug., p. 1.

Berry, C. & Wolin, D. 1985, "Comment, Regulating Rock Lyrics: A New Wave of Censorship?" Harvard Journal on Legislation, vol. 23, no. 2, p. 606.

Betz, C. 1986, The Story of Rock, Oxford University Press, New York.

Budds, M.J. 1999, "From Fine Romance to Good Rockin' and Beyond: Look What They've Done to My Song" in Bleep! Censoring Rock and Rap Music, eds. S. Davidson and B.H. Winfield, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

Bruck, C. 1997, "The Takedown of Tupac," The New Yorker, 7 July, pp. 46-65.

Campbell, E. 1991, "Obscenity, Music and the First Amendment: Was the 2-Live Crew Lively?" Nova Law Review, vol. 15,no. 1, pp. 159-240.

Carey, J. 1975, "A Cultural Approach to Communications," Communication Research, vol. 2, pp. 1-22.

Casals, P. 1961, "A Disgrace to Music," Music Journal, vol. XIX, no. 1.

Cloonan, M. 1996, Banned! Censorship of Popular Music in Britain, 1967-1992, Arena, Aldershot, Hamphshire.

Control the Dim-Wits" 1954, Billboard, vol. LXVI, 25 Sept.

Davidson, S. & Winfield, B.H. (eds) 1999, Bleep! Censoring Rock and Rap Music, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

DeCurtis, A. 1992, "The Eighties" in Present Tense, Rock & Roll and Culture, ed. A. DeCurtis, Duke University Press, Durham, NC.

First Amendment Protects More Than Just Newspapers," 1999, American Journalism Review, vol. 21, no. 10, Dec., p. 20.

Flippo, C. 1974, The History of Rolling Stone, 163

Flood, M.J. 1991, "Lyrics and the Law: Censorship of Rock-and-Roll in the United States and Great Britain," New York Law School Journal of International and Comparative Law, vol. 12, no. 3, p. 402.

Fong-Torres, B. 1973, "Drugola Inquiry: Senator Claims Columbia Gag," Rolling Stone, 16 Aug., p. 8.

Fore, L.R. 1999, "Rolling Stone's Response to Attempted Censorship of Rock 'n' Roll" in Bleep! Censoring Rock and Rap Music, eds. S. Davidson and B.H. Winfield, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

Frohnmayer, J. 1994, Out of Tune, Listening to the First Amendment, The Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville.

Gates, H. 1990, Letter to the Editor, New York Times, 15 July.

Goldberg, M. 1990, "At a Loss for Words: Record-Industry Acceptance of Stickering Is Already Having Chilling Effect," Rolling Stone, May, pp. 19-22.

Goodman, F. 1997, The Mansion on the Hill: Dylan, Young, Geffen, Springsteen and the Head-on Collision of Rock and Commerce, Times Books/Random House, New York.

Gore, T. 1990, "Hate, Rape and Rap," The Washington Post (Letter to the Editor), 8 Jan.

Gore, T. 1987, Raising PG Kids in an X-Rated Society, Abingdon Press, Nashville.

Green, A., 1955, "A Warning to the Music Business," Variety, vol. CXCVII, no. 12, 23 Feb., p. 2.

Hall, M. 1971, "FCC Clarification Note Shaky Bridge Over Troubled Water," Billboard, April, p. 10.

Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T, Clarke, J. & Roberts, B. 1978, Policing the Crisis: Mugging the State, and Law and Order, Holmes & Meier, New York.

Hill, P. 1999, "Deconstructing the Hip-Hop Hype: A Critical Analysis of the New York Times' Coverage of African-American Youth Culture," in Bleep! Censoring Rock and Rap Music, eds. S. Davidson and B.H. Winfield, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

Hill, P. 1998, All Eyez on Them: Race, Rap Music Journalism, and the Manufacture of Deviance 1985-1992, M.A. Thesis, University of Missouri.

Holden, D. 1993, "Pop Go the Censors," Index on Censorship, vol. 22, pp. 11-12.

Ice-T, Hilburn, R. & Phillips, C. 1992, "For Gangsta' Style Rappers, Urban Explosion Is No Surprise," The Los Angeles Times, 2 May, p. A7.

It's All Right to Laugh, Obscenity Jury Is Told" 1990, New York Times, 19 Oct. (AP Wire Service).

Jones, S. 1992, Rock Formation, Music, Technology, and Mass Communication: Foundations of Popular Culture, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Kanzer, A.M. 1992, "Misfit Power, the First Amendment and the Public Forum: Is There Room in America for the Grateful Dead?" Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, vol. 25,no. 3, pp. 521-565.

Kelley, R.D.G. 1996, "Kickin' Reality, Kickin' Ballistics: The Cultural Politics of Gangsta Rap in Postindustrial Los Angeles" in Droppin' Science: Critical Essays on Hip Hop Culture and Politics, ed. W.E. Perkins, Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Leland, J. 1992, "Rap and Race," Newsweek, vol. 69, 29 June 29, p. 49.

Lull, J. 1992, Popular Music and Communication 2nd ed., Sage Publication, Newbury Park, CA.

Martin, L. & Kerry Segrave, K. 1988, Anti-Rock: The Opposition to Rock 'n' Roll, Archon Books, Hamden, CT, reprinted 1993, Da Capo Press, New York.

McDonald, J.R. 1988, "Censoring Rock Lyrics: A Historical Analysis of the Debate," Youth and Society, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 296.

Meade, M. 1971, "Does Rock Degrade Women?" New York Times, 14 March, p. 13.

Natter, J. 1991, "Un-Ban the Banned Band, A First Amendment Perspective on Banning Concerts," Entertainment and Sports Lawyer, vol. 9, no. 2, pp 34-36.

Palmer, R. 1986, "Rap Music Despite Adult Fire Broadens Its Teenage Base," New York Times, 21 Sept., p. B23.

Palmer, R. 1985, "Street-Smart Rapping Is Innovative Art Form," New York Times, 4 Feb., p. C13.

Pareles, J. 1990, "Rap: Slick, Violent, Nasty and, Maybe, Hopeful," New York Times, 17 June, p. D1.

Pareles, J. 1989, "Public Enemy, Loud and Angry, Is Far From Its Own Best Friend," New York Times, 26 Dec., p. C15.

Portch, A. 1956, "Manager of Bill Haley Defends the Real Thing," Melody Maker, p. 43.

Ro, R. 1996, Gangsta: Merchandising the Rhymes of Violence, St. Martin's Press, New York.

Seabrook, J. 1994, "The World of Television, Rocking in Shangri-La," The New Yorker, 10 Oct., pp. 64-78.

Sernoe, J. 1994, "The Performance of Black Music on Billboard Magazine's Pop Music Charts," Minorities and Communication Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Atlanta, p. 2.

Sister Souljah & Mills, D. 1992, "Sister Souljah's Call to Arms: The Rapper Says the Riots Were Payback. Are You Paying Attention?" Washington Post, 13 May, B1.

Talerman, J. 1994, "The Death of Tupac: Will Gangsta Rap Kill the First Amendment?" Boston College Third World Law Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 138.

Tuchman, G. 1978, "The Newspaper as a Social Movement's Resource" In Hearth and Home: Images of Women in the Media, eds. G. Tuchman, A.K. Daniels & J. Benet, Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 188-189.

Uncut Hair Reopens in Boston, Saved by Supreme Court Ruling" 1970, Variety, May, p. 57.

Watrous, P. 1988, "Big Band Jazzmen and Rap Musicians: Soulmates," New York Times, 26 June, p. 26.

West, C. 1993, Race Matters, Beacon Press, Boston.

Wenner, J.S. 1993, "Introduction" in The Best of Rolling Stone, 25 Years of Journalism on the Edge, ed. Robert Love, Doubleday, New York.

Williams, L. 1987, The Real Jazz Journalism: 'New York Times' Coverage of an American Art Form (1921-1929), University of Georgia, Department of Journalism, ERIC Document Reproduction Service, ED282251.

Winfield, B.H. 1999, "Because of the Children: Decades of Attempted Controls of Rock 'n' Rap Music" in Bleep! Censoring Rock and Rap Music, eds. S. Davidson and B.H. Winfield, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.

Yeh-Heh-Heh-He's, Baby" 1956, Time, vol. LXVII, no. 25, 18 June, p. 54.

Zucchino, D. 1985, "Big Brother Meets Twisted Sister," Rolling Stone, Nov., p. 9.

Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 109 S. Ct. 2753 (1989); Citizens to Save WIFM v. Federal Communications Commission, 506 F.2d 246, 251 (D.C. Cir. 1974). See Cinevision Corp. v. City of Burbank, 745 F.2d 560, 567 (9th Cir. 1984), cert. denied, 471 U.S. 1054 (1985) where the Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit agreed that "music is a form of expression that is protected by the First Amendment."

Schenck v.U.S., 249 U.S. 47, 1919.

Miller v. California, 413 U.S. 15 (1973).

Ginsberg v. New York, 390 U.S. 629, 638 (1968).

Luke Records, Inc. v. Navarro, 960 F.2d 134 (11th Cir. 1992).

Brandenberg v. Ohio, 395 U.S. 444 (1969).

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