You are to write a 1-page paper. After reading the Case Study, you are to answer the question at the end of the Case Study. "Do Not Use Outside Sources"
America's workforce has in the past been largely made up of the heads of traditional families husbands will work as breadwinners while wives remain home to raise the children. However, today the traditional family represents less than 10 percent of all households. Increasingly, both spouses are launching careers
and earning incomes. Dual-career
couples now account for 40 percent of the workforce (more than 53 million employees), and their numbers will substantially increase. The situation of two spouses with careers
that are both considered important has become something managers cannot ignore. As more women enter the workforce, dual-careers
couples will become a consideration in decisions about hiring, promotions, relocation, and job commitment. The advent of the dual-career
couple poses challenges for the working spouses and for business. According to one survey of more than 800 dual-career
couples by Catalyst, couples experiencing a myriad of problems, most notably difficulties with allocating time (the top ranked complaint), finances, poor communication, and conflicts over housework. For couples with children, meeting the demands of career
and family usually becomes the top concern. Studies indicate that dual career
families need (1) benefit plans that enable couples to have children without jeopardizing their careers
, (2) more flexible work arrangements to help balance the demands of family and career
, (3) freedom from anxieties about childcare while at work, and (4) assistance from the employer in finding employment for the spouse when an employee relocates (this is a need for both parents and childless couples). For businesses, the challenge lies in helping to ease the problems of the dual-career
couples, especially those with children. According to a study commissioned by Fortune magazine, organizations are losing productivity and employees because of the demands of family life. The study found that among 400 working parents’ surveyed problems with childcare with the most significant predictors of absenteeism and low productivity. For example, 41 percent of those surveyed had taken at least one day off in the three months preceding the survey to handle family matters; 10 percent had taken off from three to five days. (On a national scale, these figures amount to hundreds of millions of dollars in loss productivity). About 60 percent of the parents polled expressed concern about time and attention given to their children, and these anxieties were linked to lower productivity. Overall, many experts advise that companies that ignore the problems of dual career
couples in working parents stand to lose output and even valued employees. Companies are beginning to respond to these needs and a number of ways.
Hiring Spouses of Employees or Helping Them Find Jobs
Studies indicate that more employees are refusing relocation assignments if their working spouses cannot find acceptable jobs. In response, many companies have recently begun to offer services for trailing spouses. These services include arranging interviews with prospective employers, providing injunctions and résumé writing, interviewing, and contract negotiation, and even paying fares for job hunting trips. Some companies (General Mills, 3M, American Express) use outside placement services to find jobs for trailing spouses. More than 150 companies in northern New Jersey created and used a job bank that provides leads for job-hunting spouses. A small but growing number of companies (including Chase Manhattan Bank and O’Melveny & Myers, one of the nation's largest law firms) are breaking tradition and hiring two-career
couples. Martin Marietta maintains an affirmative hire-a- couple policy and hires about 100 couples a year at its Denver division. Proponents assert that couples who work for the same company share the same goals, are often more committed to the company, and are willing to work longer hours. Hiring couples help attract and keep top employees, and relocations are also easier for the couple and the company.
Providing Day-Care Assistance
More than 10,000 companies now provide day care services and financial assistance or referral service for childcare. For example, American Savings and Loan Association established the Little Mavericks School of Learning in 1983 for 150 children of employees on a site within walking distance of several of its satellite branch locations. This center was established as a nonprofit subsidiary with a staff of 35, and its services include red led day care, holiday care, sick childcare, Boy Scout and Girl Scout programs, kindergarten program, and afterschool classes. Fees range from $135 to $235 a month, depending on the type of services, and parents pay through payroll deductions. Company officials report that the center has substantially reduced absenteeism and personal phone calls and that it has been a substantial boon to recruitment and retention. However, as many couples have found, limited openings mean that not all parent employees can be served; and some employees get preferential treatment sometimes even those who can afford external day care services. Many companies contract outside day care services run by professional groups, thus relieving the company of headaches of running a center. For example, IBM contracted the Work/Family Directions shall share consulting group to establish 16,000 home-based family centers and to open 3,000 day care centers for IBM employees and other families throughout the United States. About 80 companies have created programs to help parents of sick children. If a child of an employee of First Bank System (Minneapolis) becomes ill, the company will pay 75 percent of the bill for the child's stay at Chicken Soup, a sick child day care center. The policy enables parents to keep working and saves money. A growing number of companies arrange to send trained nurses to the sick child's home. Other companies provide partial reimbursement for childcare services. Zayre Corporation pays up to $20 a week for day care services for employees who work at corporate headquarters. A growing number of cafeteria fringe benefits programs enable employees to allocate a portion of fringe benefits to pay for day care services. Chemical Bank pays these benefits quarterly in pretax dollars.
Providing Flexible Time Off
A number of companies combined vacation and sick leave to increase the amount of time off for family life. At Hewlett-Packard, for example, employees receive their regular vacation days plus 5 additional days of unused sick leave. Employees can take the time off in any increments at any time. Employees can carry a number of unused days over to the next year (the number is determined by tenure), and employees who leave the company receive cash value for their unused days (at their current salary level).
Providing Job Sharing
This program enables two people to share a job on a part-time basis and is a major boon to spouses who want to continue their careers
while raising children. The program was first established by Steelcase Inc., in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where company officials say that the program has reduced turnover and absenteeism, boosted morale, and helped achieve affirmative action objectives. However, job sharing can be difficult to implement; the program requires that a job be divided into two related but separate assignments, that a job sharers are compatible, and that the supervisor can provide task continuity between them.
Identify and discuss potential ways in which a small company's Human Resource Management function can alleviate the challenges facing employees who are parents and employees with working spouses.
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