Cardiovascular Disease Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Cardiovascular Disease College Essay Examples

Title: Oral Hygiene and Cardiovascular Disease

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 2088
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This is a literature review on a health related research topic:

Topic: A bright smile is not just a way to express emotion; it’s also a place in food breakdown, speaking, and health potential risks. Oral hygiene is a labor of love, and if not cared for properly it can lead to other health issues. The matter is growing concern to patients and to providers, as well. Individuals with dental plaque, tooth loss along with periodontal disease are at an increased risk to cardiovascular disease. The link between oral health disease and cardiovascular disease gives reason to individuals to care about their health.

Key Topic question: Does poor oral health link individuals to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as it is the source of bacterium to enter the bloodstream and reduce full function of the cardiovascular system?

Literature Review: (6 pages)
1. Need at least 5 primary references from the past 3 years, if possible" [select from the articles provided]
a. You can use review papers as secondary references but not as one of your 5 primary references.

2. Must include an introductory paragraph which describes the subsections that are about to be presented.
(e.g., “The following review of the literature will present recent clinical trials on the effect of physical activity on weight gain in both children and adults. Recent studies on the effect of physical activity on weight gain in animals will also be presented.”)

3. Must have a minimum of 3 subsections and each subsection must have at least 2 studies referenced so you can compare them.

4. In each subsection you have to summarize and compare those studies together.
a. List the age of subjects, duration of the study, type of intervention, and key findings (not a complete summary of findings).
b. Explain relevant variables and measures used.
c. Discuss if studies conflict, agree, or lack of certain information.
d. Discuss how studies relate to each other.
e. Do not just summarize and list them.
f. Include the authors’ conclusions, not your opinion.
g. Mention what the study was missing or lacking (e.g., control group, randomization, different sample, etc.)

For example if your topic was “Effect of Insoluble vs. Soluble Fiber on Serum Lipids in Middle Aged Adults”, possible subsections might be:
i. Effects of Soluble Fiber on Serum Lipids in Older Adults
ii. Effects of Insoluble Fiber on Serum Lipids in Older Adults
iii. Effects of Fiber on Serum Lipids in Young Adults
iv. Effects of Fiber on Fat Metabolism

5. Conclude literature review by stating how your proposed study builds on existing research. (e.g., “Based on the above findings, the proposed study will investigate the impact of…”)

Do not cite web addresses in literature review (only cite original journal articles or very recent book chapters of research studies).

The text in correspondence to this assignment is: "Methods in Behavioral Research" 10th edition. by Paul C. Cozby ( ISBN 97800733370224)

Use lecture 2 Powerpoint slides as a guide. [provided as a resource]

The references articles will all be sent. Only use the given articles provided. I will also be sending a sample literature review, to give a better idea on what everything should look like. Use APA citation for all resources used. The introduction of this paper will be sent as an additional resource, to provide the purpose of the study. Follow the above guidelines to a tee as each point must be met especially including objectives and hypothesis, reference list, and review of the articles per section.

Excerpt From Essay:
References:

Dietrich, T., Jiminez, M., Krall Kaye, E.A., Vokonas, P.S., Garcia, R. (2008). Age-dependent associations between chronic periodontitis/edentulism and risk of coronary heart disease. Journal of the American Heart Association, 117, 1668-74.

Fisher, M.A., Borgnakke, W.S., Taylor, G.W. (2010). Periodontal disease as a risk marker in coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 19, 519-26.

Geismar, K., Stolze, K., Sigurd, B., Gyntelberg, F., Holmstrup, P. (2006). Periodontal disease and coronary heart disease. Journal of Periodontology, 77, 1547-54.

Holmlund, A., Holm, G., Lind, L. (2010). Number of teeth as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of 7,674 subjects followed for 12 years. Journal of Periodontology, 81(6), 870-6.

Ide, R., Mizoue, Y., Fujino, T., Kubo, T., Pham, T., Shirane, K., Ogimoto, I., Tokui, N., Yoshimura, T. (2008). Oral symptoms predict mortality. Journal of Dental Research, 87(5), 485-9.

Starkhammar Johansson, C., Richter, A., Lundstrom, A., Thorstensson, H., Ravald, N. (2008). Periodontal conditions in patients with coronary heart disease: a case-control study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 35, 199-205.

Tabrizi, F., Buhlin, K., Gustafson, A., Klinge, B. (2007). Oral health of monozygotic twins with and without coronary heart disease: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 34, 220-5.

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Title: To test the hypothesis that decreased consumption of cholesteral decreases mortality from cardiovascular disease

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 847
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: These is no specific topic for this assignment. This essay is more like a hypothesis study. The instruction for this assignment is:

"You have been contracted to test the hypothesis that decreased consumption of cholesterol decreases mortality from cardiovascular disease. Assume that you have been given lots of time and money, and told to do a really good study. Outline how you would conduct this study. Be specific about what you would do."

Here are some criteria that has to be considered:

Ethics - you should not be designing a study that is putting someone at risk for increased problems or increased disease/death

Sample Group - you must talk about who is being studies, how they are selected, age etc...with reasons as to why you are using this group

What type of design you chose is up to you, it must make sense and must not manipulate people's lifestyles..... remember that you are testing the hypothesis.

Methods and Measurements - be sure to include how you are observing and measuring these people....dietary intake? blood tests? weight gain etc...

Comparison and results - you must talk about how you are going to analyze the data, what you expect to see etc....how long is the study going to be...
Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke. 21 June 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/bb_heartdisease/index.htm

Centers for Disease Control. 2004. Heart Disease and Stroke: The Nation's Leading Killers. 21 June 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_cvd.htm

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Title: Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-Aged Individuals in a Worksite Setting

  • Total Pages: 15
  • Words: 5037
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: The purpose of this paper is to develop an intervention to address the problem cardiovascular disease through the enhancement of physical activity. In Chapter 2, the literature will will present relevant empirical and theoretical data, and the results from multiple interventions.

Following are the instructions contained in the Literature Review portion of the major paper.

The preliminary literature survey will include at a minimum 15 pages of narrative text which critically reviews the relevant literature, or the critical review of at least 30 references in narrative text format. The narrative text format is defined as a critical analysis of the body of literature as a whole and of each study individually which expresses the student''s organization of the knowledge-base toward justifying the proposed activities. Unacceptable alternatives to the narrative test format include annotated bibliography, outline, non-critical report, and unintegrated summaries. Proposals of empirical research should include a review of available measurement strategies and instruments, including psychometric qualities (e.g., reliability and validity). Proposals of qualitative research should include a review of the literature related to naturalistic inquiry and qualitative methodology.

References - includes all cited works.

Appendices - letters of permission to use copyrighted tolls, instruments,etc.
Excerpt From Essay:
References:

AHA.org. Aha Statistics. 2003. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.americanheart.org/Health/Lifestyle/Statistics/HowToUse/

Heart at Work. 2003. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.americanheart.org/haw/

AMRE.com. Curbing the High Cost of Cardiovascular Disease. 1997. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.amre.com/content/rl/cardio2.html

Bond, J.T., E. Galinsky, and J.E. Swanberg. The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York, NY: Families and Work Institute, 1998.

Braunwald, E. "Cardiovascular Medicine at the Turn of the Millennium: Triumphs, Concerns, and Opportunities." New Engl J. Med 327 (1997): 1360-69.

Brehm, R. What Is a Stress Model? 2002. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.green-river.com/assign110.htm

BSR.org. Work Life. 2003. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.bsr.org/BSRResources/WhitePaperDetail.cfm?DocumentID=536

Carney, R.M., et al. "Major Depressive Disorder Predicts Cardiac Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease." Psychosom Med 49 (1988): 410-21.

CDC.gov. Physical Activity and Health: Executive Summary. 1996. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/sgr/summary.htm

Erfurt, John C., et al. Starting in a Small Way... Bethesda, MD: NIH, 2001.

Frasure-Smith, N., et al. "Gender, Depression, and One-Year Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction." Psychosomatic Medicine 61 (1999): 26-37.

Frasure-Smith, N., F. Lesperance, and M. Talajic. "Depression and 18-Month Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction." Circulation 91 (1995): 999-1005.

Gilpin, R., and Jean M. Gilpin. The Challenge of Global Capitalism: The World Economy in the 21st Century. New York: Princeton University Press, 2000.

HeartCheckAmerica.com. Heart Check America. 2003. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.heartcheckamerica.com/

Hunt, Jennie P., Karen A. Donato, and Carlos J. Crespo. Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health: Bibliography: January 1990 through September 1995. New York: DIANE Publishing Company, 1999.

Hurrell, S.J., and C. Cooper. Job Control and Worker Health. New York: Wiley, 1989.

ICIHEALTH.org. Community Based Interventions for Cvd Risk Reduction through Modification of Behaviors Influencing Blood Pressure and Other Risk Factors. 2003. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.ichealth.org/html/p3.html

Israel, B.A., et al. "The Relation of Personal Resources, Participation, Influence, Interpersonal Relationships and Coping Strategies to Occupational Stress, Job Strains and Health: A Multivariate Analysis." Work and Stress 3 (1989): 163-94.

Ivancevich, J.M., and M.T. Matteson. "Promoting the Individual's Health and Well

Being." Causes, Coping and Consequences of Stress at Work. Eds. C. Cooper and Payne. Copenhagen, DK: Wiley, 1988.

JOB-STRESS-NETWORK. Suppressed Anger and Coronary Heart Disease. 2003. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://www.workhealth.org/risk/rfbanger.html

Lazarus, R. "Psychological Stress in the Workplace." Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 6 (1991): 1-13.

Long, B.C. "Stress Management for School Personnel: Stress Inoculation Training and Exercise." Psychology in the Schools 25 (1989): 314-24.

McDermott, M., B. Schmitt, and E. Wallner. "Impact of Medication Non-Adherence on Coronary Heart Disease Outcomes." Arch Intern Med 157 (1997): 1921-29.

Orris, Peter, et al. Initial Finding and Recommendations Concerning the Psychological Effects of the Working Conditions of Package Truck Drivers at United Parcel Service. Chicago: The Division Of Environmental Health Illinois Department of Public Health, 1993.

Pickering, T.G. Ambulatory Monitoring and Blood Presure Variability. London: Science Press, 1991.

Sauter, S.L., and J.J. Hurrell. "Occupational Health Psychology: Origins, Content, and Direction." Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 30.2 (1999): 117-22.

Schnall, P.L., et al. "The Relationship between Job Strain, Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Hypertension." Ninth International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health. Cincinnati, OH, 1992.

Schnall, Peter L. Manual for the Evaluation and Treatment of Workplace Stress and Heart Disease Risk: Center for Social Epidemiology, 2002.

Schulz, Richard, et al. "Association between Depression and Mortality in Older Adults." Arch Intern Med 160.12 (2000): 1761-68.

Taylor, C. Barr, John Cooke, and Walton T. Roth. Physiological and Biological Cvd Risk Factors in Older Depressed Patients. 2000. Retrieved March, 5 2003 from. http://pstlab.stanford.edu/PPG/study2/heartdisease.html

Trigg, R., V.A. Wood, and H.R. Langton. "Social Reintegration after Stroke: The First Stages in the Development of the Subjective Index of Physical and Social Outcome (Sipso)." Clinical Rehabilitation 13 (1999): 341-53.

Wrzesniewski, Kazimierz, et al. "Gender and Age Differences in Coronary-Prone Behavior across Cultures." Increase in Coronary Heart Disease in Central and Eastern Europe:Stress- and Gender related Factors. Eds. Maria Kopp and Gerdi Weidner. Budapest, HUNGARY, 2000.

Zeigelstein, R., et al. "Patients with Depression Are Less Likely to Follow Recommendations to Reduce Cardiac Risk During Recovery from a Myocardial Infarction." Arch Intern Med 160 (2000): 1818-23.

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Title: Oral health link to increase Cardiovascular disease

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1194
  • Bibliography:4
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: This is a research paper for a health class. The topic is listed below and the key question is to investigate periodonitis and coronary heart disease (CHD)[see below]. It needs to be 12pt font, times new roman, and 4 pages long. The references will be included; however, you can use other references if needed or provides info to support a claim. The class lecture slides are provided below and a sample introduction will be sent to give an idea of whats they are looking for.

Introduction Guidelines
1. Start with a brief description of the problem ( see powerpoint slide info below ??" Lecture Slides)
2. National or International Statistics and Facts (e.g., In 2010, 45% of citizens….) But don’t fill it up w/ too many statistics
3. Provide a general review of recent key studies relevant to the problem
4. Provide a reference list, of those articles ou are using in your introduction section, at the end of the assignment ( using APA formation

General hints: when writing you introduction section:
- Refer to studies by author and year (e.g., “ A study by Smith et al. (2004) reported that…”
- Do NOT use/cite websites such as Wikipedia, WedMD, etc. ( only cite original journal articles or very recent book chapters of research studies)

Lecture slides relating to topic:
Introduction to Lit. Review (past tense)
Brief description of the overall problem
??" Do not cut and paste (plagiarism)
Cite key studies, using reputable sources
??" Give statistics, facts (not just internet sources)
??" Discuss if studies to date conflict, or lack of studies
Ends with a transition to the Lit. Review

Topic:
A bright smile is not just a way to express emotion; it’s also a place in food breakdown, speaking, and health potential risks. Oral hygiene is a labor of love, and if not cared for properly it can lead to other health issues. The matter is growing concern to patients and to providers, as well. Individuals with dental plaque, tooth loss along with periodontal disease are at an increased risk to cardiovascular disease. The link between oral health disease and cardiovascular disease gives reason to individuals to care about their health.

Key Topic question:
Does poor oral health link individuals to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, as it is the source of bacterium to enter the bloodstream and reduce full function of the cardiovascular system?

Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:


Abnet CC, Qiao YL, Dawsey SM, Dong ZW, Taylor PR, Mark SD (2005). Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of total death and death from upper gastrointestinal cancer, heart disease, and stroke in a Chinese population-based cohort. Int J. Epidemiol 34:467-474

Amar S, Han X (2003). The impact of periodontal infection on systemic diseases. Med Sci Monit 9:RA291 -- RA299. Medline

Azarpazhooh A, Leake JL (2006). Systematic review of the association between respiratory diseases and oral health. J Periodontol 77:1465-

De Oliveira, C.,Watt, R and Hamer, M (2010).Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from Scottish Health Survey. Toothbrushing, inflammation, and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from Scottish Health Survey

Janket, S.J., Baird, A.E., Chuang, S.K. & Jones, J.A. (2003) Meta-analysis of periodontal disease and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Oral Surgery Oral Medicine

Oral Pathology Oral Radiology Endodentology 95, 559 -- 569.

Jansson L, Lavstedt S, Frithiof L (2002). Relationship between oral health and mortality rate. J Clin Periodontol 29:1029-1034.

Khader, Y.S., Albashaireh, Z.S.M. & Alomari, M.A. (2004) Periodontal diseases and the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases: a Meta-analysis. Journal of Periodontology 75, 1046 -- 1053

Lloyd-Jones D, Adams RJ, Brown TM, et al. (2010). Heart disease and stroke statistics -- 2010 update. A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;121:e1-e170.

Meurman JH, Hamalainen P. Oral health and morbidity -- implications of oral infections on the elderly. Gerodontology. 2006 Mar;23(1):3-16

Scannapieco FA (1999). Role of oral bacteria in respiratory infection. J Periodontol 70:793-802

Tonetti, M.S., D'Aiuto, F., Nibali, L., Donald, A., Storry, C., Parkar, M. et al. (2007). Treatment of periodontitis and endothelial function. N.Engl.J.Med., 356, 911-920.

Xu, F., Markowitz, L., Sternberg, M., Aral., S (2006)Prevalence of circumcision in men in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. AIDS 2006 - XVI International AIDS Conference

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