Essay Instructions: For this research project, you will consider a very practical question. While it may initially seem unrelated to the Christian worldview, as you study it, you will see that it has deep implications for the Christian businessperson and the Kingdom of God. The issue is: “which form of business organization is best for a client in a given situation and how should that entity be taxed?”
As noted, at first blush, this very practical question may seem to have very little to do with the Christian worldview. That conclusion, however, would be in error. The Bible is a very practical book and it is concerned with every facet of our lives. There is no part of the universe over which Jesus is not Lord (See, e.g., Matthew 28:18). Accordingly, there is no part of our lives with which He is not concerned.
Further, we as Christians should be good stewards of what God has given us, and we should be about the business of being fruitful and multiplying and taking dominion over the Earth (See, e.g., Genesis 1:28–31, 9:1 and 7). A primary means for accomplishing these goals is through just commercial activity conducted through business enterprises.
Consider this: the Pilgrims and Puritans who settled what is now Massachusetts did so via the business organization known as a Joint Stock Company. Business enterprises have developed cures for various diseases. They have built skyscrapers that tower over the landscape like mountains and dug vast tunnels under the sea beds. Businesses have been essential in accomplishing this amazing level of dominion over the earth and helping us to be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth just as God commanded.
Therefore, choosing the right business organization form and tax regime for a new business is very much a God-honoring endeavor. With that said, now consider the following fact pattern for this research project:
Alex, Bill, Carl, and Devon inherit from their Dad an operating organic farm in New State. The farm includes an orchard, various vegetable garden tracts, fields usually planted in grains, several trout ponds, and a poultry operation. In addition to selling the various organic products, the farm usually invites the public in each year during the fall for a corn maze, pumpkin patch, and other amusements. Alex, Bill, Carl, and Devon were never interested in farming, so their cousin, Xavier, was trained to run the farming operation by Dad and has been helping Dad do so for the past 5 years. Xavier wants to continue to do that, and Alex, Bill, Carl, and Devon are willing for him to continue to do that. Therefore, they want to form a business entity to own the farm, which Dad ran as a sole proprietorship. Obviously, they don’t want a lot of formalities or complexities to “fool with” since they want Xavier to handle the day-to-day operations of the farm. Further, they want to minimize their taxes on the entity, they want to avoid any personal liability from the farming operations, and they want to keep the business in the family (it might be fine to sell interests in the business to their kids or to Xavier, but they would not want a stranger owning part of the business).
They have discussed the deal with Xavier, and he is very excited. In fact, he proposes that the business borrow an additional $500,000 and expand its operations to include a vineyard. There is a bank willing to offer financing, but Alex, Bill, Carl, and Devon would have to be willing to sign personal guarantees. They are still thinking it over, but they probably will proceed with Xavier’s plan for expansion.
They want you to be their accountant in New State, and therefore they come to you for advice as to which would be the best form of business organization to use for operating of the farm.
Alex, Bill, Carl, Devon, and Xavier are all Christians and want their business to be organized and operated in accordance with the Christian worldview.
In view of their situation described above, which form of business organization would you recommend? Explain fully, including the strengths and weaknesses of each form of business organization and be sure to make application to the specific facts of this situation. Assume for the purposes of this assignment that New State has typical statutes governing business organizations and that New State’s taxation of business organizations follows the federal regime.
Suggest Helpful Resources:
For an excellent article discussing the relative advantages and disadvantages of s-corporation taxation and partnership taxation, see Walter D. Schwidetzky, Integrating Subchapters K and S—Just Do It, 62 Tax Law. 749 (2009). For an excellent discussion of one of the primary benefits of s-corporation taxation for many closely held businesses, the minimization of employment taxes, see Timothy M. Todd, Multiple-Entity Planning to Reduce Self-Employment Taxes: Recent Cases Demonstrate the Pitfalls and How to Avoid Them, 13 Journal of Tax Practice & Procedure 31 (April/May 2011).
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: The assignment in Week Three is Decisions in Paradise Part I consists of the following:
a. Read the Modified Business Scenario Decisions in Paradise (at the bottom of the assignment description)
b. Assume the role of Nik, and use Pacific Express (PacEx) as the organization represented by Alex, Nik, and Chris.
c. Using the information from the case, materials from the course, independent research, and information from your current organization or those provided
by your faculty facilitator for the parent company, FedEx, in the course materials thread, prepare a 700- 1,050-word paper, in which you develop the preliminary considerations for FedEx and PacEx
to establish a greater presence on Kava by:
1) Defining the issues that appear in this business scenario
2) Discussing the forces that are involved in formulation of the problem Using problem formulation tools and techniques, describe the
organizational and cultural (some will refer to this as environmental) obstacles in the way of attaining the necessary manpower and training to
deliver an initial operations within a Kava-based PacEx business unit. The PacEx cargo port will be tied to FedEx’s distribution cargo port in the
Philippines. Address how the various key Kava civic leaders and government (i.e. stakeholders) will be impacted by the various decisions and policies that
PacEx must implement using parent company guidance in areas such as equal opportunity, language on the job. Limit your debate to the areas of
employee recruitment, selection and employee training on PacEx and FedEx policies, procedures and cargo port work processes. Remember, we are
following the steps in the decision-making model.
3) Apply critical thinking in the decision-making process
Decisions in Paradise: How To Be, or Not To Be
My name is Nik. I spell my name a little differently. But, with so many folks named Nicholas, Nicolette, Nicole, Nikoleta, Nikola, and more, I figure I’d let people guess.
Like everyone else, I periodically imagine what paradise on Earth would be for me. In my imagination, my trip to paradise includes having a wonderful, loving relationship, finishing my college degree, getting a meaningful job, seeing some of the rest of the world, and getting my dog, Leonard, housebroken.
Although I’d been working on all this stuff for what seems a lifetime, I couldn’t believe that they all came together for me within a three week period; although, I’m still working on Leonard.
Within two weeks of finishing my degree, I landed a job with great potential in a solid organization called Federal Express within a sub unit called Pacific Express (PacEx). All the investment of time, energy, and money in school finally paid off, not to mention I learned a lot more than I thought I would. The next week I reconnected with a former “friend”, that could prove to be the love of my life. Did I point out I’m still working with Leonard?
Adding to paradise found, my first assignment with my new company required me to travel to another part of the world—an island country of Kava, in the South Pacific to be exact. Now who thinks of the South Pacific and doesn’t image a physical paradise – white beach, gentle surf, swaying palm trees, tropical breeze – I sure did, and so did the prospective love of my life. We agreed the first trip would be strictly business. So, I would be traveling alone. Poor Leonard. If this assignment and our relationship worked out well, however, we could spend other occasions together in paradise.
My first week of work was entirely engulfed in a brief introduction to the company, HR procedures, organizational processes, overview of Kava, and flight arrangements. Although I received a great deal of help in putting together the trip to Kava, no one knew exactly what I would be doing there since PacEx was such a new unit. Our trainers had an idea it is a mini-FedEx for the smaller countries across the Pacific Ocean. The only real insight I obtained to PacEx operations was a briefing our trainers had on file from the first President of PacEx.
“You’ll be working with Alex, our director of strategic planning for PacEx,” was the short, quick, and consistent response I got. “Very experienced, very demanding, very influential executive. What an opportunity for you!”
So, the following week I was off to Kava, to meet with Alex, my supervisor and mentor, for my assignment in paradise.
I hope the love of my life gets Leonard housebroken while I am gone.
My first reminder that life’s events are not as we perceive them to be is when I landed in Kava. What I found was that this part of paradise was a mess, at least where I landed. It was a mess all the way to our company’s office at the airport. It was a mess around the office. The trailer office was right next to a fairly new hanger lined with offices inside and I could see conveyors and new material handling equipment being installed as we drove up. New vehicles for package delivery were lined up with PacEx decals on the side. It looked like FedEx had multiple contractors delivering everything necessary to start a PacEx business unit.
I opened the door of the trailer, our make-shift office. The office was a mess, too!
Before I could focus myself to say anything, even to greet the receptionist sitting behind the desk, the hectic yet very welcoming voice rang out, “Greetings, I’m Alex.”
I was a bit surprised. Correction: I was very surprised. People never look like you picture them—nothing is like your mind ever pictures it—but I was way off with Alex. I should have known better, but I still answered, “Really? You’re not the receptionist? You’re not at all how I pictured you.”
“Really?” Alex responded, “How did you picture me……..” gesturing me to introduce myself.
“I’m sorry. I’m Nik,” I responded.
“You are Nik?” was Alex’s retort. “Wow! You’re not even close to how I pictured you, either.”
“So much for perception is reality,” we said in unison.
“Well, that was a wave of commonality in this sea of diverse thought, eh?” Alex quipped.
I quickly learned Alex loved metaphors.
“Yeah, let’s see if we can have many more of these we experience,” I answered, hoping my first impression was not my last.
Again with a hectic this time reassuring voice Alex said, “Oh we will.
“So, you’re one of the rookies they sent me from FedEx training camp. Get ready for some fun games. By the way, I am also the receptionist.”
“Let me tell you a little about Kava,” Alex continued, and with a note of humor and threat added, “And, make sure you keep your eye on the ball this time.”
Alex debriefs Nik about Kava.
FACTS ABOUT KAVA:
A significant island country in the South Pacific.
Settled by both Britain and France during the first half of the 19th century, the island was made a French possession in 1853. It served as a penal colony for four decades after 1864. Agitation for independence during the 1980s and early 1990s ended in a 1998 Accord, which transferred an increasing amount of governing responsibility from France to Kava. Kava assumed full sovereignty and independence in 2006.
Over 50% under 15 years of age, an AIDS epidemic affected significant numbers of middle-aged adults and elderly. The epidemic is now under control.
Ethnic mix of indigenous South Pacific tribes, Asian (Chinese primarily), African, French, Spanish, and since World War II, a sizeable number of Americans.
Religions – Indigenous 50%, remainder closely divided between Christian, Buddhist, and Islamic.
Languages – Numerous indigenous, as well as English, Spanish, and French.
A male dominated society where women are viewed in a negative way when it comes to education, and voting rights. With the recent epidemics significant number of women are being introduced to the work force. Star Semiconductor ended up with a significant number of women workers. Bribery is especially bad in the business community. Community leaders consist of elders who hold “town hall” meetings where issues should be introduced and discussed. Meetings with these elders can result in local support to solve issues.
Petroleum, coffee, cocoa, spices, bananas, sugar, tourism, fishing, and natural gas, as well as inexpensive, quality labor.
High risk for avian flu
Terrorism, from within and outside the country
Governmental service – local, state, and national levels—including the military
Community based organizations
After Alex’s introduction to Kava, reviewing the potential risks associated with our location, and thinking I’m showing Alex my great observation skills, I declare, “That’s why the mess all around here. Some disaster hit this place. Right?”
Alex’s eyes spoke, “No kidding, slugger.” But kinder and more informative words came from Alex’s mouth that said, “No, not some disaster. It was some disasters—fastballs being thrown from all sides, so to speak.”
I asked my first stupid question, “What kind of disasters have they had here?”
With some chiding, but great patience, Alex replied, “Don’t they teach about things that happen in the rest of the world at your college, or did you get hit by a pitch?”
“They do,” I answered, “but like everybody else, I guess, it if doesn’t affect me directly, I don’t pay much attention.”
“Every day, in many ways, you’re affected directly by things that happen in many parts of the rest of the world,” Alex responded, this time with less patience. “I bet what happens in Kava impacts your life at least three times a day, every day. You may not get all the fly balls, but you’re still in every part of the game”
“What happened here was…..
“How did the folks deal with all that?” I interrupted with amazement.
“Too much, too many, and over too short a period,” Alex answered with sigh. “Add to that the diverse composition, beliefs, attitudes, and ideologies, and you’ve got a melting pot boiling over.”
“Or, everybody thinks they can pitch, eh?” as I took a swing at metaphoric statements.
“Good one,” Alex stated. “Yep. Now, let’s get to work on our game plan.”
Alex began to define our mission from PacEx and my assignment:
“Our company is considering establishing a greater presence here in Kava with a start up cargo processing operation,” Alex started. “That greater presence could take various forms, based on what’s good for our company and what’s good for the people of Kava. You and I get the chance to analyze, synthesize, and prescribe regarding that decision.” He continued; “Star Semiconductor Inc. has built a huge plant on Kava and it is our job to ensure the air delivered supplies get to the plant and that the components they produce are shipped to other assembly plants in the Pacific quickly and efficiently. This the first big contract for PacEx and we’ve got to deliver.”
“Why Kava, because so many disasters happen here?” I questioned. “I think I can write up this recommendation in two words, ‘Forget It’”.
Again with great patience, Alex explained, slowly and deliberately, “I guess you can just take your ball and go home. But our organization chose to play in this game and you chose to join our organization. If you really want to play, you will have to take your turn at bat. There are no designated hitters in this game.”
I rephrased my thoughts, “OK, we want a greater presence on Kava beyond our initial commitment with Star Semiconductor, because so many disasters happen here and PacEx can help them obtain relief and humanitarian supplies.”
Alex answered, “Yes, but even more. Certainly, one reason is that whatever happens here affects us there. I’ll make sure you understand that as we create this operation. As you’ve seen recently, disasters happen at home, too. We can avoid, deny, or ignore them. We have to turn them into opportunities. Another huge reason is the founder of PacEx, Chris Morales, has a deep-seeded commitment to doing what is right. Not because of the economics, or politics, or recognition, but because it’s the right thing to do. Our organization is far from perfect, but we keep trying to upgrade who we are, what we do, and how we do it. Chris believes we can’t keep taking more from Kava, if we don’t give more back. Chris wants to live up to that Morales name. And, the third, maybe most consequential reason is the government of Kava, and I’m sure indirectly a bunch of other organizations, are asking us to bring our business “culture” to Kava.
“Why is their government asking our company, a for-profit business, to help them with their, uh, social needs?” I asked.
“There are also three big, basic reasons, for that,” Alex answered, “and loads of other minor ones.
“First of all, through our growth, our company has demonstrated that we can develop and manage a very effective, as well as highly efficient, organizational structure and processes. That includes all aspects of the company; marketing, finance, purchasing, technology, human resources, physical resource, transportation, strategic planning, leadership, etc.
“Secondly, the goods and services that come from Kava, have a significant impact on our company, you and me, and most folks back home who use computers or other forms of technology, as well as people all over the world. Star Semiconductors are used in just about every type of electronics.”
“Last, and certainly not least, as Chris has preached and demonstrated, ‘In the long run, economics drives everything.’”
Alex concluded with, “So, are you ready for your turn at bat?”
“I guess,” I answered will all the confidence of a first-time skydiver. “But, I wouldn’t mind if you’re the leadoff hitter, at least for right now.”
“OK, then. Keep your eye on the ball,” Alex instructed, “because here’s what we, by that I mean you, need to do first.
“All those fresh new critical-thinking skills you developed in your education should be applied, because I want you to write a not-too-long Business Action Plan Part I to what will be our company’s plan about how we have a greater presence on Kava. I think Part I of our action plan should discuss the following areas. I would like for you to defining the issues we are facing to establish our PacEx operation. Just about everything we need has been delivered to us by FedEx. Our challenge is the people part of the business enterprise. This is a different place than the United States, so I would like for you to discuss the forces that are involved in formulation of the problem by describing the organizational and cultural (some will refer to this as environmental) obstacles in the way of attaining the necessary manpower and training to deliver an initial operations within a Kava-based PacEx business unit. Our PacEx cargo port will be tied to FedEx’s distribution cargo port in the Manilla, Philippines. Address how the various key Kava civic leaders and government (i.e. stakeholders) will be impacted by the various decisions and policies that PacEx must implement using parent company guidance in areas such as equal opportunity, language on the job. Since I will be pulling the plan together, I will let you focus on the areas of employee recruitment, selection and employee training on PacEx and FedEx policies, procedures and cargo port work processes. To help you out the PacEx home office delivered our People Policy, which is our employee handbook and the FedEx Code of Business Conduct. Hope you remember all that you observed at the FedEx cargo-processing hub since our operation has to be just as efficient. I noted that FedEx has some video clips you can watch if you forgot what you saw.”
“So, how to be, or how not to be here,” I joked, “That is the question.”
“That’s right, Hamlet.” Alex joked in return, “Although I think was Milton not Shakespeare who wrote Paradise Lost. Let’s see if we can find it.”
Some sources that might be some use
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Subject: Starting a small business in Germany / How to start a small business in Germany
(aspects that are relevant to establish a small business enterprise)
- the audience is uninformed or not familiar with this topic so the subject should be adequately explained
- APA format is required
- provide own opinions
- define and explain the material in support of your thesis
- 7 sources are required (2 print references, 3 electronic indexes or databases, 2 periodicals or professional journals) these sources have to be reliable
- the perspective should be that you explain how you(!) would start your own business
- the paper should contain some of the following points: naming a business, thinking about starting a business, business failure statistics and risks, getting necessary license and permits, marketing a new business, branding a business, choosing a form of business ownership (just take the most important and relevant points)
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Hi,
I need a 5000 word Literature Review Report on the topic: "The Benefits and Values of Cloud Computing to Business Enterprises". You can use any reputable research papers, articles or journals alongside the ACM Communications Journal and Professor Dr Rajkumar Buyya's articles, research papers and journal materials which could be found in his (Prof Buyya) on-line home page on "www.buyya.com".
I would like the report to be properly referenced (Harvard Format) with the appropriate FULL List of References attached to the completed report. PLEASE do make the work to be as ORIGINAL as possible because it will be uploaded for PLAGIARISM CHECK!!!
The SPECIFIC Report Structure, Contents, Headings and Sub-Headings for the Report are CLEARLY OUTLINED in detail in the attached document....
Excerpt From Essay:
I really do appreciate HelpMyEssay.com. I'm not a good writer and the service really gets me going in the right direction. The staff gets back to me quickly with any concerns that I might have and they are always on time.
I have had all positive experiences with HelpMyEssay.com. I will recommend your service to everyone I know. Thank you!
I am finished with school thanks to HelpMyEssay.com. They really did help me graduate college..