Title: The Boston Massacre
- Total Pages: 6
- Words: 2104
- Citation Style: APA
- Document Type: Essay
History 201-102 American History until 1865
A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots.
The job of a historian is to study one aspect of a historic period to apply research and analysis into an argument and deeper understanding of a region. You may pick any topic that falls inside the time of the class (precontact-1865). We will be doing this paper in stages to guide you to a successful completion of the assignment.
Please use 12pt font. (No Courier or Arial Fonts)
Use Chicago Manual of Style (footnotes) and Bibliography
5 to 9 page
You must have at least ONE primary source
You must have at least FOUR Scholarly secondary sources
The goal of this paper is to further your understanding of the complex world of colonial Latin America. It is essential that you form an argument about your topic. I am not asking for a simple summary of a topic, rather you will argue a thesis and prove your argument through your evidence.
You are writing an Argumentative research paper. ?An argumentative research paper needs to support your stand on an issue. An argumentative research paper is analytical, but it uses information as evidence to support its point, much as a lawyer uses evidence to make their case.?2 In this paper, you become the expert on your topic. Write with the authority about your topic. You are explaining your own interpretation of the evidence and argument.
Your thesis statement is a fluid idea that changes according to your research. You are providing an argument for your topic but realize that you have nine pages to make your point. You are not expected to have every detail in the paper. Rather focus on a simple narrative or theme so you can make the most of your space and make the most effective argument.
The question most students have is how do you start the research? Think about a question that interest you about the topic. In example, why was Cort?s so successful? Was it military strength or luck? You need to break up broad topics into smaller ideas. Make sure however that they are not too narrow. These questions will guide your research and will lead you to an argument.
For my 5-9 page history paper I plan to write about the Boston Massacre. For my thesis I want to try and determine from my own point of view whether it was an unprovoked attack from British soldiers or merely self-defense. To determine this I will mainly concentrate on primary sources written by both the British and the Colonist and use my best judgment to argue either unprovoked attack or self-defense.
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Agresto, John, "Art and Historical Truth: The Boston Massacre." Journal of Communication, 29, no. 4, (1979).
Adam, Johns & Butterfield, L.H. (ed). Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, vol. 2. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1962.
Allison, Robert. "The Boston Massacre." Beverly, MA: Apple wood Books, 2006.
Linder, Doug. "The Boston Massacre Trials: An Account." UMKC School of Law. 2001. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/bostonmassacre/bostonaccount.html
Woods, Thomas, " Exploring American History: From Colonial Times to 1877." New York: Associated University Press, 2008.
Young, Alfred, F. "Revolution in Boston? Eight Propositions for Public History on the Freedom Trail," The Public Historian 25, no. 2 (2003):17 -- 41.
Title: Nationalism and Marytrdom: Symbolic Deaths in the American Revolution
- Total Pages: 25
- Words: 6813
- Citation Style: Chicago
- Document Type: Essay
Please include a bibliography and use CMS style footnotes for the paper. Block quotes should be used exclusively for the primary sources identified below, if they are necessary. Generally, paraphrasing rather than direct quotes from most sources or secondary works is preferred, and should be used to support the topic sentence of each paragraph.
The first section of the paper discusses the general role of symbols in nationalist movements, noting (but not limited to) how and why symbols are selected, their function within the nationalist movement (of particular importance for the paper) and with external parties (those resisting or supporting it, and neutral actors). The transition to the next section can be based on the use of figures labeled martyrs in the contemporary discourse regarding the nationalist movement. As a largely theoretical section, reliance on secondary works is acceptable, but primary sources may be incorporated from other cases to solidify the argument. Helpful secondary works on this topic include: Imagined Communities by Benedict Anderson; Crown of Thorns: Political Martyrdom in America by Eyal Naveh; Myth and Memories by Anthony Smith; Nations and Nationalism since 1780 by E. J. Hobsbawm and National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative edited by Michael E. Geisler.
The second section should begin by defining martyrdom. Because of the expansive volume of scholarship on this topic, this section can be written indirectly as a literature review by incorporating the definitions of various authors into an argument that develops a concept of martyrdom relevant to secular, nationalist movements. It should note that the association of a particular historical figure or incident with martyrdom is largely dependent on how it is perceived by the audience (that is, the internal and external parties discussed above). This enables a transition to the next section, based on primary sources.
The third section includes the analysis of various figures from the American Revolution that can be considered martyrs based on the definition above and their portrayal in primary sources from the era. The victims of the Boston Massacre and Nathan Hale can fit this, but should not be the only ones discussed. This section should rely on primary sources from the American Revolution portraying those symbolic figures: newspaper articles and opinion columns, pamphlets, speeches, and artistic representations. It should be developed to reflect and support the arguments of the previous two sections as a case study of secular, nationalist martyrs.
The concluding section should incorporate a summarizing analysis of the martyred figures discussed in detail in the previous section and the implications of the thesis and supporting argument for studies of nationalist movements and martyrdom generally.
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Githens-Mazer, Jonathan (2007) Ethno-Symbolism and the Everyday Resonance of Myths, Memories and Symbols of the Nation. Everyday Life in World Politics and Economics. International Conference - Centre for International Studies, LSE, Penryn, Cornwall, 11 May 2007.
Sharon, (unknown) (1995) Title Not Stated: Chapter 2. Online available at http://ponce.inter.edu/vl/tesis/sharon/chap1.html
Martyrdom (2009) Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online. Accessed March 28, 2009. Online available at http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/martyrdom
Views from a Former Christian Conservative (2004) rghojai. Daily Kos 6 Nov 2004. Online available at http://www.dailykos.com/story/2004/11/7/2421/07447
Stuart, Isaac William and Hale, Edward Everett (1855) Life of Captain Nathan Hale: The Martyr-Spy of the American Revolution published originally by F.A. Brown 1856. New York Public Library Digitized 11 July 2007. Online available at Google Books at http://books.google.com/books?id=NqIEAAAAYAAJ&dq=martyrs+of+American+Revolution&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Sylvia R. Frey, Water from the Rock: Black Resistance in a Revolutionary Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Benjamin Quarles, the Negro in the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961.
Nell, William Cooper, and Stowe, Harriet Beecher (1855) the Colored Patriots of the American Revolution. R.F. Walcutt 1855. Google books online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=Jy8OAAAAIAAJ
Martyrs and Heroes (2008) the American Revolution. Online available at http://www.americanrevolution.com/MartyrsandHeroes.htm
Title: History of Architecture of Boston
- Total Pages: 5
- Words: 1481
- Citation Style: MLA
- Document Type: Research Paper
Revolutions and Red Sox: The Historic City of Boston
Boston is one of America's oldest and most historic cities. It is the capital and the most populous city of Massachusetts, one of the thirteen first states of the United States of America. However, Boston's history stretches back even farther than the existence of the American union. It was founded on November 17, 1630 by Puritans, and the city in its oldest cobblestone and brick quarters still retains much of its distinct Puritan look in its architecture and design (Boston, Massachusetts: City History, CityLights, 2008). Some wits might also say that it does so in some of its attitudes, such as the fact that Boston's public transportation system the closes shortly after midnight, while New York City's subways runs all night!
When the Puritans arrived, Native Americans still lived in the area, thus Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine like the Indians. The Puritans later renamed the town for Boston, England, an area in Lincolnshire, from which a number of the colonists had emigrated (â€œBoston, Massachusetts: City History,â€ CityLights, 2008). The Puritans came to Boston fleeing persecution from the Anglican Church, but they did not come to embrace religious tolerationâ€”citizenship in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was restricted to church members until 1664 and church dissidents like Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams were banished from the colony. There was also the famous hysteria spawned by the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 (Banner 2008).
Yet in addition to these exhibitions of religious intolerance, Boston encouraged tremendous intellectual ferment and scholarship. It encouraged higher learning, with the founding of Boston Latin School and Harvard University (Banner 2008). Later, Boston's elite liked to think of their city as the â€˜Athens of America,â€™ with Harvard College as its Parthenon (â€œBoston Brahmins,â€ Murder at Harvard, 2008). Although such elitism has been fought from within and without the many educational institutions of the city, Boston still houses some of the finest schools in the world within its confines or nearby, including Harvard University, MIT, Boston University, and Boston College, to name just a few.
Boston led the way in technological innovation during the 17th century. The first printing press in the colonies was built in Cambridge by Stephen Daye in 1639. Colonial Boston was one of the world leaders in shipbuilding and quickly became the primary port of North America. Boston was one of worldâ€™s wealthiest international trading ports because it was the closest major American port to Europe. Its New World exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco (â€œBoston, Massachusetts: City History,â€ CityLights, 2008).
And of course tea. The independence of mind exhibited by the Puritans during this era carried over into the early 1770s, when Boston gave birth to some of the most vehement demonstrations and to wrest the colonial governments away from British control. The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles occurred in or near the city, including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston (â€œBoston, Massachusetts: City History,â€ CityLights, 2008). The revolution itself is largely credited with beginning in Boston, after the British army sent â€œtroops to the towns of Lexington and Concord to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and to seize arms which the colonists were storing. Paul Revere and William Dawes rode through the night to warn the colonists of the approaching soldiers. The next morning, on Lexington Green, â€˜the shot heard round the worldâ€™ was fired, and the American Revolution began. Two months later after the Battle of Bunker Hill, George Washington was summoned to Boston to take command of the rebel armyâ€ (â€œBoston, Massachusetts: City History,â€ CityLights, 2008).
After independence was won, Massachusetts became one of the industrial powerhouses of the new nation. As one the first states, it was linked by roads, canals, and later railways to almost all of the major supply and transport hubs. Textiles in nearby Lowell, Massachusetts contributed to the cityâ€™s rapid growth during the 1840â€™s and Bostonâ€™s status as a port made immigration a plentiful source of immigrant labor, particularly the Irish. â€œThe 1840s and 1850s brought more Irish to America than any other decades. The arrival of thousands created a need for housing that resulted in the evolution of slums. Unskilled laborers were most likely to find work near the waterfront. Ostracized and homesick, the Irish settled near the wharves where they found inexpensive rent and friends from their homelandâ€ (Frisch 2005).
Unlike Chicago and New York, the structure of Boston made it easy for residents of wealthier enclaves to remain isolated from the new workers. â€œThe unique geography of Boston, a peninsula city, made expansion possible only by landfill. All of Boston's new neighborhoods in the mid-nineteenth century were created by leveling off hills and using the dirt to fill areas of water to create new land. These new landfill areas were generally small and largely bordered by water, so it was easy to keep them exclusive. When immigrants did move in to the newly fashionable Old South End, the Brahmins moved outâ€ (â€œBoston Brahmins,â€ Murder at Harvard, 2008).
Many of the new Irish immigrants found employment as domestics, and at one time 2/3 of all unskilled laborers in Boston were of Irish ancestry. The Irish faced great prejudice in the eyes of the established Boston elites: â€œNone need apply but Americansâ€ meant â€˜no Irishâ€™ need apply in 1845 (Frisch 2005). Thus as well as being a city of industrialization and immigration, Boston could be a city of elitism and class tensions. â€œVisiting Boston for the first time in the 1830s, Harriet Martineau noted that it was â€˜perhaps as aristocratic, vain, and vulgar a city, as described by its own â€˜first people,â€™ as any in the world.â€™ What particularly distressed Martineau was the evidence of an aristocracy of wealth amid a new republic, a group whose cultural pretensions and social exclusivity she saw a particularly at odds with the democratic ideals of egalitarianism and inclusive citizenshipâ€ (â€œBoston Brahmins,â€ Murder at Harvard, 2008).
Many of these Boston Protestants were abolitionists, regardless of their personal prejudices. â€œThe Civil War was a profitable time for Boston manufacturers, with the production of weapons, shoes, blankets, and other materials for the troopsâ€ (Banner 2008) However, â€œwhile industrialization and advances in transportation brought a great array of products within reach of the typical household, life for those who worked in the factories was hard,â€ according to some, almost as hard as slavery (Browne, 2003, p.4). â€œThe workweek averaged 55 to 60 hours. Work was monotonous and highly regimented. Accidents were common. Periodic economic downturns resulted in unemployment and loss of income. Whereas the farm households of prior generations might have been able to get by in hard times, raising their own food and making their own clothes and implements, factory workers depended on employment to support themselves and suffered greatly during business slowdownsâ€ (Browne, 2003, p. 4).
In the 20th century, the importance of manufacturing in Boston's economy began to decline. â€œNew England auto makers are thought to have lost their early lead in automobiles partly because their manufacturing experience with electric and steam engines led them to experiment more with these power sources, while their mid-west competitors focused on the internal combustion engine. In addition, mid-western entrepreneurs who had made fortunes in lumber and mining provided capital for local auto companiesâ€ (Browne 2003, p.3). Some also believe Bostonâ€™s refusal to allow more immigrants within its circles of power, which would have brought new ideas and new capital, played a role in its limited growth at this time (Domosh 1990, p.264).
But Boston still remained a place of great intellectual capital. It was one of the first states to pioneer the innovation of a structured public school system. The name of Horace Mann is still known today, the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, as he tried to make a practical education available to all, including recent immigrants, which he argued would be an important part of their socialization into the national culture (Browne, 2003, p.3).
Boston suffered a great deal during the Great Depression. â€œWith the outbreak of War II, factories were retooled for the war effort, and people went back to work on the production lines. Again Boston was a major arms manufacturer during wartimeâ€ (Banner 2008). And because of the new importance of science and technology, its considerable intellectual capital proved a great source of profit, and continues to, to this day. Today, Boston has become a leader in the computer and other technology-dominated industries. Financial and service industries are also strong. Fenway Park, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Freedom Trail draw tourists from around the world. Although controversies still exist about what Boston will look like in the future, such as the debate surrounding the creation of the Freedom Tunnel and the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, as part of the Big Dig Project, it seems the city will continue to play an important role as an educational and cultural powerhouse (Banner 2008).
In this course we address the physical transformation of the cityscape. Our purpose is to explore the complex and tangible evolution of urban form, to understand visual meanings lodged in the urban domain, to comprehend the dynamics of order within dissonance. We engage our investigation thematically, and by probing change in modes of representation. Our case study approach considers several European and American cities from 1800 to 2000. Requirements for the course are substantial: readings, dialogs, graphic analysis, written papers, and examinations; the course is a good choice for those who love cities, and who recognize that the city is too important to be casually considered.
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The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.bostonhistory.org
Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.storyofboston.com
Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.iboston.org
Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com