Essay Instructions: HIS 2or
Research Paper Guidelines
_Prospectus/Annotated Bibliography Due: Monday, October r5, 2oa2
-nough Draft Due: !!'ednesday, November r4r zoaz
Tinat Draft Due: Monday, December 1tl, zorz (No LATE PAPERS
Points Available : Prospectus/Annotated Bibliography-s o points,
Rough Draft-roo, Final Draft-aoo
, Length: 6-8 typedpages of text, double-spaced (not includingthe
bibliography or €over page)
Cover Page with your name and. a title for your paper
Double-spaced" pages with page numbers in qne of the corners
Nprmal Margins and Normal Size Fqnt (size ro-rz)
Throughout this semester, we have and will explore a variety of topics. Now that we are
at midterm, I would like you to begin thinking about a topic that you would like to
explore in more depth. Your task here is to research a particular topic within the timeperiod
and geographic region of the class and then write a formal, polished research
paper. As you begin this process, remember that a formal history paper is tightly
structured with a clear, precise thesis, Iogical, detailed paragraphs that include vivid,
specific evidence. Your paper should also be free of grammatical and mechanical errors.
In other words, this essay should reflect your best writing.
Step r-- Choose a Question &Write a Prospectus
Choosing a topic can be difficult. The topic needs to be not too big (that you could write
a several volume encyclopedia on) but not too small (that you only have one page to say
about it). And the topic needs to interest you! To get some ideas, look through your
textbook, browse the internet, talk to me and explore a library. After some initial
research, please complete a prospectus. Basicallyyou witl teil me the following:
1. Rough Topic Choice
2. Research Question: What do you want to find out?
A guess to the answer to your research question. This is called your "working
thesis" because it may change after you look at the research more fulIy.
A tentative list of points that you would like your paper to make in order to
support that thesis. I expect at least 4 tentative points listed in the prospectus to
earn full credit.
As you work on this prospectus, please note that it asks you to write a thesis-a central
statement that will guide your research. This statement should be in direct response to
your researchq uestion. If you needh elp on any part of thesep rocessesp, leasec omes ee
Step z-Find Supporting Historical Evidence (Annotated Bibliography)
I strongly recommend going to a library. Throughout your college career, knowledge of
how to use the library and researchv arious topics will aid in your successg reatly.
NgVEn QUOTE OR PARAPHASE \ ruKIPEDIA. But you may use Wikipedia to get a
rough idea of what was going on around your chosen topic. Use other websites like
Google scholar, to find articles about your topic. Go to a library and find books that
might cover your topic or have a chapter that covers your topic. After you find at least 3
different sources, you need to make an "annotated bibliography," which means you list
all your sources and then you write t-z sentences about what each source offers you in
way of answering your research question and supporting your thesis. See the example
below of a typical entry to an annotated bibliography:
Spielvogel, Jackson J. We,stern Civilization. NewYork City: Thomson
Wadsworth Publishers, 2oog.
Neither the rough draft nor the final paper need annotates for each bibliographic entry.
Step 3-- Organize and Write Your Paper
Write an introduction that tells the reader a little about your topic and give your thesis
statement at the end of the introduction paragraph. If an introduction is difficult for
you to write, then just state your thesis and start with the body of your paper. Now, use
the paragraphs to logically explain your thesis with supporting reasons, examples, and
details. Remember that you need to use Chicago-style citations (footnotes-see handout
on how to do this format of citation) to tell the reader where you got all your
information. Assume that the reader wants to know where you got every single fact and
idea (nothing is common knowledge, not even that George Washington was the first
presidento f the United States).U set opic sentencesto organizep aragraphsa nd link
them to your thesis. To achieve the recommended length, it is quite likely that you will
need to do a fair amount of research. If you are citing correctly, you should have at least
3 citations at the bottom of each page. If each page has between a quarter and half with
footnotes, then you are doing fine. Along with the footnotes throughout the paper, you
need a bibliograpLy that includes every single source that you even glance at (include
sources that you did and did not quote or paraphrase). ihe bibliography is in place of a
Step 4--Conclude and fotish Your Paper
Finally, write a concluding paragraph that brings your paper artfully to a close. After
finishing an initial draft of your paper, you maywant to go to the writing center to get a
when you are pleased with the content of your essay; be sure to proofread carefully. If
grammatically correct English is a problem for you, be sure to find a friend r,vhoi s good
at English or go to the writing center. Throughout the process, be sure to ask me for
help if you have problems or concerns. I'll be glad to help you.
Common Grammar and Spellinq Errors
. No first or second person, meaning do not use the foilowing words: "I",
uriyr" u[ner' no:uirr' uyotJtr" ttyour" *yoursr" ou.s." Without using these taords,
Aour paper will sound like a stronger argument because historians are
skeptics, and theg uill always ask the question, "tahg sLnuld I belieue
o Also, this paper is a professional piece of work, and when you use
first or second person, it sounds much less professional or formal.
o No contractions, meaning do not use: "don'tr" "didn'tr" "isn't," "wasn't,"
ul'rrr,n" let's," etc. Instead, write out both words: do not, did not, is not,
was not, I am, let us, etc. The onlg time that a' (quote mark) should be
used is uthen Aou are stating that something belongs to someone else, Iike
"Julius Caesar's best friend..."
o Capitalization, meaning make sure the first letter of every sentence is
capitalized and proper nouns (like Miria, or the Renaissance).
Chicago Manual of Style
Footnote citations: Each time you quote a work by another aythol 9r us9 the ideas of another author'
t"dt""te the source with a footnote. A sma-llnumber written in superscript directly
iollowing the borrowed material indicates a footnote in the text of your paper. Each new footnote gets a
1-r"* rrrrirb"r (increment by one); do not repeat a footnote number you've already used, even if the
earlier reference is to t]:e same wori<. The number refers to a not6 number at the bottom of tJre page.
This note contains the citation information for the materials you are referencing. Do not use
parenthetical or other citatioh formats. The citation format you should use for history papers is called
euoling sources in vour paper: Most often, you should paraphrase materials f.rom other authors,
particriiarly poignant or important, you will want to present those words directly to your reader' There
toi"" of quoting iraterial, which can be found in Chicago style handout. Here are some basic
rules to get you started:
. When qubting others, any words of another author are placed between double quotation
in the original. Do not put any words t]rat do not appear in the
original between quote marks. t
. Never simply d.rop a quotation into your paper. Quotations must be integrated into your own
prose. Intioiuce youi speaker to your readers, so tJrey will know whom you are quoting.
General RuIe of Thumb for Chicago Style Foobrotes is as follows:
Last Name, First Name ltalizedTitte (Locanon of Press: Press Name, yeat),page number'
The following are examples of different types of sources:
Book with One Author:
D""ig*, W"" dy. Splitting 171p2ii fference(C hicago:U niversity of ChicagoP ress,1 999),47.
Book with Two Authors:
Weixlrnann, Joe and Houston A. Baker, Jr., eds. Black Feminist Criticism and Criticsl Theory (Greenwood,
FL: Penkevitle Publishing Company, 1988), 56.
Editor, translator. or compiler instead of author
Lattimore, Ricjrmond, tr arts, Tlrc ltind of Horner (Chicago: University of Chicago Ptess, 1951), 13 .
Artide in a print journal
f'.ff.r, At dtew. ';Pragmatism, Feminism, and Democracy: Rethinking the Pottics of American
Tlistory," I oumal of American History 89 (March 2003) : 1'612'
Article in an online iournal
Bartholomeusz, Tessa. "In Defense of Dharma: ]ust-War Ideology in Buddhist Sri
Lar*a,',lournato f BuddhistEtltics6 (1ggg),[ e-journal]
(accessed1 5 February 1999).
NAACR "Legal Abfatrs,N" AACP Onlinef homepageo nline]; availablef rom
http:/ /www.naacp.org/programs/Legal.htrnl Irrterneu accessedM ay 3,1999.
THIS INFO IS THE RESULT OF A SCAN OF THE GUILDLINES FOR THIS PAPER, YOU ARE GOING TO HAVE TO READ THRU THE MISTAKES CAUSED BY THE SCANNING. I HAVE ALREADY DONE THE PROSPECTUS W/ THE ROUGH TOPIC CHOICE BEING BENEDICT ARNOLD. THE QUESTION IS: WHY DID HE DO IT? MY ANSWER IS; BECAUSE OF THE COMBINATION OF A SERIES OF EVENTS THROUGHOUT HIS LIFE WHICH INFLUENCED HIM, IN THE END, TO TAKE CARE OF #1 FIRST. MY 4 TENETIVE POINTS ARE: 1.) THERE WAS ALOT MORE THAT CAUSED HIS DEFECTION THAN JUST THE INFLUENCE OF A WOMAN. 2.) HE WAS ONE OF THE MOST RESPECTED, AND FEARED OF AMERICA'S REVOLOUTIONARY MAJOR GENERALS. 3.) IN-FIGHTING AND JEALOUSY PLAYED A MAJOR PART IN HIS DEFECTION. AND 4.) HIS ABILITIES AS A REVOLUTIONARY LEADER WERE FAR SUPERIOR TO THOSE BEING PROMOTED AROUND HIM, HE WAS AN OUTCAST.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: I would like five separate two page papers on writing assignments taken from "The Progymnasmata". Read each short description of some of the different kinds of writing exercises in "The Progymnasmata" then write a two page paper. After each short description of each writing exercise, a list of topics are given. Underneath the list of topics given for each exercise I have indicated which topic I would like you to write about.
Commonplace. This is an exercise that expands on the moral qualities of some virtue or vice, often as exemplified in some common phrase of advice. The writer in this assignment must seek through his or her knowledge and reading for examples that will amplify and illustrate the sentiments of the commonplace, proving, it supporting it, or showing its precepts in action. This is a very typical assignment from the Greek and Roman world in that it assumes a considerable state of cultural knowledge. Here are several commonplaces that might be amplified:
a. An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory
b. You always admire what you really don?t understand.
c One cool judgment is worth a thousand hasty counsels.
d Ambition is the last infirmity of noble minds.
f power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely.
G as the twig is bent, so grows the tree
h the pen is mightier than the sword.
I would like a two page commonplace paper on letter B (You always admire what you really don?t understand. )
Praise or blame. This assignment expands on the virtues or shortcomings of some person or thing. The encomium, or work of praise, describes and celebrates the inherent excellences of someone or something. While the invective, or work of blame, exposes the inherent evils. Aphthonius says that both praise and blame can cover a wide variety of subjects such as persons, things, times, places, and even plants, but most works of praise or blame center on people and their deeds. After an introduction, the encomium or invective gives historical background as necessary, then details praise or blame as relating to the subject?s actions as they reveal soul, body, and fortune. The following are a variety of specific subjects that can easily be used either for works of praise or works of blame:
a. The public positions of Malcolm x or Martin Luther king on racial issues.
B The leadership of Benedict Arnold or Erwin Rommel.
C The social in influence of Phyllis Schlafly or Madonna.
D The ethics of Hilary Rodham Clinton
E. The judicial career of Robert Bork.
F. The parental performance of your mother or father.
I would like a two page praise paper on letter A (praising Martin Luther King for public positions on racial issues).
Comparison. This assignment compares and contrasts two people or things and explores their merits and shortcomings by relating them together. By putting two subjects either equal or unequal side by side, much can be shown about them. Aphthonius says that the comparison is usually either a double encomium or an encomium joined with an invective, but both elements are given extra force because they are conjoined. It is important not to place a whole next to a whole, but to divide up the comparison so that like elements for each part of the subject are put side by side- childhood with childhood, physical appearance with physical appearance and so forth. The result of the comparison will be a better understanding of both subjects, and usually the reader will also have come to admire or dislike one more than the other. The following are some possible paired subjects for comparison:
a bill Clinton and Newt Gingrich
b David Letterman and Jay leno
c Justice Sandra Day O?Connor and Justice Ruth Bader Gins berg
d Ani di Franco and Barbra Streisand
e MTV and vh1
g writing and speaking
h law and business careers
I would like a two page comparison paper on letter g (writing and speaking)
Description. This assignment is designed to bring the subject distinctly into view, creating intense and graphic depictions. Descriptions can be organizes spatially (from top to bottom, head to foot, side to side) or chronologically (beginning to end, first to last, history to future), and through descriptions of context and internal structure. Aphthonius recommends a relaxed and natural style for description that represents faithfully the thing being described. Here are some possible subjects for description:
a. A prisoner about to be executed by lethal injection
b. A group of angry students in a fort lauderdale bar
c. A homeless women pushing a shopping cart.
D An automobile accident
E The conductor of a youth orchestra
F Parents dropping off a new first-year-student as college.
g. A person with a serious illness.
I would like a two page description paper letter D (An automobile accident).
Legislation. This is the final assignment in the progymnasmata, the one that uses the rhetorical skills learned in all the previous work. In this assignment, the student argues for or against passage of a law. Since passage of legislation always involved real and practical questions or social and political action, the opposition in legislation assignment must not merely be taken into consideration but must be refuted and defeated. The law in question can be argued for or against, Aphthonius once again counsels use of fact, action, constitutionality, justice, expediency, and practicability.
a. should food stamps be discontinued?
b. Should a motorcycle helmet law be passed?
c. Is the equal rights amendment still necessary?
d Should cigarettes be declared and regulated as a drug?
e. should women be drafted into combat?
f. should there be term limits for senators and representatives
g. should marijuana be legalized?
I would like a two page legislation paper on letter G (should marijuana be legalized?) make sure that you take a position stating whether you are for or against marijuana being legalized at the beginning of the paper.
A few things to keep in mind as you write
1. Papers should have a conversational tone
2. They should be your own original ideas
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