RESEARCH PAPER GUIDE
United States Military History
l. Requirement: Write a term (research) paper following the instructions explained below.
2. Purpose: To reinforce knowledge of the Principles of War, gain experience in historical research, practice analyzing and interpreting material, learn how to prepare a senior-level paper, and write about a subject that interests you.
3. Assignment: Examine The Bay
research it thoroughly, determine how the Principles of War applied by developing an outline then develop your thesis by formulating an opinion about some aspect of the battle. Then write a term paper discussing your analysis and presenting your position. NOTE: Your thesis must somehow address the applicable?but not necessarily all of the Principles of War.
4. Paper's Introduction: The first paragraph of your paper must accomplish the following:
a. Let your readers know what your paper is about, arouse their interest, and put your topic into historical context. (Not necessarily in that order.)
b. Clearly state your thesis. (Your thesis is your conclusions about your topic). This must be accomplished by using the following exact words to begin your thesis statement, which can be put anywhere, in the first paragraph: ?It is the thesis of this paper that?? The applicable Principles of War must also be somewhere in the first paragraph.
5. Body of the Paper: This must be devoted entirely to explaining and proving your thesis. Ideally, your explanation will include the six interrogatives: who, what, when, where, how, and why.
6. Paper's Summary: The last paragraph of your paper must briefly restate the main points of your thesis. Note: Your summary must not contain new information not covered in the body of your paper.
7. Title Page: Select an appropriate title for your paper and put it on your cover page following the format in your selected writer's handbook.
8. Length: The text of your paper, excluding the title page, outline and ?Work Cited? list must be 10 pages.
9. Format: Your paper must be typed or computer-printed using standard formatting Use the guidance and documentation models in the writer's Guide or handbook of your choice. Recommended writer's guides and handbooks are Dodd?s The Ready Reference Handbook; Rampolla, A Pocket Guide to Writing History; Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertation; and University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style.
10. References: You must consult, incorporate in your text, and acknowledge a minimum of eight sources. You must use one Internet source. No more then one Internet source can be used. Encyclopedia articles (both electronic and paper), dictionary entries, the course textbooks, and classroom notes may be cited, but cannot be counted as part of the eight required sources.
a. Sources used must be cited using your choice of the following methods:
(1) Standard footnotes or endnotes.
(2) Parenthetical documentation-either Modern Language Association (MLA) Or American Psychological Association (APA).
b. Sources cited in your text must be listed in a bibliography at the end of your paper. You may use the format specified in your selected writer's manual, with the Following exceptions:
(1) The title must be "Works Cited" rather than "Bibliography."
(2) Sources must not be separated by subheading, e.g., "Primary Sources," "Books and Articles," etc.
(3) Only works actually cited in the text can be included in the "Works Cited" listing.
(4) All sources cited in text and notes must be included in the --Works Cited" listing.
Nine Principles of War
The nine principles are concisely stated as objective, offensive, mass, economy of force, maneuver, unity of command, security, surprise, and simplicity. They are set forth in Field Manual 100-5 as follows:
Objective. Every military operation must be directed toward a clearly defined, decisive, and attainable objective. The ultimate military objective of war is the destruction of the enemy's armed forces and his will to fight. The objective of each operation must contribute to this ultimate objective. Each intermediate objective must be such that its attainment will most directly, quickly, and economically contribute to the purpose of the operation. The selection of an objective is based upon consideration of the means available, the enemy, and the area of operations. Every commander must understand and clearly define his objective and consider each contemplated action in light thereof.
Offensive. Offensive action is necessary to achieve decisive results and to maintain freedom of action. It permits the commander to exercise initiative and impose his will upon the enemy; to set the pace and determine the course of battle; to exploit enemy weaknesses and rapidly changing situations, and to meet unexpected developments. The defensive may be forced on the commander, but it should be deliberately adopted only as a temporary expedient while awaiting an opportunity for offensive action or for the purpose of economiz?ing forces on a front where a decision is not sought. Even on the defensive the commander seeks every opportunity to seize the initiative and achieve decisive results by offensive action.
Mass. Superior combat power must be concentrated at the critical time and place for a decisive purpose. Superiority results from the proper combination of the elements of combat power. Proper application of the principle of mass, in conjunction with the other principles of war, may permit numerically inferior forces to achieve decisive combat superiority.
Economy of Force. Skillful and prudent use of combat power will enable the com?mander to accomplish the mission with minimum expenditure of resources. This principle is the corollary of the principle of mass. It does not imply husbanding but rather the measured allocation of available combat power tot the primary task as well as secondary tasks such as limited attacks, the defense, deception, or even retrograde action in order to insure sufficient combat power at the point of decision.
Maneuver. Maneuver is an - essential ingredient of combat power. It contributes materially in exploiting successes and in preserving freedom of action and reducing vulnerability. The object of maneuver is to dispose a force in such a manner as to place the enemy at a relative disadvantage and thus achieve results which would otherwise be more costly in men and materiel. Successful maneuver requires flexibility in organization, administrative support, and command and control. It is the antithesis of permanence of location and implies avoidance of stereotyped patterns of operation.
Unity of Command. The decisive application of full combat power requires unity of command. Unity of command obtains unity of effort by the coordinated action of all
forces toward a common goal. While coordination may be attained by cooperation, it is best achieved by vesting a single commander with the requisite authority.
Security. Security is essential to the preservation of combat power. Security is achieved by measures taken to prevent surprise, preserve freedom of action, and deny the enemy information of friendly forces. Since risk is inherent in war, application of the principle of security does not imply undue caution and the avoidance of calculated risk. Security frequently is enhanced by bold seizure and retention of the initiative, which denies the enemy the opportunity to interfere.
Surprise. Surprise can decisively shift the balance of combat power. By surprise, success out of proportion to the effort expended may be obtained. Surprise results from striking an enemy at a time, place, and in a manner for which he is not prepared. It is not essential that the enemy be taken unaware but only that he becomes aware too late to react effectively. Factors contributing to surprise include speed, deception, application of unexpected combat power, effective intelligence and counterintelligences, to include communication and electronic security, and variations in tactics and methods of operation.
Simplicity. Simplicity contributes to successful operations. Direct, simple plans and clear, concise orders minimize misunderstanding and confusion. If other factors are equal, the simplest plan is preferred.
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