Bicheno, Hugh. Midway. London: Cassell, 2001.
This book provides an overall review of the Battle of Midway. It pays particular attention to the strategic errors made by both sides and how those errors contributed to the battle's outcome.
Bowen, James. "Despite Pearl Harbor, America Adopts a "Germany First" Strategy." 8 October 2009. America Fights Back. 25 November 2011
The website article by James Bowen discusses how United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was persuaded by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to adhere to the "Germany First" war strategy after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. The article explains that the "Germany First" war strategy was not announced to the American public because it would have been an admission that America's army in the Philippines and the U.S. Pacific Fleet would be abandoned to its fate in the event of a Japanese attack. The victory at the Battle of Midway was crucial in enabling Roosevelt to maintain full attention on both fronts of the war.
Buell, Thomas. The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance. Boston: Little Brown, 1974.
Admiral Raymond A. Spruance commanded U.S. naval forces during the Battle of Midway. His leadership of the U.S. Pacific Fleet during the battle resulted in sinking four Japanese Fleet carriers along with destroying 322 airplanes. Thomas Buell takes an in-depth look into Spruance's decision making at Midway. He also gives detailed insight of Spruance's take on the Battle.
Fuchida, Mitsuo, & Masatake Okumiya, Raymond A. Spruance, Clarke H. Kawakami, Roger Pineau, Thomas B. Buell. Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan, the Japanese Navy's Story. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2001.
This book provides insights into Japanese perspectives on the Battle of Midway. Two of the authors are Japanese aviators who participated in the battle and they offer their opinions on how the battle changed the fortunes of the War. The book explains how the Japanese operations at Midway were ill conceived and poorly planned.
Lundstrom, John B. First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway. Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 2005.
In this book the author examines the impact of the air warfare in the Pacific primarily from the view of the carrier pilots. It explains the early problems that the air squadrons faced and how they adjusted. He reviews the significance that air warfare played in the outcome of the Battle of Midway.
Pearl Harbor to Midway. Dir. Edwin Newman. 1989.
Director Edwin Newman's film explains how the United States was caught by surprise on the morning of December 7, 1941, when the Japanese Navy attacked the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The attack resulted in the United States declaring war on Japan. After Pearl Harbor and the start of the war, the Japanese Navy continued on the offensive by gradually capturing territory throughout Asia and the Pacific. The film details how the attack on Pearl Harbor severely damaged eighteen American warships, destroyed or damaged 347 aircraft, and left 2,403 dead on the ground. These American losses convinced Japan that they were in position to expand their empire further by attacking the island of Midway.
Prange, Gordon. Miracle at Midway. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
Gordon Prange's book gives eyewitness accounts from the men on both sides who fought in the Battle of Midway. It describes how crucial intelligence gathering by the U.S. Pacific Fleet was paramount to America's success in the battle. The narrative also recalls the action and shows exactly how American strategies and decisions led to their surprising victory against the heavily favored Japanese Navy.
Tully, Anthony. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Virginia: Potomac Books, 2005.
Authors Anthony Tully and Jonathan Parshall offer interpretation on the Battle of Midway from the Japanese perspective. The book highlights many of the mistakes made by the Japanese at Midway, and it also describes the state of the Japanese Navy after the conflict. This material provides insight into Japan's own documentation, and forces a controversial reevaluation of key events that took place during the battle.
Battle of Midway
All three sources agree that the Japanese deemed the Battle of Midway a key to domination of the Pacific. According to Weinberg, the Japanese Navy's intended landing on Hawaii required victory at Midway; consequently, the loss of Midway rendered an invasion of Hawaii impossible.[footnoteRef:6] Keegan agrees that Midway was Japan's strategic objective in mid-1942[footnoteRef:7] and Overy calls the Battle of Midway "The most significant fleet engagement of the War."[footnoteRef:8] Weinberg concludes that if Japan had won at Midway, "the course of the War could have proceeded very differently."[footnoteRef:9] [6: Ibid., p. 330.] [7: Keegan, p.88.] [8: Overy, p. 43.] [9: Weinberg, p. 339.]
The assertions about the importance of Midway for Japanese expansion are supported by the authors' explanations of the Japanese adjustments after Midway. After Midway, the Japanese could not expand their domination of the Pacific. Weinberg maintains that the Japanese expansion to the East, South and in the Indian Ocean ended with the loss at Midway.[footnoteRef:10] According to Weinberg, Japanese expansion into the Indian Ocean, which the Japanese had promised to the Germans and wished to pursue, was decisively crippled by the American counterattack on the Solomon Islands that kept the Japanese preoccupied.[footnoteRef:11] Consequently, the Japanese defeat at Midway did not merely result in a stalemate; rather, it forced the halt of Japanese efforts to expand their domination of the Pacific Ocean. [10: Ibid., pp. 329, 339.] [11: Ibid., p. 339.]
Japan's loss at Midway also meant that the U.S. could take an offensive position in the Pacific, forcing the Japanese into a defensive position. As mentioned previously, Japan's initial plans to push further into the Indian Ocean were crippled by preoccupation with the American counter-attack on the Solomon Islands.[footnoteRef:12] According to Weinberg, that very American offensive, that