Archaeology Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Archaeology College Essay Examples

Title: Discussion questions

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1740
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay




Archaeology and Science

Required Reading:
The Idea of Indigenous Knowledge. Horsthemke
Indigenous Knowledge and Archaeological Science. Green, Green, and Neves
Can the Sciences Help Us to Make Wise Ethical Judgments? Kurtz
What is Archaeology Today? Pyburn & Joyce

Discussion questions:
1. Do you think Peter Mathews bears any responsibility for what happened to him? How might he have avoided the unpleasant experience he had in Chiapas?
2. Is it ethical to restrict intellectual freedom?
3. What is the difference between cultural relativism and moral relativism?
4. Are all stories about the past equally good?
5. Why do you think the SAA Code puts “stewardship” first?
6. Why did I ask you to pass the human subjects test?


Required Reading:
Ethics and Archaeology: The Attempt at Catalhoyuk. Hodder
Can you hear me back? Holtorf
Building a Bridge to Cross a Thousand Years. Lippert
Producing knowledge for multiple stakeholders. Pyburn & Joyce
Ethics in Action [excerpt]. Colewell-Chanthaphonh, Hollowell, McGill

Discussion questions:
Make a list of as many groups of stakeholders in archaeological resources as you can.
What can archaeologists do to address concerns of Indigenous People?
Do Indigenous People have special rights concerning archaeological sites and artifacts?
What rights do archaeologists have to do their work?
Are archaeologists stakeholders?


Required Reading:
In the Spirit of the Code. Smith & Burke
Stewardship Gone Astray. Groarke & Warrick
Our Collective Responsibility. Zimmerman
Ethnography & Historic Preservation. Holyoak

Discussion questions:
1. What are some conflicting definitions of Stewardship?
2. What does it mean to “reconstruct a building”
3. Should every archaeological site be saved? Should all preserved sites be preserved according to a particular set of “preservation criteria”?
4. What artifacts should always be displayed: What artifacts should never be displayed?


Required Reading:

Human Skeletal Remains; preservation or Reburial. Ubelaker
Federal Repatriaton legislation. Ousley, Billeck & Hollinger
NAGPRA is Forever, Rose, Green & Green
NAGPRA Before & After. Weiss
Review. Weaver
Native Americans and the Practice of Archaeology. Ferguson
Ancient DNA in Anthropology. Kaestle [pp 106-109]

Discussion questions:
1. Why are some collections of human bone more scientifically important than others?
2. When human remains are buried, what may be lost to science?
3. What would you say to the granddaughter of the person whose bones you want to study?
4. If there is only one known skeletal example of a human from a particular time period, is that example more important to science or less?

Cultural Resource Management

Required Reading:
Managing Archaeological Resources in the Modern World. Pyburn & Joyce
Clients, Contracts, & Profits. Raab, Klinger, Schiffer, Goodyear
Inadvertent Vandalism. Sullivam, Uphus, Roos, Mink
Making a Differende.Wimberly
Helping Grassroots. Neal & Sanchez

Discussion questions:
1. Pyburn & Joyce argue that archaeology, including cultural resource management must be
a “science.” Why do some archaeologists disagree?
2. Can a profit motive be reconciled with preservation?
3. How should site significance be determined?

Professional Conduct

Required Reading:
How to Pick an Archaeological Field School. Pyburn & Joyce
Golden Marshalltown.Flannery
Teaching Archaeology in the 21st Century.Davis

Discussion questions:
1. What should you look for in a field school?
2. What things must every archaeologist be trained to do?
3. Should archaeology be separate from anthropology?
4. Should archaeology students be required to take ethnographic methods classes?
5. Why is timely publication important? The data are already old!
6. Should archaeologists drink in the field?
7. Should field crews develop personal relationships with local people? How
8. How has archaeology changed since Flannery wrote the Golden Marshalltown parable?
How has it stayed the same?

The Art Market

Required Reading:
Ethical considerations is transforming archaeology. Vitelli

Discussion questions:
1. Should private ownership of ancient things ever be legal?
2. Should universities insure their antiquities collections?
3. What are the FBI strategies for catching thieves? Do they seem effective?
4. Why do people want to buy ancient objects?
5. Is an artefact forger a villain or a hero?


Required Reading:
Moral Arguments on subsistence digging. Hollowell
Stealing History. Brodie, Neil, Watson
The Battle for the Past. Kersel (review)
Using Local Groups to Prevent Looting. Haagstrom

Discussion questions:
1. How is looting different from art collecting?
2. What is subsistence digging? Is it ethical?
3. When people in poor countries dig up artifacts to sell, who profits?
4. Should archaeologists excavate secretly to deter looting?


Required Reading:
Ethics and the Contemporary Museum of Anthropology. Hurst-Thomas
Working in Museums as an Anthropological Archaeologist. Joyce
Subverting the Menu. Silverman
Repatriation, Display and Interpretation. Jame

Discussion questions:
1. How much information should a museum provide about each item on display?
2. Why is it important for a museum to have a clear acquisitions policy?
3. Should museums agree to curate items they are not allowed to display?
4. What is your favourite museum - explain?
5. What is your least favourite museum ??" why?

Public Interest

Required Reading:
Exploring Public Perceptions. Ramos
Indiana Jones becomes a Hero. Pyburn & Joyce
follow the links and read most of the pages of this site.

Discussion questions:
1. Is Indiana Jones good for Archaeology? Why or why not? How about Lara Kroft?
2. What should archaeologists tell people who ask if them if they dig up dinosaurs?
3. Should the public be welcome to visit ongoing archaeological excavations?
4. Is there “a” public or are there many publics?

Activism and Community Based Archaeology

Required Reading:
Pyburn As if it Matters
Pyburn Whose Community
Atalay. We don’t talk about Catalhoyuk, we live it
McAnany & Parks. Casualties of Heritage Distancing
McDavid. Archaeologies that hurt

Discussion questions:
1. Compare Atalay’s project to McAnany and Parks.
a. How are their methods different?
b. Which community project would you like to participate in as an ordinary
community member?
2. Can activists do science?
4. How many communities consider you a member?
5. What is the difference between public archaeology and community archaeology?
6. What is participatory action research?
7. what are the reasons to do community archaeology? What are the reasons not to do it?

Archaeology in wartime

Required Reading:
Stone & Bajjaly. Introduction to the Destruction of Cultural Property in Iraq
Cole. Blue Shield
Teijgler. Embedded
Bogdanos. Bagdad
Starrett. Human Terrain
Stone. English Tale

Discussion questions:
1. What happened to the Iraqi National Museum when the US and British armies invaded Iraq?
2. What is Blue shield? How could anyone think it was not a good organization?
3. Should archaeologists have anything to do with war? Can there be any justification for putting energy into protecting things when people are dying?
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Title: Interpretation in Archaeology

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2696
  • Works Cited:20
  • Citation Style: Harvard
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: We will pay $120 for the completion of this order.

Write an Essay on the following topic.
Discuss examples of the post-processualist emphasis on 'the politics of the past'. Do you think this is a useful approach?

Please use bibliography and blackboard for this essay. The use of examples and case studies to illustrate answers are a requirement.
The core texts on bibliography are important to use to.

log into
scroll to online service
then to student online services
Under Teaching & Learning System double click
Then to user name which is 08230250
Password sods1song
Under My Courses
Check for Course 'Interpretation in Archaeology' 0809-AR 236
Then Course info. full bibliography
and list courses relation to Processualism and post-Processualism.

Essay must be double spaced. Always indicate sources in essay using harvard referencing
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Excerpt From Essay:
Works Cited:


Bender, B. 1989. The Roots of Inequality. In D. Miller, M. Rowlands and C. Tilley (eds.), Domination and Resistance. London: Unwin Hyman, 83-95.

Bender, B. 1998. Stonehenge: Making Space. Oxford: Berg.

Gamble, C. 2001. Chapter 2: How Many Archaeologies Are There? In Archaeology: The Basics. London and New York: Routledge, 21-44.

Gero, J. 1994. Gender Division of Labour in the Construction of Archaeological Knowledge in the United States. In G.C. Bond and a. Gilliam (eds.), Social Construction of the Past. London and New York: Routledge, 144-153.

Hodder, I. 1998. The Past as Passion and Play: Catalhoyuk as a Site of Conflict in the Construction of Multiple Pasts. In L. Meskell (ed.), Archaeology under Fire. London: Routledge, 124-139

Hodder, I. 1991 [1986]. Reading the Past. Cambridge: University Press.

Rowlands, M. 1999. Black Identity and Sense of Past in Brazilian National Culture. In P.P.A. Funari, M. Hall and S. Jones (eds.), Historical Archaeology. Back from the Edge. London: Routledge, 328-344. DR

Tilley, C. 1995 [1989]. Archaeology as Socio-Political Action in the Present. In V. Pinsky and a. Wylie (eds.), Critical Traditions in Contemporary Archaeology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 104-116

Trigger, B. 1989. A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge: University Press.

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Title: Civil War Archaeology Annotated Bibliography

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2124
  • Bibliography:25
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I am requesting that A WEST pick up this order. NO ONE ELSE IS TO COMPLETE THIS ORDER.


I need to have 25 citations. I want it to be more like a structured outline with relevant references and associated texts (annotation). The intent is to logically develop a topic in Historical Archaeology and to organize and comment upon the relevant literature. The citations can include: Journal articles, books, book chapters, manuscripts, and some Websites.

Format to be followed:

1. Table of Contents or outline page consisting of a listing of various sub-topics and their PAGE NUMBERS.
2. Introductory section- In which you provide an overview of the topic and discuss how or why you developed it as you did.
3. Annotated references GROUPED according to the topic outline. References should have a few sentences each, although feel free to group the annotations for multiple references. The annotations should demonstrate an understanding of the references and how they relate to the sub-topic or topic at large.

I have enclosed an example of a completed annotated bibliography as a model.

Here are some sources I have located that can be used:

Geir, Clarence R. and Stephen R. Potter, eds
Archaeological Perspectives on the American Civil War. Gainesville, Florida:
University Press of Florida, 2000.

Geir, Clarence R., et al. (David G. Orr, Matthew B. Reeves) Huts and History: The Archaeology of Military Encampment During the American Civil War. Gainesville, Florida.: University Press of Florida, 2006.

De Cunzo, Lu Ann and John H. Jameson Sr., eds.,
Unlocking the Past. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2005.

Geier, Clarence R. and Winter Susan E.
Look to the earth : historical archaeology and the American Civil War. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press 1994.

Clancy, Paul, R. Ironclad: The Epic battle, calamitous loss, and historic recovery of the USS Monitor. Camden, Me: International Marine/ McGraw-Hill Press., 2006.

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Historical archaeological investigations of the Civil War battlefields in the Old South have provided modern researchers with an "appreciation of the complexities inherent in ethnicity in the past, through the powerful integration of multiple data sources that place objects in richer contexts" (p. 603). Because the findings of such investigations are typically communicated to the local public in various ways, such studies remain an important source of cultural binding today. For instance, "The proliferation of ethnic festivals reflects not only the post-Civil War emigration of many Europeans but also the rediscovery of local heritage in many communities" (p. 603).

Thomas, Brian W. (1998). Power and community: The archaeology of slavery at the Hermitage Plantation. American Antiquity, 63(4), 531.

Because of the fundamental role played by power relations in the institution of slavery at it existed in the Old South prior to and during the Civil War, these relations must be considered when trying to interpret the archaeological artifacts of slavery. The author emphasizes that empirical observations and experience confirm that material culture is frequently involved in inextricable ways in establishing and maintaining social relations; however, the precise nature of this participation remains unclear. Because human actors manipulate material culture as a part of complex, at times contradictory, social actions, modern Civil War archaeologists are confronted with some profound challenges in directly correlating material remains with specific social relations. "Given the centrality of power in the plantation social milieu, however, one would expect the material remains from such sites to reflect its pervasive role - as indeed they do" (p. 531).

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Title: Burial Sites

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 628
  • Sources:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: This paper is a summary and evaluation of a story on archaeology seen in a newspaper artical. The paper needs to discuss whether the artical is based largely on scientific data, or if it is prone to more fanciful interpretations that ignore significant quantities of data (an example of a non-scientific interpretation is the belief that Egyptians had help from outer space to build the pyramids). Also, should there have been additional information on archaeology that was not included in the article? Did the articals consider a number of possible explanations for the information presented?

One page paper per artical please. First artical being faxed is from the Los Angeles Times, (Science file) September 11, 2004 titled "Vicking Burial Site, Likely From 10th Century, Found in England" The second article is from The Toledo Blade, (regional news) August 18,2004 "1830's family studied for Sauder Village Archaeologists dig into Fulton County Farm"

Thank you

Again, if sunshine (sunandmike)is avil.......
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