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Appearance Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Appearance College Essay Examples

Title: Appearence vs Reality

Total Pages: 3 Words: 1134 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Here's the thesis for the paper: Both Orwell (1984) and Miller (Death of a Salesman) create a contrast between appearances and reality in order to criticize the political and social structure that exists in society and its negative effects on the individuals.

Please do not use any other sources than 1984 and Death of a Salesman. Also, make sure that there are quotes taken from both works.

Thank You.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Hamlet

Total Pages: 1 Words: 342 References: 1 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Read William shakespear's play, Hamlet. What comment is the play Hamlet making about the theme of appearance versus reality? Please supply one specific example from each of the play's five acts in support of your response.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: The relationship between appearance reality and power in Machiavelli

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1870 Works Cited: 5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Full Essay Question: What is the relationship between appearance, reality, and power in Machiavelli? I warn you in advance that this is more complicated than it might appear to be. Be sure to give examples and to provide your perspective on him in connection with this set of intimately related issues.

Book Used:Niccolo Machiavelli- The Prince

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: How is fashion and appearance central to the construction of social identities Discuss with reference to specific examples

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1246 Bibliography: 3 Citation Style: Harvard Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: How is fashion and appearance central to the construction of social identities? Discuss, with reference to specific examples

Research file
Your research file should contain the following elements:

1. An essay plan – maximum length: two sides of A4 (excluding bibliography)
This should outline the key themes and specific aspects of social identity you are discussing in relation to the question and include:
- Four fully referenced quotations (using Harvard referencing) – at least two of which should be from the unit reader - and a bibliography
- A collection of images (maximum 3) which you will analyse in your essay; these images should be relevant to your degree subject

2. A Piece of Reflective writing
This should be approximately 500 words long and outline your reaction to the intellectual content of the unit thus far. It should also engage with how and why you have decided to study your specific essay topic.

Please use some of the books below:

A. Bennet "Fashion"

J. Craik "Fashioning Masculinity"

T. Dant " Wearing it out: Written Clothing and Material Clothing"
WEEK 1 Cultural Studies
Baldwin, E. et al 1999 Introducing Cultural Studies London: Prentice Hall
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach.
306 INT

Barker, C. 2000 Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice London: Sage
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach.
306 BAR

?Breward, C. 1998 ‘Cultures, Identities, Histories. Fashioning a Cultural Approach to Dress’. in Fashion Theory Vol 2 No 4
Invaluable (and short) introduction to Cultural Studies approaches to studying fashion

Breward, C. 2003 Fashion Oxford: Oxford University Press
Invaluable introduction to understanding fashion, introduces many of the key issues that are central to this unit.

Entwistle, J. 2000 The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress and Modern Social Theory Cambridge: Polity
Hugely useful overview of many of the issues covered in this unit. Do not be put off by chapter one which is far more complex than those that follow.

?Dant, T. 1999 ‘Wearing it out: Written clothing and Material clothing’, in, T. Dant, 1999, Material Culture in the Social World Buckingham: University Press
Clear and very useful discussion of many of the key ideas that underpin this unit.

391.09 BRE

391 ENT

306 DAN
Finkelstein, J. 1996. After a Fashion Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
Short, lucid and accessible introduction to many key approaches to understanding fashion.
391.0301 FIN
Storey, J. 1997 An Introduction to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture London: Prentice Hall.
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach.

306 STO

Strinati, D. 1993 An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture London: Routledge
Useful and relatively accessible introduction to the main themes of cultural studies, does not focus on fashion but offers a valuable overview of many of the key ideas used to study and understand fashion within a cultural studies approach
306 STR

Taylor, L. 2002 The Study of Dress History Manchester: Manchester University Press
Overview of approaches to the historical study of clothing.
391.42 TAY
WEEK 2 The Fashioned Body
Brush Kidwell, C. 1989. ‘Gender Symbols or fashion details’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Examines ways in which the fashion industry has repeatedly redesigned the shape of the human body.

391.0301 KID
Breward, C. 1995. The Culture of Fashion Manchester: Manchester University Press
Social history of fashion from the Medieval period to the present, useful for its attention to situating clothes in their cultural context.

391.0301 BRE

Curry, D. 1993. ‘Decorating the body politic’ New Formations 19
Why body modification - in the forms of piercing and tattooing - is experienced by many as a political act.
Davis, K 1995 Reshaping the Female Body: The Dilemma of Cosmetic Surgery New York: Routledge
Engrossing study of cosmetic surgery.

Gilman, S. 1999 Making the Body Beautiful: A Cultural History of Aesthetic Surgery Princeton: Princeton University Press
Self explanatory title – particular fascinating in its global and historical perspective.
617.95 DAV

617.9 GIL

Hall, S. 1992 The Question of Cultural Identity, in S. Hall et al (eds). Modernity and its Futures Cambridge: Polity
Not fashion focused but a very useful overview of ways of understanding identity
301 HAL
?Macdonald, M. 1995. Refashioning the Body. in Representing Women: Myths of Femininity in the Popular Media London: Edward Arnold
Short discussion of the relationship of women to fashion and the feminine ideals circulated by fashion.
MacKendrick, K. 1998. ‘Technoflesh or, “Didn’t that hurt?”’ Fashion Theory 2 (1)
Cogent theorisation of body modification - in the forms of piercing and tattooing etc
Steele, V. 2001, The Corset: A Cultural History New Haven and London: Yale University Press
Self explanatory title - highly readable and beautifully illustrated.
391.42 STE
Steele, V. 1999 ‘The corset: fashion and eroticism’, Fashion Theory 3 (4)
Examination of how the corset was implicated in nineteenth century conceptions of female erotic beauty.
Steele, V. 1989. ‘Appearance and identity’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Explores the way in which appearance is linked to the concept of identity with particular reference to historical conceptions of gender and power.
391.0301 KID
Summers, L. 2001. Bound to Please: a History of the Victorian Corset Oxford: Berg
Detailed historical analysis of the corset in the Victorian period.
391.42 SUM
Thesander, M. 1997. The Feminine Ideal London: Reaktion Books
Changing ideals of the female body situated in historical and cultural context.
391.0301 THE
WEEK 3 The Great Masculine Renunciation?
Chenoune, F. 1993. A History of Men’s Fashion Paris: Flammarion
Exactly what it says on the tin - highly engaging and lavishly illustrated.

391.1 CHE
?Craik, J. 1994. ‘Fashioning masculinity’ in J. Craik The Face of Fashion London: Routledge
The fall and rise of male fashion.
Gottdiener, M. 1995. ‘Unisex fashions and gender role change’ in Postmodern Semiotics Oxford: Blackwell
Exploration of the social processes governing clothing and gender roles and the uneasy development of unisex styles.
302.2 GOT
Hollander, A. 1994 Sex and Suits New York: Kodansha International
Historical study of the relationship between tailoring and gender, contains material relevant to many aspects of this unit
Steele, V. 1989. ‘Clothing and sexuality’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Addresses, as the title suggests, the relationship between clothing and sexuality offering a useful commentary on how we do, or do not, dress to be sexually attractive.
391.0301 KID
Vinken, B. 1999. ‘Transvesty - travesty: fashion and gender’ in Fashion Theory 3 (1)
Explores the historical relationship between clothing and the performance of gendered identity.
WEEK 4 The Great Masculine Renunciation? - Renounced?
Ash, J. 1989. ‘Tarting up men: menswear and gender dynamics’ in J. Attfield and P. Kirkham eds., A View from the Interior: Feminism, Women and Design London: Women’s Press
The menswear ‘revolution’ of the mid 1980s.

?Barker, C. 2000. ‘Youth, style and resistance’, in, C. Barker, Cultural Studies: Theory and Practice London: Sage
Very useful overview of approaches to understanding youth subcultures.
745.4 ATT

306 BAR
Breward, C. 1999. ‘Renouncing consumption: men, fashion and luxury, 1870 – 1914’ in A. de la Haye and E. Wilson eds. Defining Dress: Dress as Object, Meaning and Identity Manchester: Manchester University Press
Short essay which explores the specificity of changing male fashion conventions in the period following ‘the great masculine renunciation’.
Cole, S. 2000. ‘Macho Man: Clones and the development of a masculine stereotype’ Fashion Theory 4 (2)
The development of ‘macho’ gay male fashion and its influence on mainstream ‘straight’ male fashions.
Edwards, T. 1997. Men in the Mirror: Men’s Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society. London: Cassell
Useful study of contemporary male fashion in relation to debates around identity and consumer society.
305.31 EDW
Gelder, K. and Thornton, S. eds. 1997. The Subcultures Reader London: Routledge
Collection of extracts, with helpful commentary from the editors, which explore the question of subculture from a range of differing theoretical and historical perspectives.
306.1 GEL
Hebdige, D. 1979. Subculture: The Meaning of Style London: Methuen
A very influential book that conceives of youth subcultures as authentic forms of resistance to dominant culture. Now the subject of considerable debate - are subcultures still like this? Were they ever? What is ‘authenticity’ anyway? etc, etc.
Jobling, P. 1999. ‘Statue men: the phallic body, identity and ambiguity in fashion photography’ in P. Jobling Fashion Spreads: Word and Image in Fashion Photography Since 1980 Oxford: Berg
Sophisticated discussion of the representation of the male body in contemporary fashion photography.
Malossi, G. ed. 2000. Material Man: Masculinity, Sexuality, Style New York: Abrams
Collection of short accessible and sumptuously illustrated essays exploring fashion and masculine identity.

391.1 MAL
McRobbie, A. 1981. ‘Settling accounts with subcultures: a feminist critique’ in T. Bennett et al eds. Culture, Ideology and Social Process London: Batsford
Critical of Hebdige above. Why when men dress up are they theorised as authentic rebels given that when women do the same they are often considered exploited bimbos? etc.
Copyright File
No 149.
Mort, F. 1996 Cultures of Consumption London: Routledge
Epic study of the changing role of consumption in the performance of masculinity, paying particular attention to issues of fashion.
306.3 MOR
Nixon, S. 1996. Hard Looks: Masculinities, Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption London: UCL Press
In-depth analysis of the increasing centrality of fashion consumption in the construction of male identities.
305.31 NIX
Nixon, S. 1997. ‘Exhibiting masculinity’ in S. Hall ed. Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices London: Sage
Theorises male gender identity as cultural construction with particular reference to fashion and the ‘new man’.
306 HAL
Nixon, S. 2001 Resignifying Masculinity: From New Man to New Lad, in, D. Morley and K. Robins (eds). British Cultural Studies Oxford: Oxford University Press
Short and accessible discussion of changing representations of masculinity in the style press.
Pumphrey, M. 1989. ‘Why do cowboys wear hats in the bath? Style politics for the older man’ Critical Quarterly 31 (3)
Useful discussion of changes in male fashion. Examines, among other things, why the displayed male body has so frequently been conceived of as a homoerotic object and asks if this is changing?
Thornton, S. 1995. Club Cultures: Music, Media and Subcultural Capital Oxford: Polity
Detailed study of nineties youth subcultures exploring their relationship to various forms of media and how they are used by their participants.
Week 6 Representing fashion

Arnold, R. 2001 Fashion, Desire and Anxiety: Image and Morality in the 20th Century London: I. B. Tauris
Accessible discussion of fashion trends and photography, focusing, as the title suggests, on issues of desire and anxiety. Notable in its detailed attention to specific examples and cultural context.
Berger, J. 1972 Ways of Seeing London: Penguin
Clear and lively account of the gender imbalance of gaze in relation to both fashion advertisements and fine art nudes
701. BER
?Branston, G. and Stafford, R. 1999 ‘Representations’, in The Media Students Book. London: Routledge.

Breward, C. ‘Fashion on the Page’, in Welters, L. and Lillethun, A. (eds) 2007 The Fashion Reader. Oxford: Berg.
A short accessible excerpt that outline the representation of fashion in magazines from the early 19th century to Dazed and Confused.
391 WEL
Buckley, C. and H. Fawcett. 2002. Fashioning the Feminine: Representation and Women’s Fashion from the Fin de Siecle to the Present I. B. Tauris
Explores the ambiguous sexual politics of fashion in a number of twentieth century historical contexts - chapter 5 - which explores young women’s fashion in contemporary Newcastle - is particularly relevant.

Hall, S. 1997 The Work of Representation. in, S. Hall (ed) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices London: Sage
Almost certain to ‘do your head in’ on first reading but a very valuable introduction to ways of understanding representation and its full significance.
306 HAL
Hall-Duncan, N. (1979) The History of Fashion Photography. New York: Alpine Book Company.
Clear illustrated comprehensive history of fashion photography.

Mulvey , L. 1989 ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’, in Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Mulvey’s seminal essay on the gaze and a template for any analysis of the representation of women in conventional narrative
305.4 MUL
?Sturken, M. and Cartwright, L 2001 ‘Spectatorship, Power and Knowledge’, in Practices of Looking. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Excellent wide ranging discussion of spectatorship

Tseelon, E. 2000 Women and the Gaze, in, D. Fleming (ed). Formations: a 21st Century Media Studies Textbook Manchester: Manchester University Press
Focused on film and not the most accessible text listed here but a usefully critical introduction to a key concept in the study of fashion and gender.
302.23 FLE
Tudor, A. 1999 Decoding Culture. London: Sage
Clear critical discussion of theories of active readership.
306 TUD
Wallerstein, K . 1998. ‘Thinness and other refusals in contemporary fashion advertisements’ Fashion Theory 2 (2)
Like Jobling above offers interesting discussion of recurring themes in contemporary fashion advertising, addressing obvious issues - anorexia, heroin and pornography - without coming to obvious conclusions.
Week 7 Consuming fashion

Abbott, P. and Sapsford, F. 2001 Young Women and Their Wardrobes, in, A. Guy et al (eds). Through the Wardrobe: Women’s Relationship to Their Clothes Oxford: Berg
Short and accessible study of the place of fashion in young womens lives and the influences on their purchasing decisions
391.0301 THR
Beckingham, C. 2005 Is Fashion a Woman’s Right? Brighton: Sussex Academic Press
Very useful discussion of the relationship between feminist values and fashion in both historical and contemporary contexts, concluding that it is a “potential source of joy”.

Church Gibson, P. 2000 Redressing the Balance: Patriarchy, Postmodernism and Feminism, in S. Bruzzi and P. Church Gibson Fashion Cultures: Theories, Explorations and Analysis London: Routledge
Discussion of the shifting, and often ambivalent, feminist view of fashion.
Evans, C. and Thornton, M. 1989. ‘Feminism, fashion, femininity’ in C. Evans and M Thornton Women and Fashion: A New Look London: Quartet
Useful overview of ‘the feminist rejection of fashion’.
Foote, S. 1989. ‘Challenging gender symbols’ in C. Brush Kidwell and V. Steele, eds., Men and Women: Dressing the Part Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press
Study of C19 outrage at women wearing trousers and C20 discomfort at men with long hair.
Jeffreys, S. 2005. Beauty and Misogyny: Harmful Cultural Practices in the West London: Routledge
Radical and angry critique of both, a range of contemporary western beauty practices, and, feminist approaches to fashion which foreground issues of choice, pleasure and creativity. Chapter one explores the diversity of feminist approaches to fashion and beauty; subsequent chapters explore these issues in relationship to specific practices including fashion design and make up.

Jobling, P. 1998. ‘Who’s that girl?’ Fashion Theory 2 (3)
Like Wallerstein below offers interesting discussion of recurring themes in contemporary fashion advertising, addressing obvious issues - anorexia, heroin and pornography - without coming to obvious conclusions.
Kunzle, D. 1982. ‘The campaign of the humorists’ in, D. Kunzle Fashion and Fetishism Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield
Argues that C19 tightlacing techniques far from being necessarily oppressive of women allowed them to feel sexual - in transgression of the gender norms of the time - and were widely condemned by those hostile to the suffragette movement.
391.42 KUN
Lewis, R. and K. Rolley 1997. ‘(Ad)dressing the Dyke: Lesbian looks and lesbians looking’ in, M. Nava et al eds. Buy this Book: Studies in Advertising and Consumption. London: Routledge
Lesbian visual pleasure and female fashion magazines.
659.1 BUY
McRobbie, A. 1997. ‘Bridging the gap: feminism, fashion and consumption’ in Feminist Review 55
Examines the way in which many women are financially excluded from fashion consumption and exploited in its production.
?Miles, S. 1998. ‘Consuming fashion’ in S. Miles Consumerism as a Way of Life London: Sage
Very useful short overview of some of the key approaches to fashion consumption.
306.3 MIL
Miller, J. 2002. Beauty and Democratic Power, in Fashion Theory 6 (3)
Short, useful, discussion of the politics of beauty and ‘sexy’ dressing.
Tickner, L. 1977. ‘Women and trousers’ in Leisure in the Twentieth Century: Fourteen Papers given at the Second Conference on Twentieth Century Design History London: Design Council Publications
How trousers ceased to be an emblem of masculinity
745.2 DES
Rouse, E. 1989. Understanding Fashion Oxford: Blackwell (Chapters 5-10)
Useful social history of women’s fashion from the Victorian period to the eighties.
391.0301 ROU
Wilson, E. 1985. ‘Utopian dress and dress reform’ and ‘Feminism and fashion’ both in E. Wilson Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity London: Virago
Brief history of C19 attempts to abolish fashion and rejection of the feminist critique of fashion.

391.0301 WIL
Wilson, E. and Taylor, L. 1989. ‘Down with frou frou’ in E. Wilson and L. Taylor Through the Looking Glass. London: BBC Books
The C19 abandonment of corsets and the tentative emergence of women in trousers.
391.0942 WIL
Wright, E. 1989. ‘Objectifying gender: the stiletto heel’ in J. Attfield and P. Kirkham eds., A View from the Interior: Feminism, Women and Design London: Women’s Press
The ambiguous sexual politics of the stiletto heel.
745.4 ATT
WEEK 9 Producing fashion
Craik, J. 1994. The Face of Fashion: Cultural Studies in Fashion London: Routledge
Multi-perspectival study of fashion, focusing on questions of gender; sceptical of assertions that fashion is - per se - exploitative.
391.0301 CRA
Entwistle, J 2000 ‘The Fashion Industry’, in The Fashioned Body. Cambridge: Polity.
Accessible overview of many issues related to fashion production.
391 ENT

Green, N. 1997 The Sweatshop as Workplace and Metaphor, in N. Green Ready to Wear and Ready to Work London: Duke University Press
Excellent historical discussion of the persistence of the sweat shop in the fashion industry.
331.48 GRE
Ewing, E. (2001) History of 20th century Fashion. London: Batsford.
Accessible history of British fashion and the British fashion industry

Fashion victims. The True Cost of Cheap Clothes at Primark, Asda and Tesco. 2006. London, War on Want.
Klein, N. 2000 No Logo. London: Flamingo.
Influential and highly readable text on the forces of globalization and more specifically as impacting practices in the field of production of fashion.
306.3 KLE
Nixon, S. 1997. ‘Circulating Culture’, in Du Gay ed. Production of Culture/Cultures of Production. London: Sage.
Not fashion focused but a useful analysis of how advertising adds cultural meanings to goods.
306.3 GAY
Phizacklea, A. 1990 Unpacking the Fashion Industry: Gender, Racism and Class in Production London: Routledge
Detailed analysis of ‘sweated’ labour in fashion production, also worth reading for the insight it offers into the industrial structure of British fashion production.
658.987 PHI
Ross, A. ed. 1997. No Sweat: Fashion, Free Trade and the Rights of Garment Workers London: Verso
Highly accessible and wide ranging collection examining the use of ‘sweated’ labour in fashion production.
331.54 ROS
?Rouse, E. 1989. ‘Fashion for all’, in Understanding Fashion Oxford: Blackwell (Chapter 11)
The production of the mass market for fashion.
391.0301 ROU
Wilson, E. (2003) ‘The Fashion Industry’, in Wilson Adorned in Dreams. London: Virago
Short, useful overview of the historical development of the fashion industry
745.4 ATT
Week 10 Globalisation, nation and ethnicity

Crewe, L. and Goodrum, A. (2000) ‘Fashioning New Forms of Consumption’, in Bruzzi, S. and Church Gibson, P. (eds) Fashion Cultures. London: Routledge.

Crewe, L. and Lowe, M. 1996 United Colours? Globalization and localization tendencies in Fashion Retailing, in N. Wrigley and M. Lowe (eds). Retailing, Consumption and Capital: Towards the New Retail Geography Harlow: Longman
Useful introduction to issues of globalization (and localisation) in the fashion industry.
Eicher, J. E. and Sumberg, E. (1995) ‘World Fashion, Ethnic and National Dress’, in J.B. Eicher (ed.) Dress and Ethnicity. Oxford: Berg.
Very short, very clear, discussion of the terms in the title, clarifying the significant differences between these.
391.0301. EIC
Dickerson, K.G. (1999) Textiles and Apparel in the Global Economy. Upper Saddle
River: Prentice-Hall.
Detailed study of the global textile and apparel industry.
382.45677 DIC
Goodrun, A. (2005) The National Fabric: Fashion, Britishness, Globalization. Oxford: Berg.
Useful study of the specificity of British dresss in the context of globalisation.

Kondo, D. 1995 ‘The Aesthetics and Politics of Japanese Identity in the Fashion Industry’, in Roach-Higgins et al. (eds) Dress and Identity. New York: Fairchild.
391.0301 ROA

Kondo, D. 1997 About Face. London: Routledge
Both of the above have interesting discussions of the links between Japanese identity, culture and fashion in the context of globalisation.
Lury, C. (2004) Brands: The Logos of the Global Economy. London: Routledge. 306.3 LUR
?Maynard, M. 2004 ‘Theorising Global Dress’, in Dress and Globalisation. Manchester University Press.
The entire book is an invaluable and accessible overview of fashion and globalisation, this chapter provides a clear introduction.

Nakagawa, S and Rosovsky, H/ 1995 ‘The Case of the Dying Kimono’, in Roach-Higgins et al. (eds) Dress and Identity. New York: Fairchild
391.0301 ROA

Niessen, S. et al. (eds) 2003 Re-Orienting Fashion. Oxford: Berg.
Wide ranging collection of essays exploring the globalisation of Asian Dress.
Rabine, L. (2002) The Global Circulation of African Fashion. Oxford: Berg
Stimulating discussion of the flow of fashion commodities in the global economy.
391.096 RAB
Robertson, R. (1998) Globalization. London: Sage
Influential theory of globalization.
306.4 ROB
Skoggard, I (1998) ‘Transnational Commodity Flows and the Global Phenomenon of the Brand’ in Brydon, A. and Niessen, S. (1998) eds Consuming Fashion. Oxford: Berg.
391.0301 BRY
Taylor, L. 2000 The Hilfiger Factor and the Flexible Commercial World of Couture, in, N. White and I. Griffiths The Fashion Business: Theory, Practice, Image Oxford: Berg
The reorganisation of the couture industry in the face of the rise of the global fashion brand.
391.0301 WHI
Waters, M. (1996) Globalization. London: Routledge.
Discussion of the key debates on globalization.
306.4 WAT
WEEK 11 Haute couture vs. mass fashion

?Braham, P. 1997. ‘Fashion: unpacking a cultural production’ in du Gay, P. ed. Production of Culture/Cultures of Production London: Sage
Invaluable study of the production and consumption of clothing commodities.

306.3 GAY
Crane, D. 2000 Fashion Worlds and Global Markets: From ‘Class’ to ‘Consumer’ Fashion, in D. Crane Fashion and its Social Agendas: Class Gender and Identity in Clothing Chicago: Chicago University Press
The increasing diversification and complexity of fashion and its role in lifestyle and identity.
391.0301 CRA
Davis, F. 1992. ‘Fashion as cycle, fashion as process. Stages of the fashion process’ in F. Davies Fashion, Culture and Identity Chicago: University of Chicago Press
How do clothes become, and cease to be, fashionable?
391.0301 DAV
de Marly, D. (1980) Worth: Father of Haute Couture. London: Elm Tree Books.
Lively and engaging biography of Worth and the birth of Paris haute couture.
741.677 WOR
Evans. C. 1997. ‘Dreams that only money can buy... or, the shy tribe in flight from discourse’ Fashion Theory 1 (2)
Highly recommended overview of debates around youth subcultures and the specificity of these in the 1990s.
Evans, C. 1997. Street Style, Subculture and Subversion. in Costume Vol 31 pp 105-110
Short, useful, discussion of the changing nature of subculture, with particular reference to rave culture.
Fine, B. and Leopold, E. 1993. ‘Systems of provision in food and clothing’ in B. Fine and E. Leopold The World of Consumption London: Routledge
Economic history of the production and marketing of fashion.
306.3 FIN
Godley, A. 1996 The Emergence of Mass Production in the U.K. Clothing Industry, in I. M. Taplin and J. Winterton Restructuring Within a Labour Intensive Industry: The UK Clothing Industry in Transition Aldershot: Avebury
Short and straightforward account of the emergence of mass production in the manufacture of clothes at the end of the 19th century
Leopold, E. 1992. ‘The manufacture of the fashion system’ in J. Ash and E. Wilson eds., Chic Thrills London: Pandora
The development of mass market fashion production.
391.0301 ASH
Lipovetsky, G. 1994. ‘The enchantment of appearances’ in G. Lipovetsky The Empire of Fashion Princeton: Princeton University Press
Detailed history of fashion moving from its emergence in C14 through to the decline of the influence of haute couture and the pluralism of today.
391.0301 LIP
Tarrant, N. 1994. ‘Ready made clothes’ in N. Tarrant The Development of Costume London: Routledge
Straightforward narrative history of the development of the ready made clothing sector.
391 TAR
Wark, M. 1991. ‘Fashioning the future: fashion, clothing, and the manufacture of post fordist culture’ in Cultural Studies 5 (1)
The reorganisation of fashion production and markets - away from mass production and towards a more flexible consumer led mode.
or 104
Wark, M. 1997. ‘Fashion as a culture industry’ in A. Ross. ed. No Sweat: Fashion, Free Trade and the Rights of Garment Workers London: Verso
Flexible specialisation in the global fashion industry.
331.54 ROS
Wilson, E. 1985. ‘The Fashion Industry’ in E. Wilson Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity London: Virago
Short, useful, overview of the historical development of the fashion industry

391.0301 WIL
Wilson, E. and Taylor, L. 1989. ‘Style for all. 1960-1990’ in E. Wilson and L. Taylor Through the Looking Glass London: BBC Books
The shift from the look to looks.
391.0942 WIL
WEEK 12 and 13 Postmodernism
Appignanesi, R. and Garrett, C. 1999. Introducing Postmodernism Cambridge: Icon
Part of the famous ‘Introducing’ comic book series: witty, comprehensive and very readable

306 APP
Barnard, M. 1996. Fashion, Clothing and Postmodernity, in M. Barnard Fashion as Communication London: Routledge
Short examination of aspects of postmodernism in relation to fashion.
391.0301 BAR
Berthens, H. 1995. The Idea of the Postmodern: A History London: Routledge
Admirably clear account of the issues, movements and events associated with the term.
306 BER
Kaiser, S. 1999. ‘Identity, postmodernity, and the global apparel marketplace’ in M. Damhorst, K. Miller, and S. Michelman (eds). The Meanings of Dress New York: Fairchild.
Short discussion of the relationship between fashion choices and identity in the context of postmodernism and globalisation.
?Kratz, C. and Reimer, B. 1998 Fashion in the Face of Postmodernity, in A. A. Berger (ed) The Postmodern Presence: Readings on Postmodernism in American Culture and Society Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press
Useful and accessible introduction to the manner in which postmodernism has impacted on fashion and the role that fashion plays in our lives
306 BER
Muggleton, D. 2000 Inside Subculture: The Postmodern Meaning of Style Oxford: Berg
Subcultures reconsidered in the light of postmodernism.
306.1 MUG
Wilson, E. 1990. ‘These new components of the spectacle: fashion and postmodernism’ in R. Boyne and A. Rattansi eds. Postmodernism and Society London: Macmillan
What light do theories of fashion and postmodernism shed on each other?
?Wilson, E. 1992. ‘Fashion and the postmodern body’ in J. Ash and E. Wilson eds., Chic Thrills London: Pandora
Situates fashion in debates around postmodernism and argues it is one of those practices through which we perform our selves.
391.0301 ASH

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