Anthropomorphism Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Anthropomorphism College Essay Examples

Title: Primate Behavior Research

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1691
  • References:3
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: double-spaced with one-inch margins. No title page and you need not have a separate reference cited page if there is sufficient space at the end.

Citations: At a minimum, you must cite at least one news source, and two scholarly sources, Serious on-line resources (.edu or .org) may also be cited, but these do not substitute for scholarly sources.
Use APA citation style:
http://www.apastyle.org/
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In this paper, the species of primate or monkey and topical focus is open, but your purpose is to consider the perceived or actual relevance of the behavior of non-human primates to the ?non-scientific? community.

1) Find a news article, radio segment or video reporting on recent (preferably within the last 24 months) research in primate behavior. Please avoid sophisticated popular science sources such as National Geographic or Discover as well as blogs and sources of marginal quality.
You should be searching for coverage of primate behavior research in the well-known popular news media (for example, the Boston Globe, Time, Newsweek, CNBC, FOX News, the Daily Metro, scitechdaily.com). The item should contain enough information for you to track its original source. That is, it should reference a study, investigator or institution that you can locate and, if necessary, contact for the original source material.

2) Within the paper, in approximately 250 words, comment on the how the media covered the item.
What did they zero in on/emphasize/question/doubt? Did they employ anthropomorphism or other tactics to attract interest?
If you were not specifically interested in primatology, what might your response be to the item?


3) Locate the original research upon which this source was based. This might prove challenging. You may write about the process in a paragraph or two, if it is interesting.

4) Discuss the original research in comparison to the news item. Were there any obvious errors or omissions? Distortions? Simplifications? Or was it fairly true to the original research?

5) Using this exercise/topic, discuss the relevance of primate behavior research to the ?non-science? (?lay?) community and the challenges of communicating that relevance. For example, there may be details/arguments that are difficult to explain, or there may be preconceptions that are obstacles to understanding or caring about non-human primates.

I would like you to wirte the paper about a specific research article that I have already found.

http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=3912

This article is a great resource for the paper it addresses key issues that should be included in the paper. The main object of the paper is to compare and contrast scholorly or scientific articles to main stream or non-scientific articles in regards to the specific research that is in the link above. It is easy to see how the main stream media may construe or jump to conclusions on certain research to get attention when the original article might say something completley different. A lot of media articles that covered this story were quick to say that baboons can read without looking at the particulars to the research. That is, the study's key claim is not that baboons can learn to read or to spell or to distinguish English words from non-words in a general sort of way, or even that they necessarily can memorize the spelling of 70-300 specific English words, but rather than the baboons in this study learned something like differences in bigram (letter-pair) frequencies, or perhaps other differences in "the frequency of letter combinations", and used this knowledge to distinguish a smallish set of English words from a larger set of non-words, where "distinguish" means forced-choice discrimination at about 75% correct, where chance would be 50%. the study itself is far more circumspect than the press coverage.

Here are some great scientific articles:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/04/120416125245.htm
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6078/245.abstract
http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=3912

Here are some non-scientific articles:
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/04/12/see-dan-read-baboons-can-learn-to-spot-real-words/
http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/04/13/3476907.htm
http://articles.latimes.com/2012/apr/12/science/la-sci-word-recognition-20120413
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References:

Grainger, J. e. (2012, Apr 13). Orthographic Processing in Baboons (Papio, papio). Retrieved from Science: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6078/245.full.html

Liberman, M. (2012, Apr 19). Ask a baboon. Retrieved from Language Log: http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=3912

Press, A. (2012, Apr 12). See Dan read: Baboons can learn to spot real words. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2012/04/12/see-dan-read-baboons-can-learn-to-spot-real-words

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Title: Sophocles' Oedipus the King

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 580
  • Bibliography:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Please use all 2 pages. completly full please.
IV. GREECE ??" FROM MYTHOS TO LOGO

1) In The Humanistic Tradition read Chapter 4 (pp.77-86 and 100-110). Read the tragedy of
Oedipus the King or you can find it in any library..

2) Look up and/or reflect on the meaning of: tragedy, philosophy, psychology, logic, ethics,
mathematics, rhetoric, anthropomorphism, hubris, nemesis, arete, logos.


4) Another CORE critical aspect is “The Inner Self.” Above the gate of the oracle of Delphi in
ancient Greece were two mottoes, which together, express central themes of Greek thought: “Nothing too much” and “Know thyself.” In a 2-3 page essay, analyze the tragic quest of Oedipus in terms of one or both of these two themes.

Fourth Class Meeting (Oct 12):

Lecture. The Greek arche(s). Bull-dancers and “Black Athena”, alphabets and
sky-gods: the rich mix. The “inward turn
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Title: The Capture first book in the Guardians of Ga Hoole series

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 737
  • References:1
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Depicting Anthropomorphism
The Capture, first book in the Guardians of Ga'Hoole series, depicts a sophisticated society of owls that, while retaining most of their natural characteristics, display many human characteristics (anthropomorphism). In a separate paragraph for each describe at least five of the anthropomorphic characteristics of the owl characters and their society. (You must go beyond human emotions, such as love, and human characteristics, such as bravery.)
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Title: Animism and Perspectivalism

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1632
  • Bibliography:4
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I will be sending three of the four sources, however the writer will need to include a resource of their own

All of the paper topics ask you to explore the readings from the first part of the first semester: the Brightman, the Boas, The Sapir, The Evans-Pritchard, the Williams, and the article about speaking for dogs, etc. In Addition, some of the later readings may become relevant (for example Moore’s article on character speech). You will need to make a reference section hat does not count towards the word limit, and should not be paginated separately, it will follow the AAA style guide or the style used in the syllabus. You will use correct citation style (Author YEAR: Page) at all times.

Each topic gives you several possible avenues to think about and explore. You may modify them as you like, follow up some leads, they are not a list of things you must do, except where outside research is indicated. There is not necessarily a ‘right answer’ to any of these questions. Naturally, if you cleave only to one short text and avoid doing outside reading, you will do badly regardless of what you write. To do well, some effort as well as thought, and perhaps even some enthusiasm for exploring the question, exemplified both by the thought and care you put into the writing, but also whether or not you make full use of in class and outside research, is required. Some topics might take you to do some library research, others might take you to think about dog-owners you know, and so on. To get a High Pass you will need to reflect both on 2 or three different perspectives assigned in class and one outside reading not directly assigned. Plus the paper itself has to be good. And you should obey the instructions given.


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Animism and Perspectivalism: Animals as non-humans and infra-humans
Viveiros de Castro also argues that: Another important consequence of having animals and other types of nonhumans conceived as people??"as kinds of humans??"is that the relations between the human species and most of what we would call "nature" take on the quality of what we would term "social relations."
We can call the attribution of human social properties to nonhumans ‘animism’ (or anthropomorphism), and one possible consequence of it is that it makes possible viewing the human-animal relation as a possible social one. So, to what extent is animal humanity revealed indirectly by humans forming social relations with animals, and imputing the ability to speak to them?

Brightman argues that there are two different perceptions of animals, ‘non-human’ (where the difference between human and animal is emphasized) and ‘infrahuman’ (where the animal is treated as being potentially a person, albeit in non-evident ways), and that the cosmological distinction between infrahuman animal-people of myth and non-human animals of today is replicated in different perspectives in which animals of today may be either or both:

“Cree narratives imply that the ancestors of modem animals lost their humanlike attributes in the remote past and that their descendants consequently lack them. At the same time, they readily ascribe humanlike attributes to the animals who appear in dreams and shaking lodge performances in the twentieth century.
Initially, it struck me that Crees behave as though animals are successively and cyclically nonhuman and infrahuman. In the bush, they assume theriomorphic form and lose cultural attributes. When "killed," their disembodied spirits "come to be like human," and the perishable carcass is the medium through which human hunters seek to exchange with them. Thereafter, they are reborn or regenerate, lose their cultural attributes, and the cycle begins anew. The seeming paradox would thus be dispelled by temporal alternation. To the two images would correspond two exclusive orientations to animals, one spiritual that anticipates and commemorates the hunt and one technical that dominates the hunt itself.
There exist numerous difficulties with aligning in this way the two images in complementary distribution. First, as noted earlier, the "infrahuman" animals of myth, dream, and shaking lodge are not identical to human beings but possess also their individuating species characteristics. Likewise, the nonhuman image does not entail a Western measure of the intellectual or spiritual distance between men and animals. Crees may say that modern animals lack speech, fire, and manufactures, but many of them credit animals nonetheless with cognitive and spiritual capacities close to those of humans.”
Similarly to the above, in the Cree and Nootka works we have read are there any evidences of contemporary animals showing both ‘non-human’ and ‘infrahuman’ traits in different contexts (paying especial attention to linguistic features). What about forming social relations with animals in their ‘infrahuman’ state? How does language figure in those relations?

Compare the ambiguity here with the ambiguous relations we have with animals and speech (Descartes [animals are all nonhumans], Montaigne [animals are potentially infrahuman], and the article about speaking for dogs [Vets treat animals ‘scientifically’ as non-humans, while owners treat them as ‘infrahumans’). Or compare the figure of the animal for Cree foragers and the Manush (also foragers) non-human and/or infrahuman figure of the Hedgehog. Pay special attention to the role of language and attribution of speech/understanding/speaking for in constructing animals as ‘non-humans’ or ‘infrahumans’. Here Sapir’s discussion of ‘abnormal speech’ among the nootka should give you ways to talk about continuities in speech between cosmological myth people-animals of speech and contemporary ‘infrahuman’ animals.
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Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock

Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.

Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock

Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.

Castro, Eduardo Batalha Viveiros de. (2004). Exchanging perspectives: the transformation of objects into subjects in amerindian ontologies. Common Knowledge, 10(3), 463-484.

Kovacs, Maureen Gallery, & Carnahan, Wolf. (1998). The epic of gilgamesh. Retrieved from http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/tab1.htm.

Sikov, Nikolay. (n.d.). Time and cosmos: a zoomorphic cosmological monument of the late antiquity. Retrieved from http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol44/sivkov.pdf

Wilkinson, Richard H. (2008). Anthropomorphic Deities. Ucla encyclopedia of egyptology. Retrieved October 30, 2010, from http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5s54w4tc;jsessionid=6B8E02202328924B7E6D584A70F44397

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