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Title: Pacal's Sarcophagus lid

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1160
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Essay Instructions: Hello, I am writing a research paper for the first time, and I am not sure if the paper I have written so far is right..
please help me out! Below is the farthest I got, and need 2 more pages!
I will upload the below paper on the resources in Microsoft format, and please let me know if this will be a problem..



Pacal's Sarcophagus
Over the course of Ancient Civilizations class, I was instantly drawn to the mysterious myth yet somewhat grotesque myth of Mayas. Below is a detailed account of the Pacal’s Sarcophagus. But I feel that it would be only right that before I proceed with the description of the Sarcophagus, I should write briefly about the magnificent Mayan Civilization, because otherwise the explanation would be deemed incomplete.
The Mayan Civilization has been considered as one of the most important civilization of its time and one which still continues to fascinate Archaeologist’s and Historians alike. It was, in a fact, “one of the most dominant indigenous societies of Mesoamerica” ??" a term which is used to define Mexico and Central America before the 16th century Spanish conquest. Their population was concentrated in the region of Yucatan Peninsula and modern-day Guatemala; Belize and parts of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas; and the western part of Honduras and El Salvador.
The Mayan Civilization has contributed immensely in terms of Arts and Architecture, and the stone cities and monuments that they built for their religious and social purposes still continue to capture the imagination of academia and scholars. However, the progress of the Mayan civilization can be easily broken up into many eras, starting from the Pre-classic Period, when the entire civilization was involved in agricultural activities; the Middle Pre-classic Period, which lasted till 300 B.C., was a period of major development in the field of city planning as well as the derivation of religious traits, in inclusion to their number system and the famous Mayan calendar.
Religious Commitment and Activities was a cornerstone of the Mayan Civilization, and which revolved around the worship of many gods which include beside the major cosmological figure like the sun and the moon, even agricultural elements like corn. The entire system, however, is based on a hierarchical system, the apex of which is comprised of the “kuhul ajaw” or the holy lords, who were considered to be directly related to the Gods and formed a connection between the Gods and the people, and is aided with religious ceremonies. Their abilities varied in the religious terms, from conjuring “gods into existence, the ability to manifest as particular deities, the ability to consort with supernatural companions of a lethal character…., the ability to manifest the central axis of the cosmos, and the ability to communicate with the dead”.
There is much evidence for this in the temples and palaces that were built during that time and are laden with inscriptions and relief. It is through these inscriptions that the significance of human torture and sacrifice could be detected in the Mayan Culture.
One of the greatest rulers of this civilization was seen in the shape of Lord Pacal or Lord Pakal The Great, K'inich Janaab' Pakal (23 March 603 - 28 August 683). He took over the reins at the age of 12 on July 29th, 615 A.D., a mature age for the Mayan people, and continued his rule for the next 68 years. It was during his time that the city of Palenque reached significant height. The tenure of Lord Pacal is dated from 615 to 683 CE, and falls under the late Classic Period. The most prominent of buildings from this time include the northern complex made up of “five temples, two nearby adjacent temples, and a ball court. A third group of temples lies to the southeast". It was in the year AD675, as he approached his end that he built for himself a burial temple, which has come to be known as “The Temple of Inscriptions”. The fact that the temple was in a fact a burial temple for Lord Pacal only became known in the year 1952, when Alberto Ruz Lhuillier, an archaeologist, discovered “a corbel-vaulted stairway beneath the summit shrine”. This stairway then descended 80 feet under to a small chamber where the tomb of Pacal lied. The size of the chamber suggests that it was probably built before even the temple was made and the body was only moved into it later. This was then covered with a lid which depicted a scene in which Lord Pacal hangs between the mortal and the immortal world.
The Sarcophagus lid in question is one of the most impressive works of the Mayan Civilization, depicting the instant in which Pacal is being taken away into the underworld. The Sarcophagus has an immense significance, since it depicts many of the rituals and beliefs which were a part of the Mayan Civilization, associated with the concept of life and death. The entire lid is a mix of many symbolic elements, contained within a band which runs around the entire lid. This band represents the heaven, with the “kin” or the day or sun on the upper right hand corner, while the “akbaal” or the night or darkness being on the left hand corner. The movement of the sun, from east to west, in this lid is the symbolic representation of the life of Pacal’s own journey in the mortal world.
Lord Pakal himself is seen seated on top of a creature which resembles a U-shaped container shown at the bottom of the lid, which can be identified as the Maw of the Underworld. His posture is relaxed, with his hands and feet in a position which do not reflect any sort of panic, for his fate is already assumed, as one in which he will move towards the heaven, much like the Hun-Nal-Ye the great creator God. This can be reaffirmed with the image of the turtle pectoral, through which emerged Hun-Nal-Ye. He can be seen wearing a net skirt with his hair bound up and ornamented heavily, calculated to amount to almost 700 pieces of jade. More so, he seems to be donning heavy anklets, bracelets and necklaces. There is also on his neck an ornament that represents the “calabash fruit, the same fruit that hung from the world tree and mimicked the skull of One Hunahp in the Popol Vuh Story”. More so even at the feet of Lord Pacal can be seen the image of Pax God, which again is a symbolic representation of the world tree.
He can also be seen with a fiery torch set in his brow, which again symbolises elevation to a higher point, and is a symbol that has been reserved in the Mayan Mythology for the images of gods and kings alone.
This Maw, which is joined at the skeleton, can be seen right at the centre of the lid and represents “the open mouth of the Xibalba”. The Xibalba itself can be defined as an “underworld realm entered by passing beneath the surface of standing bodies of water or through the gaping maw of the Earth”. The detail of the function of the dragon, linked with the Maw of the Underworld, can be seen in the way they have been depicted, with their lips curling in wards, in a gesture which suggests that they are ready to close over Pacal’s body.
Right above the body of Pacal is the respected “Tree of the World” perched on the highest branch of which is the Celestial Bird, which symbolizes the kingdom of heaven. The tree itself, in the shape of a “T” takes the major focus on the entire lid, and is much burdened with symbolic elements. The tree itself is confirmed to be a cottonwood, while the presence of symbols representing “nen” or mirror point in the direction that the tree is a shining and powerful being”. On the horizontal edge of this tree is the representation of the square-nostriled dragons, a much sacred image in the Mayan Mythology and one which represents royalty.
The tree is a very important part of the Mayan cosmology and mythology ??" a concept which was first discovered in a book called the “Popol Vuh”. The book concerns itself with questions like the “creation of the world, the nature of life and death, and an extensive description of the underworld and its perils”. The most part of the entire book however is the description of a miraculous life-giving tree. The legend so goes that a man named One Hunahpu and his brother had infuriated the underworld lords who lived in the mythical land of Xibalba, by the constant playing of the ancient Mayan Ball game. The two main chiefs of the underworld named “One Death” and “Seven Death”, now determined to destroy the brothers, beheaded One Hunahpu and placed his head in the branches of the dead tree. But as soon as this was done, the tree came to life and “bore a white fruit resembling the fleshless skull of One Hunahpu”. This act was enough to put fear inside the lords of the underworld and for them to forbid anyone to ever approach the tree. The incident also resulted in spreading stories about the miraculous nature of the tree and the sweetness of its fruit, which eventually reached the “ears of a daughter of one of the underworld lords”. As soon as she was about to pluck a fruit from the tree, the voice of One Hunahpu warned her to be certain of her desires before proceeding any further. But having already made up her mind, and just as she was about to pluck the fruit off, a drop of One Hunahpu’s saliva impregnated her by a drop of One Hunahpu's saliva, which he spat into her palm. The realization of the power of the tree and the fact that life can continue through her, she “climbed up to the world of the living where she bore twin sons, who eventually grew to maturity and defeated the lords of death and rescued the bones of their father”.
This Popol Vuh myth depiction on the lid tells of the cycle that will take place for Lord Pacal, who through the miracle of the life giving tree would find life again in the Kingdom of Heaven as represented by the presence of the Celestial Bird on top of the tree, and thus finding his way out of the underworld and up into a world of blessing and Gods.
As per another interpretation presented in the work of Allen J. Christensen, the “odd-looking bird wearing a jewelled pectoral and bearing sacred mirror markings on his forehead and tail” is in a fact the Itzam-Ye, one of the many Gods in the Mayan mythology who is credited with setting the last of the three headstones “at the center of the cosmos on the day of creation”. The word “itz” defines a life-giving power and can be found in various forms including blood, milk, tears, and tree, besides many more. His presence on top of the tree reflects the fact that he has attached itself to the tree to use it as a sort of a medium to give back life to Lord Pacal which would sustain him after he has been dragged into the underworld.
What can also be seen in this scene on the lid is a double headed serpent or a “vision serpent” as it is called in the Mayan mythology, which can be seen winding through the branches of the miraculous tree. This is a direct reflection of the divine nature of the rulers which was accepted in the Mayan Society and as per that the royal family had within them the spark of godhood. The release of the blood from the bodies of the royal members, which was let out on fragments of tree bark and then burned in a bowl mixed with aromatic incense and the smoke that issued carried within it manifestations of the “world tree as well as undulating vision serpents with supernatural beings issuing from them”. This birth was represented, as can also be seen in the lid, in the form of the opening of the Maw of the great vision serpent.
What can also be seen in the lid and connected with this vision serpent are the images of two important Gods or Deities. On the left side of the serpent is seen a god named K’awil which represents the divine power, while on the right hand side can be seen the deity of the royal family and divine kingship, Sak Hun.
At the base of this trunk can be seen the image of God C, who denotes blood and all that is holy. This image overlaps the body of Pacal himself. ??"is inserted in the base of the trunk and is linked with Pacal's body.
What is also of importance in this description is the variation that has been shown to differentiate between the creatures that exist in the human world and that which exist in the spirit world. The dragons, joined at the skeleton below the image of the Lord Pacal are in a skeleton form, while the square nosed dragon are shown in the flesh or in a living condition. The entire scene is filled with the description of the sacrifice of Lord Pacal who is to be elevated to higher level ??" a level where the God resides. This is not the description of the end of an individual, but the rising again of the King. The most prominent theme in the entire scene remains the transformation from the mortal world to the immortal, from human to God, from death to a new found life again. It reflects the many beliefs that existed in the Mesoamerican society, particularly that a Kingship was a responsibility with which the King is forever tied and can even reach beyond the limits that seem to come in action once a person reaches their final resting place.
Every society has their own beliefs and rituals and passing any judgement on their rationality or not is in a sense disrespectful. What the Mayan believed may seem like a belief which borders on superstitions, but nonetheless, it was beliefs that was close to their heart and is much reflective of a society that understands the dynamic relationship that things have with each other to keep the great machinery- the universe- to continue working. For them, death was a reality which must exist so that life can continue in one form or the other. It was part of a circle of life. What however can’t be denied is the great sophistication and craftsmanship that can be seen in the work of the Mayan. As a civilization, they still continue to amaze us.






Work Cited


Christensen, A. J. (1997). The Sacred Tree of the Ancient Maya. Journal of Book of Mormon Studies , 6 (1), 1-23.
DeLange, G. &. (n.d.). Palenque Archaeological Ruins Tomb of Lord Pakal The Great K'inich Janaab' Pakal. Retrieved April 26th, 2012, from http://www.delange.org/PalenqueTomb/PalenqueTomb.htm
F. Kent Reilly, I. (1994). Enclosed Ritual Spaces and the Watery Underworld in Formative Period Architecture: New Observations on the Functions of La Venta Complex A. San Francisco: Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute.
Freidel, D. (2012). Maya Divine Kingship: . In N. Brisch, Religion and Power: Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and Beyond (pp. 191-205). The University of Chicago.
Stokstad, M. (1995). Art History. Prentice Hall.
The rise and fall of the Maya Empire. (2012). Retrieved April 26th, 2012, from The History Channel Website: http://www.history.com/topics/maya



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Title: Mummies of Urumchi

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1696
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Use the book: The Mummies of Urumchi by Elizabeth Wayland Barber and 1 other internet source cited. What is the author's thesis? What evidence is there to prove? How convincing of a case does she make? I just need you to expand on what I started. Here is what I started: (Did ancient civilizations of Asia and Europe expand from common places of origin? Where did these Caucasians come from? Elizabeth Wayland Barber, an archaeologist at Occidental College, asks herself those questions and begins a fascinating journey along the silk-road into prehistoric time. Is there strong circumstantial evidence to prove there was expansion from common places of origin for these mummies? Barber was well prepared to piece together all of the diverse and overwhelming textiles, linguistic, and anatomical clues that makes up this amazing case). I would like to pay through paypal if thats alright. I might also need it earlier and I will specify if that is the case. Thanks brandon

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Barber, Elizabeth W. The Mummies of Urumchi. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.

St. Philip, Elizabeth. "The Mummies of Urumchi." Discovery Canada. 17 July 1999. 1 Nov. 2003.

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Title: Ancient State Systems Sumeria Persia and Assyria

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3258
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Essay Instructions: This research paper is based on a course that uses "The Evolution of International Society" as its main text and source for information. The book is by Adam Watson. The general question or topic is this: What were the defining features and similarities of the ancient Sumerian, Assyrian, and Persian systems and what differences , if any, can be identified?

This questions deal with how geography,government , and culture affected their external relations and how one ancient state was able to give way to another.Economic and technological benefits also affected external relations.

The course address the conclusions that Watson made in his book in respect to ancient civilizations that should be inlcluded in the paper:
1.whenever a number of states or communities are involved in economic or strategic interaction rules and regulations will evolve to regulate their relations
2.Sharing a common culture played an important part in cohesion, the shape of the institutions and the legitimacy of any given system
3. In various systems there was a propensity towards dominion and hegemony
4.Empires were seldom single unitary entities. They had a central core , a penumbra of dominion and an outside ring of semi-autonomous allied or client states.
5.The movement of peoples and of Marcher communities,often hardened by the environment with cohesive governments and superior military skills provided the central dynamic in the evolution of many civilisations
6. Legitimacy and flexibility , the more legitimate the ruler the smoother the state will function
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Dalley, Stephanie. The Legacy of Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Crawford, Harriet. Sumer and the Sumerians. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Watson, Adam. The Evolution of International Society. London: Routledge, 1992.

Hooke, S.H. Babylonian and Assyrian Religion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), 12.

Adam Watson, The Evolution of International Society (London: Routledge, 1992), 24.

Watson, 13.

Crawford, 25-6.

Watson, 25.

Watson, 26-7.

Watson, 32.

S.H. Hooke, Babylonian and Assyrian Religion (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963), p 97.

Watson, 33.

Crawford, 25-6.

Watson, 34.

Stephanie Dalley, The Legacy of Mesopotamia (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 35.

Dalley, 38.

Watson, 43.

Watson, 44.

Watson, 46.

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Title: What is to be done

  • Total Pages: 5
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  • Sources:6
  • Citation Style: MLA
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Essay Instructions: A lot of it has to do with Own idea. Please do not just put in chunks of source and put facts.

In arguing for your position, think of the arguments that might be made against it, and respond to them. In defending your position, offer what you believe are the most principled arguments you can make.
In thinking of objections to your argument, think of the best possible objections that someone on the other side might be able to come up with, i. e., give yourself a hard time. If you can respond to the other side at its strongest rather than at its weakest point, that can only help to strengthen your own opinion and make it that much more persuasive.


Michael Ignatieff begins his Tanner Lectures on "Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry" eloquently:
In If This Is a Man, Primo Levi describes being interviewed by Dr. Pannwitz, chief of the chemical department at Auschwitz.1 Securing a place in the department was a matter of life or death: if Levi could convince Pannwitz that he was a competent chemist, he might be spared the gas chamber. As Levi stood on one side of the doctor's desk, in his concentration camp uniform, Dr. Pannwitz stared up at him.
Levi later remembered: That look was not one between two men; and if I had known how completely to explain the nature of that look, which came as if across the glass window of an aquarium between two beings who live in different worlds, I would also have explained the essence of the great insanity of the third German [reich]."

Here was a scientist, trained in the traditions of European rational inquiry, turning a meeting between two human beings into an encounter between different species. Progress may be a contested concept, but we make progress to the degree that we act upon the moral intuition that Dr. Pannwitz was wrong: our species is one and each of the individuals who compose it is entitled to equal moral consideration.

Human rights is the language that systematically embodies this intuition, and to the degree that this intuition gains infuence over the conduct of individuals and states, we can say that we are making moral progress. Richard Rorty's definition of progress applies here: "an increase in our ability to see more and more differences among people as morally irrelevant." We think of the global diffusion of this idea as progress for two reasons: because if we live by it, we treat more human beings as we would wish to be treated ourselves and in so doing help to reduce the amount of unmerited cruelty and suffering in the world.

Our grounds for believing that the spread of human rights represents moral progress, in other words, are pragmatic and historical. We know from historical experience that when human beings have defensible rights-when their agency as individuals is protected and enhanced-they are less likely to be abused and oppressed. On these grounds, we count the diffusion of human rights instruments as progress even if there remains an unconscionable gap between the instruments and the actual practices of states charged to comply with them.

1. Human Rights in the Twenty-First Century

But today, at this moment in human history, are we succeeding or failing in our efforts to cultivate and guarantee the protection of international human rights? In "Human Rights as Politics and Idolatry," Michael Ignatieff suggests that a case might be made for both,. Depending on where you look or what you choose to emphasize, human rights promotion and protection may appear to be succeeding and failing simultaneously. Indeed, Ignatieff sees the international human rights movement at a "cross-roads" and in a temporary mid-life crisis, and he offers a number of suggestions about how best to reinvigorate the movement. See Igantieff's Tanner Lectures: "Human Rights: Politics and Idolatry" in their entirety.
2. A "Minimalist" Approach to Human Rights

Ignatieff's concerns are several, but can be easily identified and highlighted. He is concerned about the proliferation of human rights' claims. Too many rights make it difficult to gain international consensus. So, too, he believes, the purpose of human rights should not be any particular conception of the good life or even of social justice, but simply protection from cruelty and degradation. He advocates a "minimalist" approach and recommends that a human rights regime to be effective at all ought to seek the protection only of negative freedoms. As he says, "human rights can command universal assent only as a decidedly 'thin' theory of what is right, a definition of the minimum conditions for any kind of life at all."
He notes that "people from different cultures may continue to disagree about what is good, but nevertheless agree about what is insufferably, unarguably wrong." But, as others have noted, there is "slippage" within even this fairly straightforward position. Given Ignatieff's view, you might think "torture" would be one of those things that everybody would agree was "insufferably, unarguably wrong," completely "out of bounds," "off the table," as it were, but if the documents released after the Abu Ghraib Prison Abuse Scandal any indication, there is less than universal assent even here.

So, too, although a minimalist approach to human rights advocacy may have much to recommend it, such an approach is out of line with the North/South world divide. Thus, Gara LaMarche can write in "The American Propsect":

If minimalism is meant to strengthen the credibility of Western rights advocates, it is likely to have no such effect in much of the world, particularly in many countries where the challenge to universalism is greatest. That is because Ignatieff's minimalist approach leaves little room for the social and economic rights also embodied in international covenants and in many national constitutions. No one who works on human-rights issues in the developing world can fail to be aware that virtually all frontline human-rights advocates there -- not to mention many in Europe and the United States -- do not accept such a hierarchy of rights. Though economic rights -- such as the right to basic subsistence -- are still largely aspirational, that doesn't mean they are not deeply important to human-rights advocates (and their critics) in much of the world. In much of Africa and Asia, it is the perceived selectivity of many Western human-rights advocates, not their broader concerns, that undermines their credibility.
3. The "Relativist" Challenge to Human Rights Universalism

Ignatieff is made anxious, too, by too much talk of the universality of human rights, exposing proponents to "serious intellectual attack" that, in turn, has raised questions about "whether human rights deserves the authority it has acquired: whether its claims to universality can be justified or whether it is just another cunning exercise in Western moral imperialism."
Ignatieff identifies "three distinct sources of the cultural challenge to the universality of human rights," one from Islam, one from East Asia and one from within the West itself.

As Ignatieff writes:

The challenge from Islam has been there at the beginning. When the Universal Declaration was being drafted in 1947, the Saudi Arabian delegation raised particular objection to Article 16, relating to freedom of religion. On the question of marriage, the Saudi delegate to the committee examining the draft of the universal Declaration made an argument that has resonated ever since through Islamic encounters with Western human rights:

The authors of the draft declaration had, for the most part, taken into consideration only the standards recognized by western civilization and had ignored more ancient civilizations which were past the experimental stage, and the institutions of which, for example, marriage, had proved their wisdom through the centuries. It was not for the Committee to proclaim the superiority of one civilization over all the others or to establish uniform standards for all countries of the world.

This was simultaneously a defense of the Islamic faith and a defense of patriarchal authority. The Saudi delegate in effect argued that the exchange and control of women is the very raison d'etre of traditional cultures, and that the restriction of female choice in marriage is central to the maintenance of patriarchal property relations.

Ignatieff goes on to say that despite "recurrent attempts to reconcile Islamic and Western traditions . . . these attempts at syncretic fusion between Islam and the West have never been entirely successful: agreement by the parties actually trades away what is vital to each side. The resulting consensus is bland and unconvincing."

This prompts Ignatieff, however, to resist the Islamic challenge and to defend those Western human rights standards that rest upon negative freedoms. He condemns the "Western reaction to the Islamic challenge" that he calls "equally ill-conceived," a form of "cultural relativism" that he argues "concedes too much."

4. Making the Case

Drawing on the reading make a case for or against a minimalist approach to human rights and a defense of human rights as primarily aimed at protecting human agency as opposed to full conception of human dignity as conceived by others such as Henry Shue in BASIC RIGHTSand James Nickel in MAKING SENSE OF HUMAN RIGHTS, to name but two.
The strongest advocate from the reading for a two-pronged approach to human rights, to a defense of subsistence rights alongside rights of liberty is the argument put forward by Henry Shue in his book on BASIC RIGHTS As he argues, "the same reasoning that justifies treating security and liberty as basic rights also supports treating subsistence as a basic right." As he goes on to say, "The parallel is especially important . . . because the defenders of liberty usually neglect subsistence and the defenders of subsistence often neglect liberty." What is your view? Are you drawn to the "minimalist" solution? If so, why? If not, why not?

5. Negative and Positive Rights

And what about Shue's view and his placing certain basic "positive" rights on the same footing as "negative" rights? Are you sympathetic to his approach? If so, why? If not, why not?
6. The "Minimalist" Response to the "Relativist" Challenge

And finally what do you think about Ignatieff's response to the "relativist" challenge to human rights? Are you convinced? If so, why? If not, why not? Much of the reading in both Global Ethics and Global Justice as well as in Henry Shue's Basic Rights and James Nickel's Making Sense of Human Rights challenge the relativist view of human rights and would, more than likely, take issue, too, with Ignatieff's minimalist response to the relativist challenge. What's your view? What do you think?
GOOD LUCK!




Human Rights Documents and Treaties

African Charter on Human and People's Rights (African Union 1981)
American Convention on Human Rights (OAS 1969)
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (OAS 1948)
Charter of the United Nations (1945)
Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (UN 1979)
European Convention for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950)
European Social Charter
Genocide Convention (UN 1948)
Protocol of San Salvador (OAS 1988)
Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (UN 1998)
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948)
Human Rights Organizations

African Union
Amnesty International
Doctors without Borders
Human Rights Watch
International Commission of Jurists
International Red Cross
Organization of American States
United Nations
Human Rights Websites

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library
Derechos Human Rights
Human Rights Watch
Amnesty International
Philosophical Considerations

James Nickel, "Human Rights."
Leif Wenar, "Rights."
Kenneth Campbell, "Legal Rights."
Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, "Consequentialism."
Larry Alexander, Michael Moore, "Deontological Ethics."
Robert Johnsonr, "Kant's Moral Philosophy."
Fred D'Agostino, "Contemporary Approaches to the Social Contract."
Articles from Global Ethics and Justice

Charles R. Beitz, "Justice and International Relations"
Joseph H. Carens, "Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders"
David Miller, "The Ethical Significance of Nationality"
Robert E. Goodin, "What Is So Special about Our Fellow Countrymen?"
Thomas Pogge, "Cosmopolitanism and Sovereignty"
Jeremy Waldron, "Special Ties and Natural Duties"
Charles R. Beitz, "Cosmopolitan Ideals and National Sentiment"
Stephen M. Gardiner, "The Real Tragedy of the Commons"
Thomas Pogge, "An Egalitarian Law of Peoples"
United Nations Agreements on Human Rights

Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Optional Protocol to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
Convention Against Torture
Convention Against Genocide
The Geneva Conventions
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention on Eliminiation of Discrimination Against Women
Charter of the United Nations

Torture

Michael Levin, "The Case for Torture"
Seumas Miller, "Torture," Stanford Encyclopedia
Henry Shue, "Torture," Philosophy & Public Affairs

Torture at Abu Ghraib

THE ABU GHRAIB PHOTOGRAPHS
Photographs of abuse by American soldiers, taken at the Iraqi prison.
TORTURE AT ABU GHRAIB by SEYMOUR M. HERSH
American soldiers brutalized Iraqis. How far up does the responsibility go.
CHAIN OF COMMAND by SEYMOUR M. HERSH
How the Department of Defense mishandled the disaster at Abu Ghraib..
THE GRAY ZONE by SEYMOUR M. HERSH
How a secret Pentagon program came to Abu Ghraib.
HEARTS AND MINDS by DAVID REMNICK
The real failures at Abu Ghraib.
UNCONVENTIONAL WAR by HENDRICK HERTZBERG
The consequences of bending the rules of engagement
WHAT HAVE WE DONE? by SUSAN SONTAG
Photographs, Memory and Abu Ghraib.
THE COMING WARS by SEYMOUR M. HERSH
What the Pentagon can now do in secret.
OUTSOURCING TORTURE by JANE MAYER
The secret history of America's "extraordinary rendition" program.
MICHAEL RATNER
Internationalal Human Rights Lawyer.
CENTER FOR CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
The Center is a non-profit organization dedicated
to protecting and advancing the rights guaranteed by
the U.S. Constitution and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights..
THE ROAD TO ABU GHRAIB
Human Rights Watch Report.
HUMAN RIGHTS AND ASIAN VALUES by AMARTYA SEN
Are human rights uniquely Western and an obstacle to economic development?
THE SINGER SOULTION TO WORLD POVERTY & OTHER LINKS

Singer, "Famine, Affluence & Morality" - PDF File
"THE SINGER SOLUTION TO WORLD POVERTY"
Garrett Hardin, "Life Boat Ethics The Case Against Helping the Poor"
"Shallow Pond and Envelope STUDY GUIDEE
PETER SINGER'S WEB SITE
Onora Nell, "Lifeboat Earth" - PDF File
Hugh LaFollette and Larry May, "Suffer the Little Children" in World Hunger and Morality
ed. William Aiken and Hugh LaFollette Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1996
Psychology Today
September 1974, pp.38-43, 124-126.
William Aiken, "The 'Carrying Capacity' Equivocation: Reply to Hardin,"
Social Theory and Practice, v.6(1), Spring 1980, pp.1-11.
A Visual Display from Paris "Six Billion Human Beings
Amartya Sen, "Population: Delusion and Reality,"September 22, 1994
from his lecture before the United Nations on April 18, 1994
Amartya Sen, "Hunger: Old Torments and New Blunders," The Little Magazine,Volume 2.
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1. Forsythe D.P. (2004). 3 U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights in an Era of Insecurity," Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering. New York: Routledge.

2. Ignatieff M. Appiah K.A. Gutmann a. (2003). Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton University Press.

3. Ramcharan B. (2005). A UN High Commissioner in Defence of Human Rights: "No License to Kill or Torture." Boston: Martinus Nijhoff.

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