Total Pages: 15 Words: 4742 References: 10 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This is a history term paper on seapower. Write on the effects of the French/Spanish navies during the American War of Independence. Make reference to what was happening in Europe, the American seaboard, and the West Indies during that time period.
The main focus of the paper should be on the larger context of what's happening with the navies in the area during that time period. Why certain events happened and not the details about each battle. You can reference naval battles, but be sure to relate them to the larger scope of each country's involvement.
Make sure to go into depth with an analysis of why each navy conducted certain events/activities/policitical standpoints, what was gained/lost from those lessons.
Begin the term paper with a brief (1 page) introduction of the time period with reference to the major naval powers involved.
Be sure to only use academic resources: academic journals, books. Absolutely no websites, internet sources are to be used.
Some good sources to use: (I don't have an upload though):
Padfield, Peter. "Maritime Supremacy and the opening of the western mind: naval campaigns that shaped the modern world." london: Pimlico, 1999.
Rodger, NAM. "The command of the ocean: a naval history of Britain 1649-1815." london: Allen Lane, 2004.
"The attempted franco-spanish invasion and the first relief of gibraltar, 1770-80," Chapter 5 of David Syrett, The royal navy in european waters during the american revolutionary war. University of south carolina, 1978. 61-94.
David Syrett. "The organization of british trade convoys during the american war, 1775-83." pages 169-181.
David Syrett "home waters or america? the dilemma of british naval strategy in 1778. The northern mariner. vol 77, no 4. (nov) 1991. 365-77.
SBA Willis. Fleet performance and capability in the 18th centurty royal navy. War in history, vol 11. no 4. (2004). 373-92.
I will send my outline, you may find some of it useful. However, this term paper should be fluent and flow like a paper not an outline.
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Essay Instructions: The paper I need needs to examin the role of the British Marines played in the American revolutionary War. In addition the War of 1812 needs to be examined also
Battles won or lost and any other historial oddities am particularly intrested in any encounters with the US Marines
in either wars.
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Essay Instructions: One Essay with 8 identifications. Here is the Essay question
1. Discuss and evaluate the diplomacy, warfare, and the politics of negotiating relationships between Indian Nations and European invaders. (Spanish, French, English, and Dutch)
King Philip’s War
With each identification, I need five short and precise facts on the person, place, or event listed above. For example;
-1st President of the United States.
-General of the Colonial Army during the American Revolutionary War.
-Fought in the French and Indian War.
-Born in Virginian.
-Won the Battle at Yorktown, Va. forcing General Cornwallis and his British Army to surrender.
Typewritten in double-spaced format with Arial 11 or 12-point font or Times New Roman styles.
Page margins Top, Bottom, Left Side and Right Side = 1 inch, with reasonable accommodation being made for special situations and online submission variances.
You need to utilize 3 different resources and use these resources within the text of the Essay.
Essay must follow Turabian & Chicago Styles guidelines.
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Essay Instructions: You are to write a 1-page paper. Read the Case Study below and after reading the Case Study, answer the Discussion Question. State the question first and then continue to answer the question. Do Not Use Outside Sources.
Case Study: Barings Bank
Francis Baring with his brother John established Baring Bank London 1762. Their bank prospered by facilitating international trade. Barings helped finance the British effort in the American Revolutionary War; thereafter, Barings credit reopened trade with the United States. In 1803, Barings helped the United States finance the Louisiana Purchase and help Britain financed its campaigns against Napoleon. The bank’s influence was such that in 1818 Duc de Richelieu observed, “There are six great powers in Europe: England, France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Barings Brothers.” The bank almost failed 1890 when the loans that it had made in Argentina defaulted. But it survived with the help of a bailout engineered by the Bank of England. The family rebuilt the bank over the following decades. Although it never regained its former preeminence, Barings retained its reputation as a guilt-edge institution run largely by members of the family and owned primarily by a charitable foundation. In the first half of the 1990s, its influence expanded substantially, in part due to its probable Far East security business.
In late February 1995, Barings’ Board of Directors met to review the 1994 results. The bank had a small rise in profits a quite reasonable result in what had been simply a dreadful year for most of its competitors. One big contributor to those results had been an extremely profitable securities operation in Singapore. But that afternoon, things changed dramatically. The Singapore office trading star, Nick Leeson, unexpectedly walked out on the office and disappeared. As senior management examined the bank's records, it became clear that something was seriously amiss. In principle, Leeson engaged in a simple operation: arbitrating security prices between the Osaka Stock Exchange and the Singapore International Monetary Exchange (SIMEX). Leeson should have been able to look him in a virtually her risk less profit by selling the security of the exchange with a higher price while simultaneously buying an equivalent measurement on the exchange with the lower price. And although price differences are typically small, such arbitrage can produce a substantial profit if done in enough volume. In this arbitrage business, although Barings’ might accumulate large positions on exchanges, those securities it brought and those it sold should balance. The bank was supposed to face not net exposure to price changes.
Yet to what management found as a review of the bank's records was that Leeson had bought securities in both markets. In effect, he had made an enormous bet that the security price would rise. But it had fallen, and now the very solvency of the bank was threatened. It appears that Leeson circumvented the bank and controls. He had the responsibility for both proprietary and customer trading as well as effective control of the settlement of trades within the Singapore office. The Singapore branch was small, and Leeson had effective authority over both trading as well as the branch’s back office systems (bookkeeping, clearing, and settlement). He used the power to conceal losses and disguised the true nature of his activities and that he was able to “cook the books.” For example, he apparently told senior management that a number of his trades were on behalf not of the bank but of clients. And the bank’s internal control systems failed to uncover the deceit. Barings traditionally paid out approximately 50 percent of gross earnings as annual bonuses to managers; senior managers, as well as Leeson, were compensated based on Leeson’s trading profits. By early March, the banks aggregate losses totaled $1.4 billion. Leeson was arrested by German police at the Frankfurt airport. Eventually Leeson was returned to Singapore where he was tried and sentenced to three years in prison. And Barings, Britain's oldest merchant bank, was sold to ING (the largest Dutch financial institution) for £1.Thus, Barings’ owners had lost their entire investment.
Analyze how Barings' organizational architecture contributed to its failure.
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