Essay Instructions: This research paper is for my daughter for an extended studies program at Texas Tech University for English 12B.
The details are:
Title page, outline, in-text citations, bibliography and a works sited page. It should compare the two characters in Amadeus: Genius and Mediocrity. The instructions do not indicate how long it has to be so I just put approx. 4 pages?????
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Essay Instructions: Forman''s Amadeus. As you watch this film, gather examples of different ways Forman uses sound. Pause the tape now and again to take notes. (Note: of course, dialogue is part of the sound track, but if any of your examples involve dialogue, keep your emphasis on the SOUND,rather than the content, of the workd.)
Write an essay (3 pages) that shows us what you believe is the film''s central theme or focus, i.e., what you think the film is really about. Your first paragraph should contain a clearly identifiable, arguable thesis. In the following paragraphs, use at least three of the examples you have gathered to show us how sound creates or underscores the film''s central theme. You may also use other aspects of the film to support your argument. In your conclusion, find a way to develop or expand on your stated thesis.
NOTE: make it simple and easy to understand.
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Essay Instructions: ESSAY 600 WORDS: ( ARTISTS IN 18TH CENTURY)
Compare and contrast the characters of Salieri and Mozart as experienced in the movie Amadeus directed by Milos Forman. Identify at least two cultural values/ideas that inform each musician’s approach to his music and his life. Support your response with specific references to and quotations from the movie (if you think you may want to select this prompt for the text, I suggest that you view the movie with the prompt in mind and a notepad at hand).
Recommendation: The film Amadeus. An Oscar-winning movie, it is highly entertaining, funny and sad, authentic in costumes and manners, has gorgeous music and gives an accurate account of the role of the artist in the 18th century.
Although many people group all "serious" music under the term Classical, it is only in the 18th century that this music first appears. Baroque music, highly complex, ornamental and emotional, did not appeal to the cool, rational and logical mind of the Age of Reason, and so in the second half of the 18th century the Classical style emerged. The emphasis on Reason and Logic is seen in the highly structured, repetitive, almost mathematical formula that characterizes most compositions of this time.
A good example of classical music is the Sonata form, which consists of three parts:
• Exposition: the introduction of the theme(s) and of the melody.
• Development: the same theme(s) and melody, but with elaborations and variations.
• Recapitulation: a review, a conclusion, the bringing together of the themes and melodies, will all the elaborations and variations introduced and developed, plus further variations. It all ends in a big wrap-up, a Coda.
The Sonata form becomes the base for symphonies. Symphonies themselves often are divided into four movements, which vary in key, tempo, and mood. The first movement is normally long and upbeat; the second is slower and more serious; the third, in contrast with the often somber second, is based on a dance, the minuet; and the last is faster and often has a grandiose conclusion.
Orchestras had more instruments than before, including clarinet and piano, woodwinds and percussion. Melodies are stressed, and the homogenous cordal style (single melodic lines as opposed to the polyphony of the Baroque) makes the music easy to hum. Music not performed not only in court for a select group, but also in the concert hall for much larger groups.
Symphony #94 - Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Haydn developed the sonata form, as well as the chamber music we know as a string quartet. His originality was in spotlighting each instrument in the quartet in turn, in contrast to the instruments of the Baroque, which seem to fight with each other.
Listen to CD 2, track 9 to hear selections from the 2nd movement of Haydn's Symphony #94. As is often the case with the second movement of a symphony, the tempo is slow. Listen to the repeated theme, occasionally broken up by a modulation of pitch, (a big bang) which changes the melodic line from soft to loud. This modulation of pitch introduces variations in the theme. As the theme is repeated, you will hear these variations in key as well as tempo.
Contrary to much Baroque music, where it is difficult to follow the musical thread, in Classical music, with its thematic repetitions, you can not only hum and tap your foot to the music, you can predict what is next. While the repetition might create a boring piece of music, the variations in key, tempo, mood and instrumentation give it constant interest.
Serenade in G Major, K. 525 “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik,” I- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
A performer and composer since the age of six, Mozart not only wrote perfect sonatas but also composed operas, concertos, symphonies, religious music. He only lived 35 years but composed more than 600 works.
In the hands of a lesser talent, the sonata form and its concern with form and proportion might make it monotonous and rigid. In Mozart's hands, it achieves a quality of beauty and perfection unsurpassed to this day, as well as an emotion, which seems to contradict all we know about the Enlightenment. He manages to maintain the symmetry and balance of design characteristic of the Classical period, but infuses it with passion and feeling.
Reminiscent of Michelangelo's statement "the sculpture is already in the stone--I just had to pull it out," Mozart worked entire pieces of music in his mind and said, "Though a composition be long, it is complete and finished in my mind."
Unable to deal with the hierarchical society of his time, in which the nobility and church had privileges and artists were servants, Mozart did not fit in. He was uncouth, tactless, and argumentative. Like Voltaire, he dared to present social criticism under the guise of comedy. In his opera The Marriage of Figaro, a clever servant outwits a dumb and wealthy master, a theme that the wealthy audiences would find unacceptable. Mozart's own inability to accept his status as a servant led to alienation from his patrons and from his family, and he died in poverty at a very young age.
First movements often are more upbeat and have a quicker tempo than the traditionally more serious and somber second movements. See how the first theme is introduced, then a second minor theme comes in. That is the Exposition. Then we experience the Development, where the themes clarified. After that comes the Recapitulation of the second and first themes, and finally a conclusion, or musical Coda, a big wrap-up. This is a lovely piece of music, which is anything but monotonous, although it follows the balanced format, and mathematical precision of Classical music.
Marriage of Figaro, “Dove sono,” Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Listen to CD 2 track 11 for an aria from Mozart’s famous opera “The Marriage of Figaro” mentioned above, and be sure to read page 459 of the blue text, which comments on this work.
It often happens that the characteristics of a certain era contrast with those of the preceding era. Such is the case with the 18th century, called the Enlightenment. In contrast to the ornamentation, the passion, and the emotional appeal of the 17th century Baroque, the 18th century calls for reason and logic. The culture’s pace increased in the 18th century due to mobilization of populations, increased literacy, print texts, increased interaction with the New World, and scientific revolution. Sir Isaac Newton’s definition of the Law of Gravity and the ability to express certain regularities in the universe in mathematical formulations was a great stimulus to scientific progress, and it encouraged a scientific, empirical approach to knowledge. As we discovered the scientific laws of the universe, we earnestly pursued definitions of the laws of nature and society. Truth based on observation of nature rather than study of ancient texts saw intellectuals identifying the institutions of man—especially the Church—as enslaving the human mind. While not renouncing religion altogether, many 18th century intellectuals adopted Deism, which accepted the existence of God but rejected God’s hand in human affairs. The responsibility for man’s experience in this world, then, rested on the behaviors of men. In other words, Man’s focus and responsibility should focus on improving life in this world, rather than working toward rewards in the next.
A study of the art, music, literature, and philosophy of the century reveals a cultural attraction to the mind rather than the heart. The pursuit of the question “what does it mean to be human?’ found answers in neo-classical renewals of reason, and emphasized developing both the human mind and the human body. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant offered the motto of the age in his admonition, “Dare to know.” The period became characterized as a one of great optimism, with the "light" in the word Enlightenment representing the light of Reason.
The time of the absolute ruler epitomized by Louis the XIV, the Sun King who ruled by Divine Right and was fading; in its place emerged the enlightened monarch. Politically, enlightened thought emerged in the adoption of a form of enlightened absolutism practiced by a few highly educated monarchs, specifically, Frederick of Prussia, Joseph and Maria Theresa of Austria and Catherine the Great of Russia. These rulers sought to serve the state by surrounding themselves with educated advisors from diverse areas; they pushed for reforms of government that emphasized preservation of rights and property. If you are able to watch the movie Amadeus, you will see a fair depiction of an enlightened monarch in the character of Joseph of Austria.
With the death of Louis XIV, the nobility began to travel away from Versailles. Gathering in the salons of Paris, they participated in an equal exchange of ideas with educated men and women of the upper middle classes. Discussions in the salons often focused on topics framed by a general set of ideas derived from the work of an English philosopher, John Locke (for a further discussion of Locke, see the lecture in this folder on Locke and Hobbes) and elaborated on by a group of published intellectuals known as the philosophes. Three important tenets of Locke’s philosophy that informed the French philosophes’ treatise include
1. Natural Human Rights: a belief that life, liberty, property, freedom were inalienable rights accorded to all men who in their original state are characterized as rational and tolerant.
2. The Social Contract: creation of a state with limited power charged with the protection of individual rights. If the state failed in its charge, revolution was required.
3. Tabula Rasa & Empiricism: man is not considered a creature born with innate ideas or moral precepts, but rather the mind of man begins as a clean slate (an empty mind) which acquires knowledge through sense perception. “No man’s knowledge here can go beyond his experience.” J. Locke.
Obsessed with mathematics and science, the Enlightenment thinkers were convinced that by using reason and logic they could better understand the universe and thus lead to progress. A very important group of men of science and letters, known as the Philosophes, influenced by the writings of John Locke, observed their society and saw the social and economic inequalities, the injustices, the abuses, and the corruption. They set out to correct what was wrong. While we refer to them as a group who agreed on basic tenets, they were, individually responsible for articulating ideas that have become the foundation of western culture. Their common goals included doing away with the privileges of the rich and noble, to give equal rights to everyone, to create a significant place for the largely-ignored middle class. Individually we see Diderot addressing metaphysical norms—natural rights, natural religion, natural economies--to which societies must conform. Montesquieu analyzed the faults of the French political system in his book Spirit of the Laws where he argued against despotism, clericalism, and slavery and called for fundamental laws to curb the power of monarchies. Voltaire, a writer with a sharp and biting wit, attached the follies of his times, particularly those related to the Catholic Church. He called for tolerance between groups with varying ideologies and theologies. Rousseau, more focused on emotion than rationality rejected all compromise with current social structures and called for moral reformation in secular and religious sectors; he represents the shift toward Romanticism, so we will look more closely at his work in our next unit.
Thomas Jefferson who took many of his ideas from Voltaire’s Treatise on Toleration, represents the American Enlightenment in his The Virginia Statue of Religious Liberty. Like Voltaire, he saw the institutions of religion as corrupted by possessions and position, and he felt the church should be removed from public education. Like Locke and Montesquieu, Jefferson believed that man’s mind was created free and that man is born with inalienable human rights, thus neither political systems nor religion could bar civil liberties. He felt the law had no right to choose a man’s religion, to punish him for his faith, or to bar him from public office.
Mary Wollstonecraft argues in her Vindication of the Rights of Woman that existing social and educational arrangements, as well as the absence of political rights, treated women as thought they were les than rational creatures and often prescribed less than rational roles for women. She advocated for a social view of women as fully rational beings who must receive education and be permitted to exercise their independence. Wollstonecraft also felt that a woman’s duty as citizen was to be an active and involved mother to her children (to raise good citizens) and an active and involved wife to her husband rather than a vessel through which the children come and an ornament decorating the marriage. She believed the consequence of giving women and education would benefit them as they served in these roles. She also believed that if a woman could not, for whatever reason, serve as wife or mother, she should be allowed, as a citizen, to serve in other arenas such as the law, medicine, or education.
The philosophes reached their audience (the people) through print media, books, newspapers, monthly journals, and pamphlets. They promoted a central government that controlled reform under a doctrine of progress. This doctrine is defined by four important tenets:
1. People are good but the institutions are bad and have corrupted the people (remember, the people are basically a product of their environment)
2. Reform of the institutions will improve the people
3. Reform of the role of King will reform the other institutions
4. Progress is achieved through education
As social and political voices, they were not revolutionaries. However, they planted the seeds of revolution in the minds of the people. Never had such idea as "all men are created equal" been voiced.
Meanwhile, the people began to see that the court in Versailles had been a sponge, absorbing the money and the labor of the French people and giving nothing in return. While the economy and the people had prospered under Louis XIV, under Louis XV, who had neither the charisma nor the intelligence of his grandfather, the gulf between rich and poor grew, as did the discontent of the middle class. In our next unit, we will see that the seeds of individual rights sown in the Enlightenment culture of France will result in an explosion of violence and revolution. The intellectual movements combined with economic hardships turned France, the most powerful country in Europe, into a hot bed of revolutionary turmoil.
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Essay Instructions: I need ( 150 wordsresponse) to eash to 2 essay below.
Total of 300 words.
1) I NEED 150 WORD RESPONSE/ COMMENTS (positive comments) FROM THE BOTTOM RESPONSE
Prompt 4: The goals of the philosophies were meant to exercise a set of ideals. Which common tenets of enlightened thinking do writers Mary Wollstonecraft and Denis Diderot advance in "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" and the selection from "Encyclopedie." Contemporary connections: Discuss how you see the tenets you identified in these works as having informed/influenced our contemporary experience.
Although Mary Wollstonecraft speaks about the rights of women specifically, her “A Vindication of the Rights of Women” stresses the value of rationality and reasonable discourse in keeping with Enlightenment principles that were particular to many other Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot. Wollstonecraft argues one of the defects of male oppression of women is that it limits female education, and makes women more irrational. When men criticize women, men have essentially created a self-fulfilling prophesy. Women have not been allowed full venues to enrich themselves, which is the right of all human beings. Rational thought and education, Enlightenment thinkers such as Wollstonecraft, saw as the true purpose of human life.
In Denis Diderot’s “Encyclopedie,” the values of the Enlightenment over past superstition are advanced for all humanity, both men and women. Diderot saw understanding the world, rather than obeying the tenants of faith as the true purpose of human existence. Like Wollstonecraft saw ideas about female empowerment as rooted in outdated and cruel customs and superstition, Diderot saw Catholic dogma and social institutions that limited people’s ability to express thoughts freely, experiment, and maximize their potential, as damaging to the true purpose of human life. Enlightenment thinking’s embrace of reason, the individual, and a rejection of past tradition are all reflected in Diderot’s distain for accepting authority based upon history, and his belief that the human mind could set us all free.
The debate about nature versus nurture in terms of the socialization of the sexes still continues to this day, as does the value of rationality. In many states in America, the controversy over teaching evolution in schools is still raging, and although women are accepted in most positions of power, the notion of the similarity and equality of the sexes, and whether this is rooted in biology or socialization remains controversial. Through personal empowerment and social engineering, how much can we change human society? Wollstonecraft and Diderot argued that a great deal of change was possible, while conservative advocates of tradition and faith fear the repercussions of such change, and even some scientists argue that such social engineering is limited, ironically, by biology.
Message: Mary Wollstonecraft and Diderot would feel at home in this century. However, I suspicion that they would probably be a bit more conservative than some of feminists would like to think.
Wollstonecraft's argument for the education of women is hinged on the belief that a woman's primary role is that of Mother. Not just biological mother, but a mother who raises Citizens. In other words, motherhood, for Mary Wollstonecraft is a civic duty. In order for women to raise fully contributing citizens, they must be able to both nurture and educate their young.
In Wollstonecraft's time, women of status (none of this discussion applies to the poor) were not only undereducated, they were also not expected to care for their children in a 'hands on' fashion. Rather, wives were to be seen as a husband's possession--they were to be lovely, fresh, adept at music and polite conversation. They were not to lose their appearance to nursing or caring for the young. Rather, wet-nurses were brought in to suckle the young, nannies were given charge over the children (who were, for all intents and purposes to be 'seen and not heard' and were dressed as 'little adults'). Wollstonecraft attacks head-on these notions, writing that society should view any man as 'cold' if he did not perceive the vision of his wife nursing his child as most wonderful. As you note, she advocates also for a full education for women and that women should be valued for their minds rather than as baubles on a husband's arm.
What is especially interesting about Wollstonecraft's view is that she says, while motherhood is important for the nurturing of future citizens, if a woman in unable or unwilling to have children, she should be allowed to contribute to the society in strong and positive ways--she should be allowed to pursue being a doctor or any other profession held by men. Thus, Wollstonecraft's view women's ability to participate in the society is not limited by her strong views on motherhood.
2) 1) I NEED 150 WORD RESPONSE/ COMMENTS (positive comments)
One example of a Neo-Classical structure is the Gloriette or”temple of fame built in 1768.A more contemporary building that also may be considered Neo-Classical is the U.S. Supreme Court Building. Neo-Classical style was chosen to reflect democratic ideals. Its sculpted pediments tell allegories of justice and mercy.
The central traits of the classical style of music,I believe are identified in Mozart's music. Clarity, balance, transparency, delicacy and exceptional power.I truly believe that Mozart ‘s growth as a composer closely influenced the development of the classical style. Mozart was a versatile composer and wrote in almost every major genre, including symphony, opera , the solo concerto, string quartet and quintet chamber music, and the piano sonata. He also wrote religious music, including masses; and he composed many dances, two of them are the divertimenti and the serenades. While none of these genres were new,they were almost single-handedly developed and popularized by Mozart especially the piano concerto.Over his lifetime Mozart influenced many composers, in all genres,and his legacy still continues on to present day.
The following replies have been posted:
Have you had the opportunity to see AMADEUS? My one regret teaching this class online is that we cannot view movies together; Milos Foreman's movie about Mozart offers so many talking points about key cultural phenomenon as well as offering us the opportunity to experience your point that Mozart developed and popularized musical genres--honestly, he made them new.
In the movie, the Court Composer, Saltier, characterizes Mozart's music as the 'voice of God.' Which is a very Classical approach to music--Saltier represents the traditional belief that talent comes from God and that individuals are simply God's vessel for conveying beauty. This is very much Michelangelo's view (remember how his poetry speaks of the artist's hand as being guided by another to release the beautiful figure contained in a block of marble?).
Saltier's (and the other's) conflict with Mozart is that Amadeus, the man, is a bit rough around the edges. Hardly the image of human perfectibility worthy of being God's chosen vessel for such music. Saltier even goes so far to call Mozart 'a trained monkey.' The dilemma for those who maintain a traditional faith is, then, how can a flawed man be a conduit for such great beauty?
Mozart also represents other concepts coming to the fore during this period: meritocracy and the free market. The people of Europe are beginning to enjoy the financial freedom that comes to a growing middle class -- especially in the Protestant countries where we see the free market developing steadily.
Through out the Catholic regions we see the people more and more questioning the concept of 'divine right' or the rights of men to have position simply because of a birth right or by right of station---this soon results in revolutions (France/Spain)as well as the rise of a new kind of ruler "the enlightened ruler" who begins to move away from the idea of absolute authority.
Mozart does not see himself as living under the patronage of a specific person, rather he sees himself much more a 'free market' agent--working for whom he wishes rather than at the whim of those stationed above him.
At the beginning of your post you identify the Neoclassical characteristics as: balance, discipline, restraint, unity, order. Notice how the values of the Renaissance "balance, order, harmony, and human perfectibility" have shifted to remove the 'human perfectibility' aspect and have replaced it with 'restraint.' Hmmmm...As we talk about this era, we also want to note that Neoclassical values are no longer considered the avant garde, they are the 'traditions.' Mozart and his enlightened friends are the avant garde, pushing on the ideas of 'order and balance and restraint' and replacing them with values much more aligned with human rights to life and liberty.
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