I am taking an online class focusing on the "Principles of Adult
Learning". I have 2 seperate assignments that I will be farming out to your service here, both requiring short essay responses to questions. Please read each of the lesson below and answer the questions at the very bottom of the lesson to the best of your ability. Be sure to site all references used in APA format. Thanks.
- Lesson Six Topic: Program Areas and Populations/New perspectives
To conduct an inquiry into selected adult
To increase one's perspective regarding the research, theory, and principles of the practice of Andragogy.
You should by now realize that adult
education is a very broad discipline that addresses the psychological, sociological, and physiological characteristics of the adult
learner. Bet you thought that it just served the undereducated, disadvantaged adult
didn't you. The discipline is so broad, and serves so many diverse populations of learners that it would be virtually impossible to devote the time and effort to study each group. We therefore will be looking at some specific populations that are more common to the casual observer. We will look briefly at the following populations of learners. I will give you information from the literature that will be primarily directed at the need rather than what is being done or what should be done.
a. Workplace Literacy
c. Older adults
d. Workplace in General (HRD)
e. Non-traditional Students
A. Workplace Literacy:
(Check out Google for additional information: Selected Populations) (See also the following information for the Undereducated/disadvantaged)
How Literate Are American Adults
A measure of adult
literacy used to be signing your name, completing 5 years of school, or scoring at a particular level on a reading test. At one time in our history, this may have been a good way to determine who were the undereducated/disadvantaged. However, as we have become more aware of what "functional literacy" consists of, it has been determined that those measures did not offer sufficient accounting for what society demands.
Functional Literacy basically refers to one's ability to function successfully in society. The person is literate if they have sufficient skills and knowledge to allow them to be successful as a worker, as a member of a community, as a parent, as a citizen, etc. The requirements of these various roles keep changing as society changes (Remember Toffler?)
In September of 1993, the U.S. Department of Education released the results of the National Adult
Literacy Survey (NALS). See the following for information reported: http://www.vluonline.org/download/NALS.pdf
There is a very high correlation between levels of poverty and levels of illiteracy. (See the following) 90 Million Americans Lack Basic Literacy Skills
A study conducted by the U.S. Department of Education found that half the adult
population does not possess the most basic level of reading ability.
Here are some consequences of low literacy skills:
Poverty- 43% of adults
at the lowest level of literacy proficiency live in poverty; among adults
with strong literacy skills, only 4% live in poverty. Adults
with the lowest literacy skills earn a median income of $240 per week, compared to $681 for those with the highest skills.
Welfare- 70% of mothers on welfare have reading skills in the lowest two proficiency levels. This fact is particularly alarming considering that a mother's literacy level is one of the most significant predictors of a child's future literacy ability.
Statistics from the U.S. Dept. of Labor show that, although the unemployment rate has fallen steadily, the poverty rate has remained high.
U.S. Census Bureau figures reveal that nearly half of the heads of all poor households are employed.
87% of poor children live in a family in which at least one person is employed at least part of the time.
C. Older Adults
1. Some Facts:
In 1960, there were 3222 Americans over the age of 100. Today there are more than 60,000
22 million households have a caregiver responsible for an older family member
The average cost of a nursing home is $47,000 per year
Since 1900, the percentage of Americans 65 and older has tripled and the number has increased nearly 11 times, from 3.1 million to 33.9 million
5570 people celebrate their 65th birthday every day
People 65 and older will represent 20% of the total population by 2030
Arkansas has the 4th highest percentage of elderly people living in poverty (19%)
In 1996, the median income for people 65 and older was $12,214
People are vigorous and mentally active longer in their lives than ever before.
They learn for various reasons: leisure; seeking new careers; preparing for retirement; preparing for aging; literacy (adults
50+ make up 63% of our illiterate population; life skills (health, safety, community resources, consumer economics, etc.)
3. See "A New Look at Older Adults
D. Workplace (HRD)
1. Statistics for 1991 ~ 1995 ~ 1998
§ Between 1991 and 1995, the percentage of employed workers who participated in skill improvement training for their current jobs rose from 30 to 32 percent, increasing for both full time and part time workers.
§ In 1995, females were more likely than males to participate in skill improvement training for their current job. This continued in 1998 when women constituted half of the participants in work-related courses.
§ In all three years, individuals aged 26 - 54 participated at a greater rate than those below age 26 or above age 54.
§ College graduates, workers in executive, professional, and technical occupations, and those employed full-time were more likely than other workers to participate in training to improve their current job skills.
E. Nontraditional Students
1. You may be a nontraditional student if ?
You're the only person sitting in the front row in class.
The music in the Student Union gives you a headache.
You can remember when John F. Kennedy was president.
You drink coffee in the afternoon.
You wonder how some people can spend 10 hours in the Union doing nothing.
You've never played a video game.
Your favorite shoes are older than most of your classmates.
You talk about painting your living room over spring break while everyone else is talking about Mexico.
You're the first one to arrive in class and the last one to leave.
You have been mistaken for a professor.
You arrange your class schedule around your child's daycare schedule.
You remember seeing Star Wars the first-time around.
You have an album collection.
...Borrowed from UNLV web site
2. There has been a steady increase in enrollment nationwide, in the nontraditional student on the campuses of higher education.
Projections for older students
According to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the number of older students has been growing along with the number of younger students. Between 1990 and 1999, the enrollment of students `under age twenty-five increased by eight percent. During the same period, enrollment of persons 25 and over rose by seven percent. In 1997, the average age of community college students was 29, with 46% of students over the age of 25. From 1999 to 2010, NCES projects an increase of nine percent in the number of students over age twenty-five.
3. At the University of Arkansas, you are a nontraditional student if you meet any of the following criteria.
a. You are 25 years of age
d. Have Dependents
e. Returning Student
***II. Assignment for Lesson # 6***
1. Select one item of interest from items (a. workplace literacy; b. undereducated/disadvantaged; c. older adults
; d. workplace/HRD; e. nontraditional students) listed in the introduction (above)??"explain why you selected the topic and discuss your feelings regarding the topic. (*250 words minimum)
2. Report on a personal experience confirming the principle, “the need to know”. (*100 words minimum)
3. Report on a personal experience confirming the principle, “self-directed learning”. (*100 words minimum)
4. Report on a personal experience confirming the principle, “motivate to learn”. (*100 words minimum)
I am taking an online class focusing on the "Principles of Adult
Learning". I have roughly 11 assignments that I will be farming out to your service, all requiring short essay responses to questions. Please read the lesson below and answer the questions at the very bottom of the lesson to the best of your ability. Be sure to site all references used in APA format. Thanks.
- Lesson Eleven -- Topic: Adult Development
1. To review and become familiar with the concept of Adult Development
including the vocabulary and some of the research and researchers in this area.
2. To understand the behavioral characteristics of creative leaders.
To become aware of the total concept of Adult Development
, you should download and read these papers.
To distinguish between Adult
Learning and Adult Development
go about the task of learning.
b. Adult Development
-- The influence of physiological, psychological, and sociological development
Developmental Tasks and Adult
a. In all your schooling, how many of you have studied child development
? How many have studied adult development
? If you are like most of us, you have been exposed to very little study of adulthood and have missed the exciting learning about life's center ring:
(Neugarten, Bernice L.., The Psychology of Aging: An Overview) "One can look at gerontologists as being seated under the same circus tent in which the child psychologist is sitting--the child psychologist sits...too near the entrance while the gerontologist sits too near the exit. Both groups really have been missing the main show--that is, what's going on in the three-ring circus that we call adulthood."
Perhaps we have neglected this five-sevenths (or more) of the life span because most definitions of adulthood implied that we were "fully grown and mature" with all the work of development
behind us. As Roger Gould in "Adult
Life Stages: Growth Toward Self-tolerance," expressed it:
Like a butterfly, an adult
is supposed to emerge fully formed and on cue after a succession of developmental stages of childhood...equipped with...wisdom and rationality, the adult
supposedly remains quiescent for another half century or so. While children change, adults
b. Why Study Adult Development
In spite of the fact that educators have recognized for several decades that a child is not simply a small adult
, it has apparently been with difficulty that they understand that an adult
is not merely a large child (Newton, Eunice, 1980, Andragogy: Understanding the adult
as a learner. In Johnson, L. S. (ed) Reading and the adult
The fact that the adult
is a dynamic, developing being has definite implications for how the teaching/learning transaction will be facilitated. We must keep in mind the role of the Adult
Educator: To remove barriers to learning and to create an environment that will maximize learning.
c. The study of Adult Development
has increased in importance for the Adult
1) People Live Longer: In 1900 the life expectancy in the United States was 45; in 1979 around 70; and currently is approaching 80. (life expectancy = no. years one might, at birth, expect to live; life span = no. of years that include the maximum extent of life, eg. Somewhere around 100 yrs.)
2) Our population gets proportionately older. In 1980 the median age in the United States was around 29. This has shown a steady increase of the past several censal periods. I think that is somewhere around 33 or 34 now.
Students are enrolling in greater numbers than ever before. Rate of participation is out-stripping rate of adult
population growth by over twice the rate.
4) People demonstrate continued growth and competence well into old age. People are living longer and staying active and healthy longer.
Examples of Research and Models (age related/hierarchical)
a. Robert J. Havighurst, Stages of Life and Developmental Tasks (age related) Havighurst provides examples of tasks that may be commonly found in each of the three stages. This does not mean that they will occur for all people in those specific stages. They are simply examples of likelihoods.
Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood
[Robert J. Havighurst, 1976]
1. Selecting a mate
2. Learning to live with a marriage partner
3. Starting a family
4. Rearing children
5. Managing a home
6. Getting started in an occupation
7. Taking on civic responsibility
8. Finding a congenial social group
Developmental Tasks of Middle Adulthood
Assisting teen-age children to become responsible and happy adults
social and civic responsibility
Reaching and maintaining satisfactory performance in one's occupational career
Relating oneself to one's spouse as a person
Accepting and adjusting to the physiological changes of middle age
Adjusting to aging parents
Developmental Tasks of Later Maturity
Adjusting to decreasing strength and health
Adjusting to retirement and reduced income
Adjusting to death of spouse
Establishing an explicit affiliation with one's age group
Adopting and adapting social roles in a flexible way
Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements
Robert J. Havighurst, 1976
b. Daniel Levinson, Psychosocial Development
of Men...(study was later extended to women and similar results established) (age related)
of Men in Early Adulthood and the Mid-Life Transition Ages 18 to 45
Leaving the Family (LF) (16-24)
Getting into the Adult
World (GIAW) (early 20's-29)
Settling Down (SD) (30-35)
Becoming One's Own Man (BOOM) (35-40)
The Mid-Life Transition (MLT) (38-45)
Restabilization of the Beginning of Middle Adulthood (45 and up)
c. Lawrence Kohlberg: Stages of Moral Development
. For a Summary of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
by R. N. Barger, see: http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/kohlberg.html
***II. Assignment for Lesson #11. ***
1. Why is knowledge of adult development
important to adult
educators? (*100 words minimum)
2. How will this knowledge contribute to an environment that will maximize learning? (*100 words minimum)
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