A Poison Tree Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for A Poison Tree College Essay Examples

Title: A poison tree

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Essay Instructions: http://quotations.about.com/cs/poemlyrics/a/A_Poison_Tree.htm
(A Poison Tree By William Blake


this is a analysis essay. don't use any sources just use your own Interpretation.the following pages that I'm faxing you help you to get what I'm looking for.
There are faxes for this order.

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Works Cited:

Works Cited

Blake, William. "A Poison Tree." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.

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Title: EXPLICATION OF POEM

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 533
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  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: HELLO,
MY NAME IS CARRIE AND I AM IN NEED OF YOUR SERVICES. EVERY THING THAT I NEED FOR MY PAPER IS WRITTEN BELOW. I AM NOT SURE HOW MANY SOURSE I NEED SO FEEL FREE TO TO ADD A FEW. THE EXPLICATION IS ABOUT WILLIAM BLAKES " A POISON TREE " POEM. PLEASE LET ME KNOW IF THIS CAN BE DONE BY THE DUE DATE AND WITH THE SPECIFICATIONS STATED BELOW.
THANKS

PLEASE NOTE I HAVE A IMAC WITHOUT WORD ON IT SO PLEASE LET ME KNOW IF I NEED ANOTHER PROGRAM DOWNLOAD TO VIEW.

The first of your major essay assignments is an explication of a poem from the Romantic period. Confine your choices to the poems on the reading list.

Explication of a Poem

Poetry intimidates many readers because they are convinced it is more difficult to understand than other types of literature. However, once one realizes that poetry, despite its different appearance on the page, is also written in sentences that can be analyzed and understood, it is easy to begin to enjoy its richness of form and meaning.

The Writing Center at the University of North Carolina describes an explication of a poem as "a relatively short analysis which describes the possible meanings and relationships of the words, images, and other small units that make up a poem. Writing an explication is an effective way for a reader to connect a poem's plot and conflicts with its structural features (See the entire handout by clicking here).

The verb explicate means to "set forth" or to "unfold." To "unfold" or analyze a poem, one must explain and comment on each line by showing how all of the poetic devices work together to produce the meaning and the effect of the work. To that end, an explication is much more than a paraphrase of each line; it is a discussion of how such elements as rhyme, rhythm, word choice, figurative language, and tone make the work effective. The explication also concerns the ways in which the parts of the poem come together to make meaning.

The poem's meaning or theme is the insight or ideas about life that the author wants to share. An effective work makes the reader think about life, for the author wants us to consider his insights into our common experiences. Themes are not morals designed to teach us how to conduct our lives; they are ideas that make us think about life and about our values, and anytime we evaluate our own philosophy of life, we become more aware of who we are and of what life means.

The author shares the theme through the subject of the work, trough what is said about the subject, and through the poet's use of poetic devices. This message about life is a idea, an insight that the poet has had an wants to share with the reader. Whether accepted or rejected, the theme has enlarged the readers' minds by making them evaluate the poet's idea and its place in our value system. Any time we think critically about an experience or an idea, we become more sensitive and thoughtful human beings.

The Assignment -

Write an explication of a poem from the Romantics section of the reading list. Your paper should be approximately 2 pages long in proper MLA format. (See your Gardner text if you have any questions about essay format.) You may, but are not required to use secondary sources. If you use secondary sources, document them properly according to MLA format as described in and Gardner, Writing about Literature. Review the sectionin Gardner about "Writing about Poems" (although the sample essay on Sonnet 116 is not particularly good.) The essay is due on Feb 23.

Use MS Word to write your essay. Upload the essay to the assignment drop box. (Be aware that the assignment closes after you upload a file to the drop box.) Make sure the poem you've selected is on the reading list for this course. If you select a poem from the textbook or elsewhere that is not on the reading list, your essay will not be graded.

When preparing to write an essay which explicates a poem, keep these steps in mind:

Begin by reading the poem a sentence at a time, making sure that you understand the meaning of each word. (Notice that I did not say a line at a time because sentences in poetry may end in the middle of a line.) Poets choose each word carefully, depending on both denotative and connotative meaning. The denotation can be found in the dictionary, but since some words may have several meanings -- some now obsolete ? be sure to choose the meaning that is appropriate to the context in the sentence. The connotation relates to the emotions that the word may evoke because of our past experiences.

Think about the poem's meaning. Determine the rhetorical situation (also known as the dramatic situation). In brief, who is the speaker, to whom is the poem addressed, and what is its purpose? (Remember that the speaker and the poet are not the same. Avoid the false assumption that all poems are personal expressions by the poet.) Then also consider

What is the scene in the poem? Determine the themes and conflicts that the poem addresses and questions it raises.

Who is the speaker (also called the voice or persona) in the poem?. Who does the poem address? Who are the characters in the poem? What motivates the speaker?

What is the plot (what happens in the poem on its surface)? Does conflict occur? How is it resolved?

What is the significance of the time and place the action occurs and is reported?

Once you understand the meaning of the poem, read it again to identify words that rhyme or that contain alliteration, assonance, or consonance. Mark any examples of similes, metaphors, or symbols, and note any images and the sensory impressions that they convey. Note unusual word orders, vocabulary, sound devices, imagery, and other stylistic devices. Also decide on the tone of the work based on the subject, the word choice and order, and the poet?s overall style. Determine patterns and how they convey meaning and contribute to the success of the poem. (The explication should not just be a line by line paraphrase or description of the poem, but it should show how each line contributes to the meaning.

Essay Organization
Introduction
After an interesting lead or ?hook,? the introduction should include the following:
the author?s full name and the title of the poem
the type of poem ? narrative, lyric, dramatic monologue, etc.
the voice of the poem ? the narrator, the speaker, or an identifiable character.
the setting in time an place if it is stated or can be inferred from the text
a brief summary of what the poem is about.
your thesis statement. The thesis statement should reveal in general the discoveries you made about the poet?s use of specific poetic devices and a statement of the poem's theme.
Body
elaborate on the larger issues such as the significance of the poem's form, type, etc. that you may have mentioned in the introducion.
explain what motivates the speaker, how the conflicts are resolved, their relationships to theme
discuss the stanzas, explaining the meaning of each sentence/line by paraphrasing and quoting and by pointing out and explaining the effects of any poetic devices that the poet employs. Remember that each sentence/line of the poem must be explained because each one contributes to the total effect of the work; you may, however, explicate sentence/line four before sentence/line three, for example, if that approach would help clarify the poem?s meaning. Your discussion must elaborate on how your analysis on the line supports the thesis.
discuss formal poetic elements that contribute to the meaning and understanding of the poem. (All poems have a metrical pattern, but it might not have particular significance for every poem. )
Break the discussion into paragraphs at logical points. (DO NOT assume that a 5 paragraph format essay will satisfy). Use transitions to make connections between the paragraphs.)
Conclusion
The conclusion should comment on the poet?s effective (or not) use of poetic devices to convey his or her meaning and then discuss that meaning as it relates to the universal human experience.

Save your essay as yourlastnamefirstinitialE1. For example, if your name is Harry Potter, your file would be named potterhE1.doc. (MSWord will add the .doc file ending.Be sure there are no spaces in your file name.)

Editing
Discuss literature in present tense
Maintain a 3rd person point of view focusing on the work (Avoid inserting "the reader" into your essay since you are the only reader for whom you can speak.)
Consult Gardner, Writing about LIterature or one of the suggested websites for specifics in quoting and citing poetry and for details of MLA format.

Click on Assignments under the Action Menu for Essay 1. Select Essay 1, upload your paper to to student files and click on Submit to turn it in. ( Use Blackboard's HELP menu for assistance in uploading and submitting the file.) If your file "gets lost" and does not reach me, it essay is not turned in. If the essay is submitted in formats other than MS Word (.doc), it will not be accepted.
Some university websites that offer information of explications:

"Writing about Poetry" from The OWL at Purdue
"Reading Poetry" from the University of Wisconsin-Madison
"Poetry Explications" from University of North Carolina
"Poetry Explication" from the Writing Studio at Duke University
"Writing about Poetry" from Texas A&M Writing Center
"Responding to Poetry: Explication of a Poem" Bryn Mawr College

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Excerpt From Essay:
Bibliography:

Works Cited

Blake, William. "A Poison Tree." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II. Abrams,

M.H., Ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. Print.

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Title: WORLD LITERATURE

  • Total Pages: 20
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  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I need (20) twenty-page essay on the World Literature course.
There are fifteen separate questions that need to be answered thoroughly.
You will need to use about 1 to 2 pages depending on question.
I'll include the literature textbook materials.


1) Modern Day Poets

Wordsworth and the Romantics saw a very special place for the poet-in a role similar to priest, teacher, or master. In the Romantic view, the poet functions as a sort of spiritual guide to the inner realm of intuition, feeling, and imagination.
• Do people see poets and artists in that light today, or are they viewed and valued differently?
• What role do artists and poets play in our society today?
• Write a brief description of the role they play now and also indicate what role you think they should play.
• Your answer should be two paragraphs long.



2) Speaking Out Against Injustice (Read pages 542-543)

Blake uses his poetry to argue against social injustice. Two of his poems, both titled "The Chimney Sweeper," critique the life of poor children who were forced into this profession. This work was very dangerous and difficult. The children were very badly treated by masters who only cared about money.
• If you could cry out against an evil of our day-and get people to listen-which social injustice would you protest?
• Choose one and explain why. Discuss the methods you would use to protest and then choose one of them and write a brief protest.
• If you'd like, you can write your response in the form of a poem or song.




3) Responding to Literature (Read pages 542-543, 534-539)

1. Why do human beings commit evil? Why does God allow the innocent to suffer? These questions profoundly disturbed Blake. One of his early conclusions about the problems of good and evil is that "Without contraries, there is no progression." How do "The Tyger" and "The Lamb" reflect what Blake called "two contrary states of human experience"? Do you think that Blake's assessment is correct? Do you believe these contrary states are essential to human existence? Why or why not? What examples of this belief do you see in each of his poems? Your answer should be 1-2 paragraphs long.
2. How do you think the voice of "The Lamb" is different from the voice of the speaker in "The Tyger"? Why do you think the questions in "The Lamb" get answers? What imagery suggests that the tiger could be a force of enlightenment? Of revolutionary violence? Answer these questions in a paragraph.
3. What do you see as the theme of "A Poison Tree"? Use specific details from the poem to support your answer. Your answer should be at least three sentences long.
4. How would you describe the tone of each of the poems entitled "The Chimney Sweeper"? Use specific examples from each poem to support your answer.
5. If you had to choose your own symbols for the qualities represented by Blake's tiger and lamb, what would they be?
Explain your reasoning in a brief paragraph.




4) Appreciating Nature: Wordsworth (Read pages 552-557, 559-562)

a) "Lines Composed a few Miles Above Tintern Abbey"
* As you are re-reading "Lines Composed a few Miles Above Tintern Abbey" look for the end punctuation and then indents that signal the end of one stanza and the beginning of the next. Identify the number of stanzas in the poem. As you read, also make notes about how Wordsworth uses the stanzas to organize his ideas.
* Write a brief essay discussing whether or not you think the pattern of organization used by Wordsworth is effective in achieving his tone in "Lines Composed a few Miles Above Tintern Abbey." First, identify the tone of the poem, and then discuss and least three unique organizational patterns that either contribute to or detract from that tone. Your answer should be at least three paragraphs long.

b) "Composed upon a Westminster Bridge"
* What details of "Composed upon Westminster Bridge"
personify the city? List at least three examples from the poem.
* List two influences of the Romantic movement evident in the poem and explain why they are Romantic.
* Write a description of a city or town you know well. Use
personification to characterize your city or town. If you wish, you can begin your descriptions with Wordsworth's first line, "Earth has not anything to show more fair."



c) "The World Is Too Much with Us"
* What is Wordsworth's purpose in alluding to mythology in the last lines of the poem? What emotions do these allusions evoke?
* How are the ideas about materialism and progress in this poem relevant to today's world? What is your reaction to the speaker's attack on modern life? Do you agree with Wordsworth that, if people were in tune with nature, they would be happier and less materialistic? Write a paragraph explaining your answers to these questions.




5) Rebellious Spirit: Lord Byron (Read pages 609-614)

Imagine that the dark beauty described by Byron reads this poem and discovers that it was written about her. Write a letter from the woman to Byron expressing what you think of the poem's portrayal of you. Are you flattered? Embarrassed? Outraged? Do you think the poem reveals the real you? In your letter quote specific lines from the poem and respond to them directly. Your letter should be at least three paragraphs long. You may write your letter in the form of a poem if you wish.

1. Byron's verse form in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is the
Spenserian stanza. How closely does stanza 2 adhere to the rhyme and rhythm of that form. What purpose does the
alexandrine fulfill?

2. In stanzas 2 and 3 of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, the speaker uses an apostrophe to address the sea. Write a prose apostrophe to some element of nature-sea, wind, fire, snow, thunderstorm, hail, etc. Use stanzas 2 and 3 as a model for your apostrophe. Make sure to frame your apostrophe so that you are directly addressing an element of nature. Your apostrophe should be a paragraph long (4-5 sentences).



6) Legacy Through Writing

All human beings and all beauty must perish, but can't our works survive us? Death is inevitable, but isn't what we leave behind proof that our passage through life mattered? Like the poets of another restless age, the Renaissance, the Romantic poets tried to answer these questions.

• How would you answer them?
• Discuss whether and how human beings can achieve immortality through their words or their work. If not through a creative process, then what can offer humans immortality?



7) Percy Bysshe Shelley (Read pages 621-625, 275-277)

Answer the following questions:

• Each section of "Ode to a Western Wind" is a sonnet. Review the sonnet forms on pages 275-277 of your text and describe how Shelly has adapted the sonnet form to meet his needs.
• Do Shelly's sonnets have turns? Why do you think he chose to use the form of sonnets that he did? Your answer should be at least two paragraphs long.



8) John Keats (Read pages 640-643, 646-649, 651-653)

1. Select one of Keats' two sonnets and paraphrase it, line by line, using your own words. Remember, in the paraphrase you should put inverted sentences in standard word order. You should also rephrase the figures of speech to make it clear that you understand them. Sometimes poets omit words; if that is the case in one these sonnets, be sure to supply the missing words. Page 644 provides an example, paraphrasing the first lines of "When I Have Fears." Notice that paraphrasing is often longer and less interesting than the original, but through paraphrasing you can understand the poem better.

2. Identify an example of synesthesia in stanza 2 of "Ode to a
Nightingale." What sensory experience does it describe? What feeling or mood does the device help to create? How does the speaker's mood change from the beginning to the end of "Ode to a Nightingale"? What language or poetic devices does the author demonstrate the change in mood?

3. Essay: You've now read three different odes-two by Keats and one, now, by Shelley. For this essay, you will choose two of the odes and compare them. Compare their subject matters, their forms, tones, themes and the poetic devices used by the authors. Discuss the effectiveness of these elements, and discuss which ode you feel is the best example of what an ode should be. Your essay should be three paragraphs long and should include an introductory and a conclusion paragraph.






9) Reading Activities for Mariner (Read pages 578-602)

As you are reading, keep a list of archaic words that are still in use today. Also, if you encounter words you do not know the meaning of as you are reading, I'd like you to guess at the meaning and write down your guess at the meaning. After finishing a stanza or two, check your guesses with the definitions in the margins or another dictionary. You should have a list of at least seven words after you are finished reading.

Part 2: As you are reading Rime of the Ancient Mariner, I also want you to keep track of what happens in a timeline. Your timeline should begin with "The ancient Mariner stops the Wedding Guest and begins to tell the story" and end with "The Wedding Guest leaves sadder and wiser." While you read and plot your timeline, add to your chart your responses to his story. When do you feel sympathy for him-or sorrow or fear? When does his story seem true, and when is it hopelessly distorted by guilt?




10) Responding to Literature (Read pages 573-576)

1. The power of the imagination is often exalted in Romantic poetry. In your opinion, does "Kubla Khan" celebrate the imagination or caution against its indulgence? Support your response with at least two examples from the poem.
2. As you will remember from Lesson 3, an allegory is a narrative in which the characters, settings, and actions are symbolic-they have both literal and figurative meaning. Write a brief essay (2-3 paragraphs) describing what the various elements (the ancient Mariner, the wedding, the ship, and the albatross) symbolize and what moral lesson Coleridge is attempting to teach.
3. For the most part, the form of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is written in a regular ballad stanza. Occasionally, however, Coleridge varies the meter of the lines and the length of the stanza. Choose one of these variations and explain how it differs from a regular one. Be sure to indicate the line number(s) you are referring to. What effect do you think the changes have on the poem?
4. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is famous for its use of vivid figurative language and memorable sound devices. Find in the poem a striking example of each of the following: simile, metaphor, personification, alliteration, assonance, and internal rhyme. Then discuss what effect these elements have on the overall effect of the ballad.




11) The Themes in Frankenstein

Directions: I want you to take a moment and think of examples in your life today of the themes listed below. For instance, do you see any examples in your life of beautiful things being more highly valued than less attractive or ugly things; or, can you think of any examples of things that appear differently from what they really are? In this assignment, comment on each of the following themes in your journal and discuss what place or role they have in our cultural perspective today. Which of the themes are valued as being beneficial and or admirable and which are not:
• Beauty and Ugliness
• Love
• Hate
• Revenge
• Parent/Child Relationships
• Technological advancement
• Ambition
• Pursuit of knowledge
As you read Frankenstein you will encounter many of these themes. You can refer back to these notes as you try to understand these themes.



12) Frankenstein Reader's Notebook

You should create the following headings below the Frankenstein Reader's Notebook entry in your essay: Vocabulary, Personal Reflections, Quotes, and Responding to Literature. Label your first entries under each section "Letters through Chapter III". You will repeat these entries for each of the next three topics.

1. Vocabulary
In your notebook, you will keep track of new words that
you've learned. At the end of every section, you should have a list of at least 10 new words you encountered and their definitions. You can check word definitions with an online dictionary or use one of your own. You can also guess at their definitions based on the clues in the story. At the end of every topic, you should write a brief paragraph summarizing the sections and use at least five of those words in your paragraph.

2. Personal reflection
You will also write down your thoughts/reflections on what you have read. At the end of each section you will answer the following questions:
• What happened? This can be a very brief summary--even a list.
• What questions do I have about what happened?
• What do I think will happen next? What clues do I have to support my thoughts?
• What characters did I meet? How are they related?
• What recurring commentary or theme occurred in the section? (Refer back to your quickwrite notes from earlier if necessary.)
• What broader comment about life or science do you think the author was making? Do I agree?
• What evidence do you have for your thoughts about the
theme? (You can use the quotes section of this notebook for inspiration.)

3. Quotes
In your Reader's Notebook, record quotes from Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus that strike you as interesting or representative of the book. You should have three to four quotes for each reading assignment.

4. Responding to Literature:
What do Robert Walton and Victor Frankenstein have in common? How are their goals, personalities, and situations similar? How are they different? How does Robert Walton feel about finding a friend?
Why is the poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner significant to Robert Walton? What effect does the allusion to this poem have on the story? Explain in a brief paragraph.



13) Frankenstein Chapters IV-XVII - Responsibility and Accountability

In your essay, I'd like you to discuss who should be held most responsible for each given situation and the outcome:

1. A passerby tries to revive a person who has stopped breathing with CPR. In the process of performing CPR, the patient suffers a broken rib and a punctured lung and ends up in the hospital for a few weeks. Should the passerby be held responsible for the injury?
2. A young child and a mother are begging for food and money on a street corner. A wealthy couple walks by without offering any assistance and the child dies of starvation. Should the couple assume any responsibility for the child's death?
3. Jane has always been Katie's best friend. One day, Katie gets angry at Jane and spreads terrible rumors about her. Jane is so embarrassed and ashamed of the things Katie has said she drops out of school and does not graduate. What responsibility does Katie have for Jane's depression and lack of success?
4. Will a person who is treated cruelly always respond by treating others with cruelty, or is it possible to return good for ill? Explain.
5. What circumstances justify taking revenge? What are the benefits of revenge? What are the harms?



14) Add to your Frankenstein Reader's Notebook (Frankenstein Chapters IV-XVII)

1. Vocabulary
As you are reading, you are going to be keeping a Reader’s Notebook. In your notebook, you will keep track of new words that you’ve learned. At the end of every section, you should have a list of at least 10 new words you encountered and their definitions. You can check word definitions with an online dictionary or use one of your own. You can also guess at their definitions based on the clues in the story. At the end of every topic, you should write a brief paragraph summarizing the sections and use at least five of those words in your paragraph.

2. Personal reflection
You will also write down your thoughts/reflections on what you have read. At the end of each section you will answer the following questions:
• What happened? This can be a very brief summary--even a list.
• What questions do I have about what happened?
• What do I think will happen next? What clues do I have to support my thoughts?
• What characters did I meet? How are they related?
• What recurring commentary or theme occurred in the section? (Refer back to your quick write notes from earlier if necessary.)
• What broader comment about life or science do you think the author was making? Do I agree?
• What evidence do you have for your thoughts about the theme? (You can use the quotes section of this notebook for inspiration.)

3. Quotes
In your Reader's Notebook, record quotes from Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus that strike you as interesting or representative of the book. You should have three to four quotes for each reading assignment.

4. Responding to Literature:

• As you're reading, I'd like you to pay close attention to the discussion of people's appearances. Who is described as being beautiful? Who is described as being ugly or unattractive? What happens to the beautiful people? What happens to the less attractive? List three people described as being beautiful and describe their fates. Who is described as being ugly? What is his/her fate?

• What about the monster makes him a sympathetic
character? What makes him less sympathetic? What parts of his personality make him appear human? What parts are inhuman? Answer these questions in a brief paragraph.

• From what you know at the end of this reading, whose fault is what's become of the Monster? Who should be held responsible? What can or should Victor do now to make it right? What should the Monster do?

• List at least three influences of the Romantic movement and three examples of the Gothic elements from the text.


15) Frankenstein Chapter XVIII-End and Connections

Add to the Reader's Notebook section in your essay. I've included the directions for the Reader's Notebook below. Label this topic's entries "Chapter XVIII and Connections".
Directions: As you have been reading, you have been keeping a Reader's Notebook. This will be the last section of your notebook.

1. Vocabulary
In your notebook, you will keep track of new words that you've learned. At the end of every section, you should have a list of at least 10 new words you encountered and their definitions. Write a brief paragraph summarizing the sections and use at least five of those words in your paragraph.

2. Personal reflection
You will also write down your thoughts/reflections on what you have read. At the end of each section you will answer the following questions:
• What happened?
• What questions do I have about what happened?
• What characters did I meet? How are they related? What was the ultimate fate of the characters I have met before?
• What recurring commentary or theme occurred in the
section? (Refer back to your quick write notes from earlier if necessary)
• What broader comment about life or science do you think the author was making? Do I agree? What evidence do you have for your thoughts about the theme?

3. Quotes
In your notebook, record quotes from Frankenstein that strike you as interesting or representative of the book. You should have three to four quotes for each reading assignment.

4. Essay

What is the theme of Frankenstein?

Write a brief essay exploring the theme. You can choose either to use one of the themes discussed earlier or identify one of your own. Your essay should be at least five paragraphs long and should incorporate specific quotes and examples from the text.
Make sure you include analysis about the selections you choose to incorporate in your essay.

5 Responding to Literature

a. How is Frankenstein a "Modern Prometheus"? Explain the allusion in a 1-2 paragraph response.
b. What does Shelley do to show that both the Monster and
Frankenstein are obsessed with revenge? Does either of
them win? Explain your answer.

Choose either C or D to answer in your notebook.

c. At the end of the novel, the Monster sees Frankenstein one last time after he has died. If they had a chance to talk, what do you think they would say to each other? Compose a dialogue of their imagined final meeting. Your dialogue should reflect the feelings of each character about the other and about himself. Be sure to include what you've learned about each character, including motivations, experiences
and emotions revealed throughout the novel. Your dialogue should be at least 10 lines long.

d. Write a brief review of the novel. Did you think it was well written? Did it spark and keep your interest? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the novel? If you have read other horror novels or seen horror films, how does Frankenstein compare to modern horror books or movies? Include in your review what you liked and what you didn't like. Also discuss whether or not you think the book should be recommended to other students. Your review should be at least two paragraphs long.


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Title: journals

  • Total Pages: 19
  • Words: 8817
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: these are all of the separate journal entry assignments
all about half a page or so, usually specified within the instructions- some are longer
each should be labeled like: Lesson 1 #1 for example


Topic Journal
Beowulf as a Hero

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 1 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.3A: What makes a hero?

What makes a person a hero? Is it an ability to face difficult situations and come out victorious? Is it an ability to rescue or help other people? Is it a determination to stay true to a cause that may be unpopular or dangerous?

For this journal entry you're going to write about what you think makes a hero and identify a contemporary hero who is real or fictional. Your journal should describe your hero and then analyze him or her using these questions:

* What sort of evil or oppression does your hero confront?
* Why does he or she confront evil? What's the motivation?
* For whom does your hero confront evil?
* What virtues does your hero represent?
* Your response to these questions should be written in paragraph form and should be 1 or 2 paragraphs long.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 2 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.3B: The Epic Hero


The "Literary Focus" on page 20 of your text describes the characteristics of an epic hero that I listed earlier in the lesson. From your text's description, write list headings for four (4) main characteristics of an epic hero. As you read Beowulf, fill in your list with examples from the text under each of the headings that reflect these qualities. For example, one of the characteristics of an epic hero is that he or she is on a quest. As you read Beowulf, note examples from the text that describe Beowulf's adventure as a quest. After reading you should have at least two examples from the text for each characteristic.

Your list of characteristics of an epic hero should include:

* Is on a quest,
* Has superior or superhuman strength, intellect and/or courage,
* Makes ethical choices,
* Risks his life for the benefit of others or society,
* Demonstrates bravery through his actions,
* Reflects the values and culture of the society in which he lives, and
* Is glorified by the person or people he saves.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 3 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.3C: Responding to Beowulf

Answer the following questions about Beowulf in your journal. Your answers should be written in paragraph form. Make sure to label them with the appropriate journal number.

1. Images are words that help us see something and often hear it, smell it, taste it and touch it as well. Identify three images
describing Grendel that associate him with death or darkness. How are these images supposed to affect the way you feel about him?
2. List three ways that Gardener's depiction of Grendel in the excerptof Grendel differs from the epic's description of him. Did Gardner make you sympathize with him? Explain.
3. 3. The Connection "Life in 999: A Grim Struggle" describes daily life in late Anglo-Saxon England. What details in this picture of daily life relate to what you've read so far in Beowulf? How does life in 999 compare with life today? List at least three similarities to life inthe story and three differences with life today

The Legacy of Beowulf

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 4 of 16

Journal Exercise: 1.4A: Kennings

Pages 41 and 42 of your text give an excellent explanation of kennings both as they're used in Beowulf and as they are used today. Read over this information and then answer the following questions in your journal.

1. Look back over lines 1-126 of the text and identify at least two examples of kennings written as hyphenated compounds, two written as prepositional phrases and two written as possessives. Identify what each kenning refers to.
2. Compile a list of 5 modern kennings, like headhunter.

The Epic of Gilgamesh

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 5 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.5A: Epic Conventions and Epic Heroes

After reading the explanation of epics by David Adams Lemming on pages 44 and 45 of your text, make a list of six of the main features that define an epic. As you read The Epic of Gilgamesh, keep track of elements of the story that match the features of an epic poem.

* At the end of the story, you will write a two paragraph argument explaining why or why not The Epic of Gilgamesh is a good example of an epic poem.
* You will need to support your answer will specific quotes and details from the text.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 6 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.5B: Responding to Gilgamesh

Answer the following questions about the epic of Gilgamesh in your journal.

1. Does the epic of Gilgamesh meet the requirements of an epic poem? Your answer to this question should be two paragraphs long, and you should include specific quotes and details from the story to support your position. Use the list of qualities of an epic poem you created at the beginning of this story and the notes you took while reading. Please make sure to proofread your answer for spelling and grammar.
2. Enkidu acts as a foil to Gilgamesh. What do you learn about Gilgamesh's strengths and weaknesses by contrasting him to Enkidu? Look back at the notes you took during your reading and write a paragraph discussing the similarities and differences in the motivations, decisions and outcomes that Enkidu and Gilgamesh deal with.

Heroic Achilles

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 7 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.6A: Defining Honor

The Iliad is essentially a war story, and its heroes are warriors; but men like Achilles and Hector are not just bloodthirsty killers eager for their next fight. They also strive to achieve arête, or personal honor and excellence. In their eyes it is honorable to fight bravely for one's king and comrades, and dishonorable to seek safety for oneself when one's friends are threatened. To die at the hands of a more powerful enemy is far preferable to living with the dishonor of having fled a fight or failed to give one's all in battle

* What do the concepts of honor and personal excellence mean to you?
* How can an ideal of honor make society a better place? Could it also harm society? I'd like you to write down your own definition of honor and personal excellence.
* Do you agree with Homer? I'd also like you to write down what you think society's definition of honor is. As you're reading think about how your definition of honor and today's definition of honor are similar and different from Homer's arête.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 8 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.6B: Responding to Literature

Answer the following questions in your journal. Your answers should be written in paragraph form.

1. Was Hector doomed by fate? List three different examples of, to, or discussion of fate in the story, and explain what effect they had on the outcome for the character to which they refer.
2. List three examples of hubris, or extreme pride, you see in the story or you hear about happening before the story begins. How does the hubris affect Hector's ultimate fate?
3. Achilles and Hector are rival warriors, but are they both heroes? Discuss your opinion of each character in terms of the Greek view of arête, or honor, and your own view of it. You may want to look back at your response to Journal 1.6A to assist you in answering the question.
4. The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the brutality of war, a celebration of the heroism that war can inspire, or an evenly developed examination of both of these aspects? Justify your answer with specific examples from the epic and from life. Your answer should be at least five sentences long.

The Legend of Arthur

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty

We've read about 4 different heroes from different cultures and time periods (Beowulf, Wilgaf, Gilgamesh, and Achilles). Now that you've read these stories and are going to be reading another story where loyalty and honor play a very important role, I'd like you to do the following:

1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or
challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences

Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.

* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to indicate which journal or writing assignment they came from.

The Canterbury Tales

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 11 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.9A: Irony in The Canterbury Tales

Irony is where the opposite of what is expected to happen happens or a conflict between what is actually true and what appears to be true. Many of the characters introduced in the prologue are portrayed ironically and Chaucer beautifully describes the inconsistencies between what they should be or could be and what they actually are.

* Choose three of the characters introduced in the prologue and explain how Chaucer's description of that character is ironic.
* Describe how the characters' true nature is revealed through their characterization including their physical descriptions and what they say. Include in your response a summary of how they are described and an explanation of why that is ironic.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 12 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.9B: What Women Want

The Wife of Bath is one of the most recognizable pilgrims. She is a married woman from Bath. Having outlived five husbands (and possibly looking for a sixth on the road to Canterbury) she is witty, intelligent and opinionated. The tale she tells is one of the marriage group, a group of tales that explore what men and women expect from and ought to do in marriage. In the tale, a knight must find the answer to the question:

* What do women want? Is it fame? Fortune? Security? I'd like you to make a list or write a paragraph answering this question: What do women want?
* Think about what you think women want from men and out of marriage. Then, read the story to see how your answer compares with hers.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 13 of 16

Journal Exercise1.9C: The Wife of Bath

Answer the following questions in your journal. Make sure to write your answers in sentence format.

1. What opinions does the Wife of Bath express in her tale? What do all her opinions-and her tale itself-tell you about her character? You may want to look at your reading notes to answer this question.
2. Do you think Chaucer's rich portrayal of the Wife of Bath is an indication that he had progressive views about women for his time? Why or why not?
3. What do men and women each think the other wants most out of life? Out of a relationship? How have attitudes changed since Chaucer's time?


Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 14 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.9D: Vocabulary Development

Part 1: Antonym Map
Create an antonym map, as described on page 144 of your text, for each of the following words: agility, eminent, accrue, arbitrate, benign, guile, obstinate, frugal and duress.

* You should illustrate the meaning of the vocabulary words with a description of one of the characters from the "Prologue."
* You should also illustrate the meaning of the antonym for the word with a different character from the "Prologue."

Part 2: Etymology
Use a hard-copy dictionary or an online dictionary like (www.dictionary.com) to identify the etymology of and define the following words: ground, shade, account, draw, and vain.

* Write both the etymology and the definitions you find in your journal; then use the word in two different sentences to illustrate two different definitions for each word.

Tales From World Literature

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 15 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.10A: Revisiting the Monster Archetype

Think of monsters you might find in popular stories or movies today. What do they look like? What do they act like? How does he/she feel about other people?

* Make a list of 10 characteristics that most villains or modern monsters seem to have in common.
* As you read "The Third Voyage of Sinbad the Sailor," think about how the giant in this story is like or unlike other monsters you've studied and heard about in popular culture.

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 16 of 16

Journal Exercise 1.11A: Late Breaking News

Take one of the basic situations from the ballads and retell it as a cotemporary news story. Like a reporter, be sure to tell what happened, where and when it happened, to whom it happened, why it happened and how it happened. Your response should be at least two paragraphs long.
Lesson 2
Topic Journal
A Flourish of Genius

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 1 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.1A: Printing Press and the Internet

The invention of the printing press was a major factor in the development of the Renaissance. Because of the printing press, people in Europe were able to read a large variety of printed materials and books. As people's interest in books grew, so did their demand for new types and kinds of books on all different subjects.

* In our time, the development of computer and Internet technologies has created an explosion of access to information and a demand for even greater access.
* Some people have even speculated that soon printed books will become obsolete and illiteracy will increase.
* What do you think? Write a brief essay (2-3 paragraphs) comparing and contrasting these two technological revolutions.
* Discuss the impact of each technology on literature and the pursuit of knowledge.
* Discuss what role you think the Internet will have in promoting or destroying literacy and what impact it has had on your own life.

Idyllic Life and Carpe Diem!

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 2 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.2A: Carpe Diem!

The carpe diem philosophy encourages seeking pleasure now because we do not know when we will die. It dates back to the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus and the Roman poet Horace.

* Do you see evidence of this mentality in today's world?
* List three examples of a carpe diem philosophy that you see in today's world and then write a brief paragraph explaining whether or not you agree.

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 3 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.2B: Responding to Literature

1. Idyllic escape with a loved one still has a strong appeal, whether the retreat be a remote island or a mountaintop hideaway. How is this romantic escape motif used today in literature, television, movies, and advertising? List one example for each category.
2. The poet John Donne, about whom you will learn more in Lesson 3, wrote "The Bait," a poem that was clearly inspired by Marlowe's "Passionate Shepherd." Read "The Bait" on page 262 in the Elements of Literature. Then, in a brief essay (1-2 paragraphs) discuss whether this poem is an answer to Marlowe's poem, an imitation of it, or neither. You should include at least three specific references to each poem in your response.
3. Herrick, in "To the Virgins," and Marvell, in "Two His Coy
Mistress," have similar objectives but different approaches. Is one poet more persuasive than the other? How are their arguments both similar and different?
4. In two or three sentences, explain how the difficult existence
described in "Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread" corresponds to your previous notion of life in the late 1500s. In light of this information, what is surprising or not surprising about the visions of life presented in these four poems?

Shakespeare: Sonnets, Speeches and Songs

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 4 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.3A: A Timeline of Shakespeare's Life

For this journal you will need to read pages 272-274 in the Elements of Literature: Sixth Course and pages xxiv-xxxii of the Merchant of Venice to learn more about Shakespeare, the man, and his life. Your task is to create a timeline of his life in your journal.

* List important events and approximately when they occurred including: birth, marriage, children, death, publications, career highlights and anything else you find interesting or unexpected.
* As you learn more about Shakespeare from your other readings, you can add additional dates to your timeline.

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 5 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.3B: Responding to Literature

1. Compare "Sonnet 130" by Shakespeare with "Sonnet 23" by Louis Labé. Your comparison should be at least three paragraphs long and should include one paragraph describing the techniques used by Shakespeare, one describing the techniques used by Labé, and one discussing which was more effective and how they are related.
2. When the singer of "Fear No More" refers to the scepter, learning, and physic in line 11, he is using metonymy. Metonymy is a figure of speech that uses closely related things to substitute for the actual subject, like saying the crown for the king. What professions do the words in line 11 refer to?

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 6 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.3C: Composing an Original Sonnet

After completing this topic, you will be composing an original sonnet. Using what you've learned about the forms of sonnets, your task is going to be to compose on an original sonnet on a subject of your choice.

* Your sonnet should have fourteen lines and follow the rhyme scheme of either a Shakespearean or Petrarchan sonnet.
* Your subject matter should be appropriate for the sonnet.
* Your poem can be patterned after, or a response to, a sonnet that you've read, but it should include original images and language.

Merchant of Venice Act I

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 7 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.4: Reader's Notebook

Create a new page in your journal and label it "Merchant of Venice Reader's Notebook." At the end of every topic, you will add to this notebook in each of the following categories.

* Your notebook will be submitted as part of your journal at the end of this lesson.
* Read the directions below to complete this activity.
* Add your entries to this document and label them: Merchant of Venice Reader's Notebook, Act 1.

Assignment 1: Famous phrases

As you are reading, I'd like you to keep a list of phrases or expressions that you recognize from modern language that originate in the Merchant of Venice. I'd like you to find two phrases or words from each Act that are commonly heard in today's conversation

Assignment 2: Character Notebook

In Merchant of Venice, much of what we know about the characters comes from what they say about themselves or from what others say about them. As you are reading the play, I want you to take notes about the following characters: Portia, Antonio, Gratiano, Bassanio, Shylock, and Jessica. For each character I want you to keep track of how others characterize them and how what the characters themselves say reveals about their characters. (For example, are they honest? Are they fair-minded? etc.) You should have notes for each character from each act.

Assignment 3: Improving your vocabulary

As you are reading, I want you to keep a list of new words that you encounter. Try to guess their meanings based upon their context and check your definition with a dictionary after you have finished the Scene. You should have an average of one or two new words for each Scene. At the end of each Act, I'd like you to write a description, summary, or observation about what you've read that uses two of the new words you've learned in that act.


Merchant of Venice Act II

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 8 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.5A: A Modern Marriage Test

Portia's father established a test for potential suitors to choose her husband. Do you think it is a good test? How would you feel if your husband (or wife) were to be chosen this way?

* Write a brief paragraph describing what you think of the test, and then devise your own modern-day test.
* Pretend that you are given the task of establishing a test or riddle for potential suitors to pass in order to be able to marry you, your sister, brother, or friend.
* What qualities will you be looking for? How will you test these qualities?

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 9 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.5: Act II Reader's Notebook

Add to your reader's Notebook
Assignment 1: Famous phrases

As you are reading, I'd like you to keep a list of phrases or expressions that you recognize from modern language that originate in the Merchant of Venice. I'd like you to find two phrases or words from each Act that are commonly heard in today's conversation

Assignment 2: Character Notebook

In Merchant of Venice, much of what we know about the characters comes from what they say about themselves or from what others say about them. As you are reading the play, I want you to take notes about the following characters: Portia, Antonio, Gratiano, Bassanio, Shylock, and Jessica. For each character I want you to keep track of how others characterize them and how what the characters themselves say reveals about their characters. (For example, are they honest? Are they fair-minded? etc.) You should have notes for each character from each act.

Assignment 3: Improving your vocabulary

As you are reading, I want you to keep a list of new words that you encounter. Try to guess their meanings based upon their context and check your definition with a dictionary after you have finished the Scene. You should have an average of one or two new words for each Scene. At the end of each Act, I'd like you to write a description, summary, or observation about what you've read that uses two of the new words you've learned in that act.
Merchant of Venice Act III

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 10 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.6A: Responding to Literature

1. In Elizabethan times, the friendship relationship was as important, if not more important, than the romantic love relationship. What examples of the importance of friendship are evident in this Act? Who acts as, or tries to act as, a good friend to whom? List at least three examples of friendship and explain their importance.
2. Go back and read Shylock's famous speech in Act III, Scene 1, lines 52-72. What did you learn about Shylock from his speech? Did you feel more or less sympathetic to him after this speech? Why or why not? Write a paragraph explaining your feelings.
3. Act III, Scene 2 contains a song that begins "Tell me where is thy fancy bred." What purpose does the song play in the Act? What is the tone of the song? How does it compare with what's going on while it's being sung, and what happens after? Answer these questions in a brief paragraph.

Add to your Reader's Notebook for Act III

Assignment 1: Famous phrases

As you are reading, I'd like you to keep a list of phrases or expressions that you recognize from modern language that originate in the Merchant of Venice. I'd like you to find two phrases or words from each Act that are commonly heard in today's conversation.

Assignment 2: Character Notebook

In Merchant of Venice, much of what we know about the characters comes from what they say about themselves or from what others say about them. As you are reading the play, I want you to take notes about the following characters: Portia, Antonio, Gratiano, Bassanio, Shylock, and Jessica. For each character I want you to keep track of how others characterize them and how what the characters themselves say reveals about their characters. (For example, are they honest? Are they fair-minded? etc.) You should have notes for each character from each act.

Assignment 3: Improving your vocabulary

As you are reading, I want you to keep a list of new words that you encounter. Try to guess their meanings based upon their context and check your definition with a dictionary after you have finished the Scene. You should have an average of one or two new words for each Scene. At the end of each Act, I'd like you to write a description, summary, or observation about what you've read that uses two of the new words you've learned in that act.
Merchant of Venice Act IV

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 11 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.7A: Responding to Literature

1. Do you think Shylock got what he deserved, or do you think he was dramatically wronged? Was he a victim of anti-Semitism or a rightfully punished villain, or both? Defend your answer with at least a three paragraph essay.
2. The ties that bind people together, namely the bonds of usury, the bonds of friendship and the obligations of mercy are discussed in different places throughout the play. Compare the discussion of usury in Act 1, Scene 3; the discussion of friendship in Act III, Scene 2; and the pleas for mercy in Act IV, Scene 1. Which of these issues do you think is the most important in the play? Support your answer with specific quotes and examples from the text. You should write a three to five paragraph essay answering this question.

Add to your Reader's Notebook for Act IV
Assignment 1: Famous phrases

As you are reading, I'd like you to keep a list of phrases or expressions that you recognize from modern language that originate in the Merchant of Venice. I'd like you to find two phrases or words from each Act that are commonly heard in today's conversation.

Assignment 2: Character Notebook

In Merchant of Venice, much of what we know about the characters comes from what they say about themselves or from what others say about them. As you are reading the play, I want you to take notes about the following characters: Portia, Antonio, Gratiano, Bassanio, Shylock, and Jessica. For each character I want you to keep track of how others characterize them and how what the characters themselves say reveals about their characters. (For example, are they honest? Are they fair-minded? etc.) You should have notes for each character from each act.

Assignment 3: Improving your vocabulary

As you are reading, I want you to keep a list of new words that you encounter. Try to guess their meanings based upon their context and check your definition with a dictionary after you have finished the Scene. You should have an average of one or two new words for each Scene. At the end of each Act, I'd like you to write a description, summary, or observation about what you've read that uses two of the new words you've learned in that act.
Merchant of Venice Act V

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 12 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.8A: Responding to Literature

1. Diagram the action of the play and explain what happens in the:
A. Exposition
B. Rising Action
C. Climax
D. Resolution

Define each of the components generally and explain what happens during each part. Then, describe specific events that occur during each part of the action in Merchant of Venice.
2. Although the Merchant of Venice tackles some very serious subjects, it is a romantic comedy and, as such, has numerous comedic elements. As you are reading take note of things or people that make you laugh and then ask yourself why. I'd like you to list two examples for each of the comedic elements below.
* Physical humor:
* Confusion:
* Other type:


3. Racism and prejudice are major themes in the Merchant of Venice. Many of the prejudices in the play reflect the prejudices of Shakespeare's time and experience. Some critics argue that Shylock is one of Shakespeare's most villainous characters; others argue that he is simply the victim of prejudice and anti-Semitism. Who do you most agree with? Write an essay arguing that Shylock is either a victim or a villain. Use at least two specific examples or quotes from Acts I-V to support your arguments. Include in your essay a discussion of what, if any, prejudices Shylock has himself and how they affect his character.
4. Poet Samuel Coleridge has said that the characters in this play are a "representation of men in all ages and all times." What are the timeless elements you see in this play? What themes or characters are still relevant in today's world? List three or four things you believe are still relevant and explain how they still apply.

Add to your Reader's Notebook. Label your entries for this topic "Reader's Notebook, Act V"

Assignment 1: Famous phrases

As you are reading, I'd like you to keep a list of phrases orexpressions that you recognize from modern language that originate inthe Merchant of Venice. I'd like you to find two phrases or words fromeach Act that are commonly heard in today's conversation

Assignment 2: Character Notebook

In Merchant of Venice, much of what we know about the characters comesfrom what they say about themselves or from what others say aboutthem. As you are reading the play, I want you to take notes about thefollowing characters: Portia, Antonio, Gratiano, Bassanio, Shylock,and Jessica. For each character I want you to keep track of how otherscharacterize them and how what the characters themselves say revealsabout their characters. (For example, are they honest? Are they
fair-minded? etc.) You should have notes for each character from eachact.

Assignment 3: Improving your vocabulary

As you are reading, I want you to keep a list of new words that youencounter. Try to guess their meanings based upon their context andcheck your definition with a dictionary after you have finished theScene. You should have an average of one or two new words for each Scene. At the end of each Act, I'd like you to write a description,summary, or observation about what you've read that uses two of thenew words you've learned in that act.

Epigrams

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 13 of 13

Journal Exercise 2.9A: Responding to Literature

1. In "On My First Son" Jonson resolves never to love again as strongly because his loss is so unbearable. What do you think of his resolution? What effect could a vow like that have on someone? Write a letter to Jonson explaining what you think of his vow. Your letter should be at least three paragraphs long.
2. Compose a brief epigram on a topic of your choice. Possible topics include love, hate, friendship, relationships, travel, etc. Your epigram should be at least two lines long.

Lesson 3
Topic Journal
Metaphysical Poetry

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 1 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.1A: Addressing Love and Loss

Donne's poems deal with some of the great tragedies of life: losing someone you love and facing your own mortality. This journal assignment asks you to think about your response to these events.

* Have you ever left someone without knowing exactly when you will see that person again? If you were to leave someone you loved very much, what would you say? If you were the one being left, what would you want to hear?
* Write down a few thoughts about an appropriate way to say good-bye and things to say.
* Think about these as you read "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning." Consider how your answers would change if you knew that you would never see that person again.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 2 of 16

3.1B: Responding to Literature

Answer the following questions in your journal. Please write your answers as complete sentences and make sure to number your journal appropriately.

1. Metaphysical poets have plenty of critics. Many people find the images of metaphysical poetry contrived. Do you agree? Samuel Johnson, an 18th century writer, described metaphysical conceits as "the discovery of occult [hidden] resemblances in things apparently unlike . . . the most heterogeneous [dissimilar] ideas are yoked by violence together." Do you think that metaphysical conceits work-that is can you draw meaning from the connections they make between dissimilar things? Support your answer with specific examples from the poems. Your answer should be written in the form of a paragraph and should be at least five sentences long.
2. In "Death Be Not Proud" Donne personifies death. How does this poem make you feel about death? Does in make it seem more or less frightening? How does it change your perspective on death or dying? Write at least a one-paragraph response.
3. Writers convey their tone through their diction (word choice), images, figures of speech, and the details they choose to include. Rhetoric refers to the art of using words effectively to communicate. How does Donne's tone in "Meditation 17" support the point he is trying to make? Your answer should address what the tone of the passage is and the techniques (rhetoric) Donne uses to achieve this tone. Respond in paragraph form and use at least three specific details from the text to support your answer.

King James Bible: A Masterpiece by Committee

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 3 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.2A: Prewriting a Modern Parable

After reading the introduction to parables on page 342, make a list of modern situations that would be subjects for a good parable.

* Your situation can be an experience from your own life or something you've observed that has the potential to teach an important lesson about life.
* Your list should include at least three possibilities and a brief explanation of the situation and what lesson it teaches.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 4 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.2B: King James Bible

Answer the following questions in your journal. Make sure that your answers are written in complete sentences.

1. Psalms 23 and 137 may or may not be familiar to you. Both of them contain extended metaphors and use parallelism to achieve their effects. For this journal, I'd like you to list one example of parallelism from each psalm and explain why it is effective.
2. On page 341 of your text, you'll find another translation of Psalm 23. This version of the psalm was translated by the Massachusetts Puritans and published in the Bay Psalm Book (1640). In a brief essay, compare and contrast this version with the version in the King James Bible. Tell which version you prefer and why, using examples from each text. Include in your discussion a comparison of the images, main ideas, sound effects and syntax. Because this is an essay, you should begin with an introductory paragraph that contains your thesis and end with a concluding paragraph. Make sure your essay is well organized and you support all of your contentions with specific examples from the text. You should include references to both translations in your response.

Worlds of Wisdom

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 5 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.3A: The Best Advice I’ve Ever Received

Take five minutes and complete the following thoughts in your journal.

* "The best advice I ever received . . ."
* "The wisest statement I've ever heard was . . ."

You should discuss the advice or statement and also explain why it was so important to you.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 6 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.3B: Worlds of Wisdom

Answer the following questions in your journal. Make sure to follow the directions for each question carefully.

1. Some of the didactic literature you have read may express attitudes toward life that you find surprising, baffling, or in conflict with your own beliefs. Other pieces may strike you as accurately reflecting your beliefs. Choose two pieces of wisdom literature, one that expresses your beliefs and one that expresses a view different from your personal beliefs. Then write a brief essay explaining the similarities and differences between the literature you've chosen and your own belief system. Your essay should be at least four paragraphs long and should include an introductory and a concluding paragraph.
2. The most memorable proverbs stand the test of time because they address general truths. Think of a general truth about modern life and write it in the form of a proverb. If you can't think of a new topic, update a well-known proverb.
3. Didactic literature often uses metaphor and conveys its moral message indirectly. Do you think using metaphor obscures or illuminates the message. Explain your answer using at least two examples from what you've read.

A Modest Proposal

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 7 of 16

Journal Exercises 3.5A: Persuasive Writing Techniques

As you are reading, I'd like you to keep track of the persuasive techniques used by Swift in "A Modest Proposal."

* In a blank document or on a separate piece of paper, label three sections as: Logical Appeals, Emotional Appeals and Ethical Appeals.
* As you read "A Modest Proposal," note examples of each kind of appeal that you find in the essay. Use the questions in margins of the text to guide your thinking.
* You will need these notes to answer questions after you have finished reading.

Part 2: After reading, look back over your notes for Part 1 and evaluate the effectiveness of the appeals on a literal level. Write a paragraph for each type of appeal discussing whether or not it would be effective if the essay were taken literally. Look again and evaluate whether or not the argument is effective satirically. Are the appeals effective in the satire? Support your answer with clear reasoning and specific examples from the text.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 8 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.5B: A Modern Proposal

Swift approached the problems of poverty and corruption from the point of view of a benevolent humanitarian and then proposed an outrageous solution to those problems. You are going to be writing your own ironic proposal. Follow the steps listed below and make sure label each part separately.

Part 1: Make a list of modern situations that you think desperately need to be addressed. Pretend you are a social worker, educator, environmentalist, or military advisor. Your list should include at least five problems that you think deserve immediate attention. After you've listed the problems, make a list of outrageous possible solutions.

Part 2: Following the model of "A Modest Proposal," draft your proposal outlining the solutions to the problem. Your proposal should be so outrageous that your readers will immediately see the severity of the problem. Remember that some readers may miss the irony and attack you for being insensitive. To lessen this possibility, make your moral outrage clear by the sheer outrageousness of your exaggerations.

Your essay should be between 300 and 500 words long and should be carefully crafted. You will be graded on the quality and correctness of your writing, as well as on how well you utilize the elements of satire (humor, irony, etc.)

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 9 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.5C: Responding to "A Modest Proposal"

Answer the following questions in your journal.

1. How is Boyle's satire in "Top of the Food Chain" similar to and different from Swift's proposal. Write a brief essay comparing these essays in terms of the content, purpose and language techniques used in each essay. Your response should be at least three paragraphs long.
2. Is Swift's irony effective in "A Modest Proposal," or does it risk being taken seriously by readers and arousing nothing more than disgust or outrage at the author? Explain your thinking in a brief paragraph of at least five sentences.
3. Vocabulary: ConnotationsDiction or word choice is especially important in persuasive writing. Swift is particularly skillful in choosing words with strong connotations-that is, words loaded with strong feelings, associations, or even judgments. Some of Swift's loaded words include:
o Savages
o Male and female
o Popish infants
o Beggars
o Rags
o Breeders
o Filth
o Idolatrous
o Carcasses

In each instance where the above words appear, another word or term could have been chosen to create a different, less harsh effect. For example, man and woman are gentler terms for male and female. By using the terms male and female, Swift is equating people with animals. Answer the following questions for six of the nine words listed above:"

* Find the places in the text where the words listed above are used. What is the emotional effect of the each word choice?
* What tamer or more positive words could have been used to create a different effect?

Alexander Pope

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 10 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.6A: Mock Versus Real Epic

"The Rape of the Lock" literally means "the violent theft of a lock of hair" and is based on a real incident. This mock epic examines the relationships between men and women in high society of the eighteenth century. A mock epic is a comic narrative poem, written in dignified language, which parodies the serious epic genre by treating a trivial subject in a lofty, grand manner.

* As you're reading I'd like you to create and complete a chart similar to the one below, which directly compares mock and heroic epic poems.
* If a counterpart to a convention of heroic epics is not immediately apparent in the mock epic, you can leave it blank.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 11 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.6B: Alexander Pope

Respond to the following questions in your journal. Be sure to follow the directions for each question carefully.

1. List five examples of antithesis found in Alexander Pope's "Heroic Couplets." Identify the parallelism in each example.
2. In almost every sentence in our excerpt from "An Essay on Man," Pope says something flattering about the human race, only to follow it with something critical. What characteristics does he think we should be proud of? What does he think we should be ashamed of?
3. Do you disagree with any of Pope's opinions or pronouncements in the Heroic Couplets or "An Essay on Man"?
4. Based on what you have read of "The Rape of the Lock," what do you think the poem's theme or central message is? What or who are the objects of his satire?
5. Does the epic, "The Rape of the Lock" apply in any way to society today? Identify two passages that could serve as satiric commentaries on people's behavior today. Your answer should discuss both the passage and the comment that applies to contemporary life.

Comparing Satires

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 12 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.7A: Analyzing Humor

Satire relies on many techniques usually associated with comedy, including exaggeration, understatement, warped logic, improbable situations, and ridiculous names.

* In your journal, make a chart like the following where you list each of the five techniques and as many examples you can find for each technique.
* I'd like you to list at least four examples for each technique (exaggeration, understatement, warped logic, improbable situations, and ridiculous names).

Part 2: Looking back at the chart you made for Part 1, use the details you gathered on that chart to write a brief analysis of Voltaire's humor. When you analyze something, you take it apart and examine its elements to see how it works. The chart will show you many techniques used by Voltaire to ridicule his character and to make us laugh. At the end of your essay, describe the targets of Voltaire's satire.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 13 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.7B: Comparing Satires

Answer each of these questions in your journal. Make sure to follow the directions for each question.

1. Voltaire wrote Candide more that 230 years ago. In your opinion, how well has his satire held up? What value, if any, does Candide hold for someone growing up into today's world? Does Voltaire's underlying message against intolerance, cruelty, and smugness still apply? Write a brief paragraph addressing these questions.
Support your answer with specific examples from the text.
2. In his parody, Cervantes uses the techniques of exaggeration, verbal irony, incongruity, and humorous imitation. List one example of each technique used in this selection.
3. A foil is a character that is used as a contrast to another character. In what ways is Sancho Panza a foil to Don Quixote? Identify three behaviors of each of the two men that suggest they are opposites.
4. How do Don Quixote's optimism and idealism compare with Candide's? Do both of these characters "tilt at windmills," or do they manifest their philosophies in profoundly different ways? After you have addressed whether or not the main characters are similar or different, I'd like you to address the purpose of each satire, as well as the techniques each author uses to achieve his purpose. Your response should be three paragraphs long.

Education and Equality

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 14 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.8A: Your Views on Women’s Rights

Are men and women truly equal? Do they, or should they, have equal rights in society? Why or why not? What institutions in modern society help to promote equality or keep it from being achieved? What do you think of feminism? Do you prefer the terms human rights or women's rights?

* Spend 10 minutes writing in your journal about your own views on women's rights and roles. Include in your discussion what term you think is most effective in discussing women's quest for equality.

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 15 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.8B: Patterns of Organizations

Part 1: Page 485 gives you a general idea of the most common pattern followed by authors who write persuasive essays. The pattern is:

* State a position.
* Clarify the position.
* Offer supporting arguments or evidence.
* Restate the position and make recommendations or judgments based upon it.

As you are reading "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman," I'd like you to answer the questions posed in the margins on a separate piece of paper or in a blank document. Your answers will help you complete Part 2.


Part 2: After reading, "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" I'd like you to outline the main points of the essay and show the details that the writer uses to support them. Your answers to the questions posed in the text will guide you in making your outline. Your outline should be written in outline form (see sample) and should include the main points covered by the author.

Outline:
I. Main Idea

A. Supporting Detail


1. Further evidence
2. Further evidence

B. Supporting Detail

1. Further evidence
2. Further evidence

II. Second Main Idea A. Supporting Detail


1. Further evidence
2. Further evidence

B. Supporting Detail

1. Further evidence
2. Further evidence

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 16 of 16

Journal Exercise 3.8C: Responding to Literature

1. "Of Studies" was written almost four hundred years ago. Do you think Bacon's views are still relevant today? Are any of his points outdated? Do you disagree with anything Bacon says? Write a paragraph answering these questions.
2.

In the Tilbury Speech, Queen Elizabeth says that she has the body of "a weak and feeble woman" but "the heart and stomach of a king." What inference can you draw about implicit and explicit ideas and assumptions concerning women and men? (An implicit idea is one that is not stated directly and must be inferred from the details. An explicit idea is stated directly). Why do you think she finds it necessary to mention her gender?
3.

Review the excerpts from Margaret Cavendish's Female Orations (332). Characterize the speaker in each section. What arguments does each speaker present? What assumptions about women may have been valid in the seventeenth century but are no longer valid today?
4.

Each of these writings makes strong claims about the rights of women. Discuss the effectiveness of each text, not only for what it says, but for how it gets its message across. What rhetorical devices do these writers use? Which writer, in your opinion, creates the most powerful and memorable argument. Your response should be at least three paragraphs long and should list at least four examples of rhetorical devices for each text discussed.
5.

Mary Wollstonecraft uses wit and satire throughout the essay whenever she discusses the qualities conventionally assigned to men and to women. List three of those qualities. How does the writer satirize the belief that educating women will make them masculine?

Lesson 4
Topic Journal
Romantic Period

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 1 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.1A: Modern Day Poets

Wordsworth and the Romantics saw a very special place for the poet-in a role similar to priest, teacher, or master. In the Romantic view, the poet functions as a sort of spiritual guide to the inner realm of intuition, feeling, and imagination.

* Do people see poets and artists in that light today, or are they viewed and valued differently?
* What role do artists and poets play in our society today?
* Write a brief description of the role they play now and also indicate what role you think they should play.
* Your answer should be two paragraphs long.

Innocence and Experience: Blake

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 2 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.2A: Speaking Out Against Injustice

Blake uses his poetry to argue against social injustice. Two of his poems, both titled "The Chimney Sweeper," critique the life of poor children who were forced into this profession. This work was very dangerous and difficult. The children were very badly treated by masters who only cared about money.

* If you could cry out against an evil of our day-and get people to listen-which social injustice would you protest?
* Choose one and explain why. Discuss the methods you would use to protest and then choose one of them and write a brief protest.
* If you'd like, you can write your response in the form of a poem or song.

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 3 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.2B: Responding to Literature

1. Why do human beings commit evil? Why does God allow the innocent to suffer? These questions profoundly disturbed Blake. One of his early conclusions about the problems of good and evil is that "Without contraries, there is no progression." How do "The Tyger" and "The Lamb" reflect what Blake called "two contrary states of human experience"? Do you think that Blake's assessment is correct? Do you believe these contrary states are
essential to human existence? Why or why not? What examples of this belief do you see in each of his poems? Your answer should be 1-2 paragraphs long.
2. How do you think the voice of "The Lamb" is different from the voice of the speaker in "The Tyger"? Why do you think the questions in "The Lamb" get answers? What imagery suggests that the tiger could be a force of enlightenment? Of revolutionary violence? Answer these questions in a paragraph.
3. What do you see as the theme of "A Poison Tree"? Use specific details from the poem to support your answer. Your answer should be at least three sentences long.
4. How would you describe the tone of each of the poems entitled "The Chimney Sweeper"? Use specific examples from each poem to support your answer.
5. If you had to choose your own symbols for the qualities
represented by Blake's tiger and lamb, what would they be?
Explain your reasoning in a brief paragraph.

Appreciating Nature: Wordsworth

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 4 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.3A: Responding to Literature

1. "Lines Composed a few Miles Above Tintern Abbey"
* As you are re-reading "Lines Composed a few Miles Above Tintern Abbey" look for the end punctuation and then indents that signal the end of one stanza and the beginning of the next. Identify the number of stanzas in the poem. As you
read, also make notes about how Wordsworth uses the
stanzas to organize his ideas.
* Write a brief essay discussing whether or not you think the pattern of organization used by Wordsworth is effective in achieving his tone in "Lines Composed a few Miles Above Tintern Abbey." First, identify the tone of the poem, and then discuss and least three unique organizational patterns that either contribute to or detract from that tone. Your answer should be at least three paragraphs long.
2. "Composed upon a Westminster Bridge"
* What details of "Composed upon Westminster Bridge"
personify the city? List at least three examples from the poem.
* List two influences of the Romantic movement evident in the poem and explain why they are Romantic.
* Write a description of a city or town you know well. Use
personification to characterize your city or town. If you wish, you can begin your descriptions with Wordsworth's first line, "Earth has not anything to show more fair."
3. "The World Is Too Much with Us"
* What is Wordsworth's purpose in alluding to mythology in the last lines of the poem? What emotions do these allusions evoke?
* How are the ideas about materialism and progress in this poem relevant to today's world? What is your reaction to the speaker's attack on modern life? Do you agree with Wordsworth that, if people were in tune with nature, they would be happier and less materialistic? Write a paragraph explaining your answers to these questions.

Rebellious Spirit: Lord Byron

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 5 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.4A: Responding to Literature

1. Imagine that the dark beauty described by Byron reads this poem and discovers that it was written about her. Write a letter from the woman to Byron expressing what you think of the poem's portrayal of you. Are you flattered? Embarrassed? Outraged? Do you think the poem reveals the real you? In your letter quote specific lines from the poem and respond to them directly. Your letter should be at least three paragraphs long. You may write your letter in the form of a poem if you wish.
2.

Byron's verse form in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage is the
Spenserian stanza. How closely does stanza 2 adhere to the rhyme and rhythm of that form. What purpose does the
alexandrine fulfill?
3.

In stanzas 2 and 3 of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, the speaker uses an apostrophe to address the sea. Write a prose apostrophe to some element of nature-sea, wind, fire, snow, thunderstorm, hail, etc. Use stanzas 2 and 3 as a model for your apostrophe. Make sure to frame your apostrophe so that you are directly addressing an element of nature. Your apostrophe should be a paragraph long (4-5 sentences).

Percy Bysshe Shelley

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 6 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.5A: Legacy Through Writing

All human beings and all beauty must perish, but can't our works survive us? Death is inevitable, but isn't what we leave behind proof that our passage through life mattered? Like the poets of another restless age, the Renaissance, the Romantic poets tried to answer these questions.

* How would you answer them?
* Discuss whether and how human beings can achieve immortality through their words or their work. If not through a creative process, then what can offer humans immortality?

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 7 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.5B: Responding to Literature

Answer the following questions in your journal

* Each section of "Ode to a Western Wind" is a sonnet. Review the sonnet forms on pages 275-277 of your text and describe how Shelly has adapted the sonnet form to meet his needs.
* Do Shelly's sonnets have turns? Why do you think he chose to use the form of sonnets that he did? Your answer should be at least two paragraphs long.

John Keats

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 8 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.6A: Responding to Literature

1. Select one of Keats' two sonnets and paraphrase it, line by line, using your own words. Remember, in the paraphrase you should put inverted sentences in standard word order. You should also rephrase the figures of speech to make it clear that you understand them. Sometimes poets omit words; if that is the case in one these sonnets, be sure to supply the missing words. Page 644 provides an example, paraphrasing the first lines of "When I Have Fears." Notice that paraphrasing is often longer and less interesting than the original, but through paraphrasing you can understand the poem better.
2. Identify an example of synesthesia in stanza 2 of "Ode to a
Nightingale." What sensory experience does it describe? What feeling or mood does the device help to create? How does the speaker's mood change from the beginning to the end of "Ode to a Nightingale"? What language or poetic devices does the author demonstrate the change in mood?
3. Essay: You've now read three different odes-two by Keats and one, now, by Shelley. For this essay, you will choose two of the odes and compare them. Compare their subject matters, their forms, tones, themes and the poetic devices used by the authors. Discuss the effectiveness of these elements, and discuss whichode you feel is the best example of what an ode should be. Your essay should be three paragraphs long and should include an introductory and a conclusion paragraph.

Samuel Coleridge

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 9 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.7A: Reading Activities for Mariner

As you are reading, keep a list of archaic words that are still in use today. Also, if you encounter words you do not know the meaning of as you are reading, I'd like you to guess at the meaning and write down your guess at the meaning. After finishing a stanza or two, check your guesses with the definitions in the margins or another dictionary. You should have a list of at least seven words after you are finished reading.

Part 2: As you are reading Rime of the Ancient Mariner, I also want you to keep track of what happens in a timeline. Your timeline should begin with "The ancient Mariner stops the Wedding Guest and begins to tell the story" and end with "The Wedding Guest leaves sadder and wiser." While you read and plot your timeline, add to your chart your responses to his story. When do you feel sympathy for him-or sorrow or fear? When does his story seem true, and when is it hopelessly distorted by guilt?

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 10 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.7B: Responding to Literature

1. The power of the imagination is often exalted in Romantic poetry. In your opinion, does "Kubla Khan" celebrate the imagination or caution against its indulgence? Support your response with at least two examples from the poem.
2. As you will remember from Lesson 3, an allegory is a narrative in which the characters, settings, and actions are symbolic-they have both literal and figurative meaning. Write a brief essay (2-3 paragraphs) describing what the various elements (the ancient Mariner, the wedding, the ship, and the albatross) symbolize and what moral lesson Coleridge is attempting to teach.
3. For the most part, the form of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is written in a regular ballad stanza. Occasionally, however, Coleridge varies the meter of the lines and the length of the stanza. Choose one of these variations and explain how it differs from a regular one. Be sure to indicate the line number(s) you are referring to. What effect do you think the changes have on the poem?
4. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner is famous for its use of vivid figurative language and memorable sound devices. Find in the poem a striking example of each of the following: simile, metaphor, personification, alliteration, assonance, and internal rhyme. Then discuss what effect these elements have on the overall effect of the ballad.

Frankenstein: Letters through Chapter III

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 11 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.8A: The Themes in Frankenstein

Directions: I want you to take a moment and think of examples in your life today of the themes listed below. For instance, do you see any examples in your life of beautiful things being more highly valued than less attractive or ugly things; or, can you think of any examples of things that appear differently from what they really are? In this assignment, comment on each of the following themes in your journal and discuss what place or role they have in our cultural perspective today. Which of the themes are valued as being beneficial and or admirable and which are not:

* Beauty and Ugliness
* Love
* Hate
* Revenge
* Parent/Child Relationships
* Technological advancement
* Ambition
* Pursuit of knowledge

As you read Frankenstein you will encounter many of these themes. You can refer back to these notes as you try to understand these themes.

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 12 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.8 B: Frankenstein Reader's Notebook
You should create the following headings below the Frankenstein Reader's Notebook entry in your journal: Vocabulary, Personal Reflections, Quotes, and Responding to Literature. Label your first entries under each section "Letters through Chapter III". You will repeat these entries for each of the next three topics.
1. Vocabulary
In your notebook, you will keep track of new words that
you've learned. At the end of every section, you should have a list of at least 10 new words you encountered and their definitions. You can check word definitions with an online dictionary or use one of your own. You can also guess at their definitions based on the clues in the story. At the end of every topic, you should write a brief paragraph summarizing the sections and use at least five of those words in your paragraph.
2. Personal reflection
You will also write down your thoughts/reflections on what you have read. At the end of each section you will answer the following questions:

* What happened? This can be a very brief summary--even a list.
* What questions do I have about what happened?
* What do I think will happen next? What clues do I have to support my thoughts?
* What characters did I meet? How are they related?
* What recurring commentary or theme occurred in the section? (Refer back to your quickwrite notes from earlier if necessary.)
* What broader comment about life or science do you think the author was making? Do I agree?
* What evidence do you have for your thoughts about the
theme? (You can use the quotes section of this notebook for inspiration.)

3. Quotes
In your Reader's Notebook, record quotes from Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus that strike you as interesting or representative of the book. You should have three to four quotes for each reading assignment.

When you finish the book, you will be writing an essay analyzing the theme of the novel; and you will use your notes from your Reader's Notebook to assist you in your writing.
4. Responding to Literature:
What do Robert Walton and Victor Frankenstein have in common? How are their goals, personalities, and situations similar? How are they different? How does Robert Walton feel about finding a friend?

Why is the poem The Rime of the Ancient Mariner significant to Robert Walton? What effect does the allusion to this poem have on the story? Explain in a brief paragraph.
Frankenstein Chapters IV-XVII

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 13 of 15

Journal Exercise 4.9A: Responsibility and Accountability

In your journal, I'd like you to discuss who should be held most responsible for each given situation and the outcome:

1. A passerby tries to revive a person who has stopped breathing with CPR. In the process of performing CPR, the patient suffers a broken rib and a punctured lung and ends up in the hospital for a few weeks. Should the passerby be held responsible for the injury?
2. A young child and a mother are begging for food and money on a street corner. A wealthy couple walks by without offering any assistance and the child dies of starvation. Should the couple assume any responsibility for the child's death?
3. Jane has always been Katie's best friend. One day, Katie gets angry at Jane and spreads terrible rumors about her. Jane is so embarrassed and ashamed of the things Katie has said she drops out of school and does n

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