Oppositional Defiant Disorder Puberty in Research Paper

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Lonely and distressed adolescents are easy prey to alcohol abuse and drug use causing crime, as well. Substance abuse causes a number of problems for the users as well as the attached parties. It distorts the adolescent's decision making processes and makes them more rigid in what they believe other than what should be done (Turkum, 2011, pg 130).

There are a number of reasons behind substance abuse, including; to gain self-confidence, heightened power, and more energy as many believe to be the case. Peer pressure also accounts for the better part of victims of substance abuse. Teenagers will go to the extent of abusing drugs just to impress their audience.

Issues involving substance abuse are hard to resolve within families at times due to parent involvement in using the drugs. There is the need to notify Human Service professional of such cases. There are specific treatment settings set for adolescent substance abuse patients in the treatment facilities. A patient might receive treatment either as an outpatient or in-patient hospital facility (Martin and Michelle, 2007, pg 54). The psychiatrist determines either type after assessing the teenager for substance abuse problems. The human service professional makes sure that the patient's recovery is effective through the program. Parent involvement during the adolescent's treatment should also be a capital factor as it also provides adequate knowledge on substance abuse to the concerned parents. It is easier to the child to overcome life barriers with the presence of the parents.

Adolescent Egocentrism

During the adolescent stage, there is a revamp of the egocentric stage. This stage mainly emphasizes on cognitive and social factors adding in are personal fable and imaginative audience creation by the subject persons (Sullivan, 2012, pg 692). This stage creates the tendency of the adolescent believing that the world is an audience and that they are constantly under watch by them. This explains the behavioral aspect of many adolescents e.g. extended time in front of the mirror mostly fixing their hair and putting on makeup.

A good example of imaginary audience is when a teenage girl or boy gets a pimple on the face. They constantly feel like there are persons always in the surrounding aware of the pimple and mostly they treat it as if it is a colossal tragedy. In reality, the individuals that surround them are barely aware of the pimple. The egocentric stage is quite difficult to handle for the adolescents. Considering the fact that they always feel like they are under constant pressure to create that perfect image out of themselves. The concept of imaginary audience is a key driving force in this case. The persons that can put them under pressure include peers, friends, parents, colleagues etc. This kind of unwanted pressure, also acts as a key contributing factor to unhealthy behaviors like substance abuse. Mostly the purpose is to create the feeling of acceptance.

Puberty is one of the hardest stages in life for every individual. The main reason being that, it is the focal point for most of life growth and development. There are numerous hormonal changes making it a tremendously difficult and emotional time. The personal fable during puberty is when the adolescent feel like they out stand every other person in the world (Sullivan et al., 2012, pg 700).

The first counseling objective of every professional is to establish proper patient communication. It is beneficial that the counselor understands the patient's behavior namely; how they view and interact with his/counterparts. It is essential for the counselor in that it allows them to adjust their counseling programs to fit the patients'/client's communication ability. This is of course after taking into account physical, cognitive, behavioral and emotional immaturity as the client's attributes. Such techniques are appropriate while communicating to adolescents who are otherwise not fully developed adults.

Adolescent Thinking

Most adolescents, within the 10-13 years age bracket, exhibit the characteristic of adolescent thinking. They mainly focus on their own selves excluding the other parties surrounding them. An adolescent might have the belief that his feelings, thoughts, and experiences are unique and more meaningful than those of others (Berger, 2007, pg 90).

Adolescent egocentrism, which creates the personal belief that the teenager is better and momentous than their counterparts, come along with the establishment of new mental abilities. Teenagers create an imaginary audience heightening their self-consciousness. Teenagers mostly believe that, others, especially peers are on the lookout for them. Their conscience tells them that their peers think about them always and that they always have an interest in their behaviors and thoughts.
Most adolescents consume large amounts of time mainly thinking about themselves and the way others ("imaginary audience") are doing the same i.e. monitoring and thinking about them. Female adolescents exhibit this behavior more than male adolescents. It increases during the early stages of puberty. Its peek comes around at about 14-16 years age group. The main difference between adolescent egocentrism and its equal during pre-operational thought is that adolescents exhibit a complete mind theory, unlike children. They are wary of the fact other parties have personal thoughts as well; their conscience does not ignore others. Instead of that, it distorts the understanding of others on what they might be thinking about them (Berger, 2007, pg 105).

The first counseling objective of every professional is the establishment of communication channels through which to interact with the patient. Intervention programs call for the counselor to understand the patient's behavior namely; how they view and interact with his/counterparts. It is indispensable for the counselor in that it allows them to adjust their counseling programs to fit the patients'/client's communication ability. This is of course after taking into account physical, cognitive, behavioral and emotional immaturity as the client's attributes. Such techniques are appropriate while communicating to adolescents who are otherwise not fully developed adults.

Adolescent Schizophrenia

This is a brain disorder that makes people interpret the reality abnormally. Diagnosis of schizophrenia is mainly at early adult life, but the diagnosis of adolescents with this disorder has over time become a critical concern. Diagnosis off this disorder during puberty reports more severe cases than adulthood diagnosis. Diagnosis of teenagers, mostly, with the subtype of disorganized schizophrenia. Such exhibit a behavioral factor where the patient responds to events in less sensitive manner. Some of the symptoms include; disorganized speech, disorganized behavior e.g. abrupt shouting and/or inappropriate emotional expression.

Some symptoms are noticeable in adolescents while are absent in adults, such include; prevalence of cognitive impairment, reading, language, and motor development delays, as well as bladder control. Causes of the schizophrenia disorder remain unknown while genetics and environmental influences remaining to play a role in its diagnosis. Risk factors leading to this disorder exist in numbers namely; exposure to viruses, family history of schizophrenia, and most importantly adolescent psychoactive drug abuse (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research). The fact that adolescents with schizophrenia experience the world on a different perspective from others, they communicate illogically, in a disorganized manner, and imaginary. This makes it hard for patients to establish credible friendships with the outside world (Vinet and Faundez, 2012, pg 206).

The disadvantage is to teenagers with this disorder in that the diagnosis of schizophrenia is extremely hard purposed to applying adult diagnosis to adolescents. The rarity of this disorder also calls for increased attention as little experience in pinpointing the disorder is a substantial disadvantage to the psychiatrists. A psychiatrist assessing an adolescent schizophrenic involves reviewing their social, medical, and family history; interviewing the youth, teachers, parents and guardians, and other close persons to assess the patient's behavior, thinking patterns, and perceptions; brain and blood tests for any medical conditions that might otherwise be a symptom causative agent. Specialists conduct other tests to assess functional abilities and cognitive skills. Any establishes psychotic behavior must last for at least six months with complete exclusion of other causes of symptoms.

Therapy interventions are not enough to deal with schizophrenia and so calls for medical interventions also as part of treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Psychosis is clearly evident in patients with this disorder. Psychosis detaches individuals from the world of reality. Some of the symptoms exhibited include distorted thoughts, paranoia, hallucinations, and delusions. Considering all these, psychiatrists prescribe antipsychotics to eradicate the symptoms in turn avoiding recurrence of the same. An example of such medication is Thorazine which is as well-known as Chlorpromazine.

Adolescent Community Violence

Incidences of adolescent violence can be partly attributable to rising sequences of occurrences culminating from unintended outcomes by the participants. Such incidents are prominent amongst the schooling population at different frequencies, types and dynamics. Some of the causatives of youth violence are; medication to children by psychiatrists, media's role in the community, TV programs, movies, and video/computer games. Other causes of violence involve incidents that are evident in today's families due to separation, divorce, raising children in foster homes, harsh living environment, and involvement in gangs, substance or drug abuse, drinking alcohol,….....

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