Families, Delinquency & Crime Describe Thesis

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It is possible that an individual who was abused as a child was able to recover from the trauma of his/her experience, and tried to convert his/her negative experience into a positive one by helping out abused children, with the goal of helping them to also recover and develop as psychologically healthy individuals. This kind of psyche abolishes the phenomenon of double jeopardy, and provides a counter-argument to the earlier claim that abused children tend to have realtionships who will also abuse them.

7. Reflect about the idea from the text regarding, "child abuse is transmitted across the generations." Do you agree with this statement?

I agree with the statement that child abuse is transmitted across the generations, as empirical studies have shown that indeed, abused individuals during their childhood (in the study's case, mothers) had indeed the tendency to also abuse their children. Again, this statement is just part of the whole, and I also believe (and this was also empirically proven through quantitative studies), that there were also victims of abuse who "broke the cycle." The difference between mothers who perpetuated and broke the cycle of abuse is that the former (mothers who perpetuated the cycle of abuse) resorted to feelings of "idealization, inconsistency, and escapism" -- that is, they are more "dissociative" and not in touch with their social realities as compared to the mothers who managed to break the cycle of abuse in her family (Egeland and Susman-Stillman, 1996).

8. Explain the "double jeopardy" hypothesis as it relates to women being role models for "victims" of abuse

Simons et. al.'s (1993)findings in their study of double jeopardy among abused women showed that abused women during their childhood and adulthood years manifested the following characteristics: victim's perceptions of helplessness, commitment to traditional gender beliefs, and involvement in aggressive/deviant behavior. These factors set the ground for these women to become "role models" for victims of abuse, as they are particularly more likely to support and reinforce traditional gender beliefs, which consider women as subservient to men. This reinforcement would eventually result to deviant behavior through a perception of helplessness, ultimately enabling her husband or partner to abuse her, verbally, physically or psychologically.
9. Explain the concepts and principles of Social Learning Theory.

Social learning theory, developed by A. Bandura, "emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others" (Theory into Practice, 2009). Further, social learning theory look into the following components as critical in the process of observing, and eventually, modeling among humans: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation (ibid). SLT is applied in contexts wherein a phenomenon is commonly and most frequently occurring, and no assumptions about this phenomenon are ultimately generated from observations of how individuals or groups (or subjects) learn through observation and modeling of an action or behavior.


Bates, K., C. Bader, and F. Mencken. (2003). "Family structure, power-control theory, and deviance: extending power-control theory to include alternate family forms." Western Criminology Review, Vol. 4, No. 3.

Egelman, B. And A. Susman-Stillman. (1996). "Dissociation as mediator of child abuse across generations." Child Abuse & Neglect, Vol. 20, Issue 11.

Flowers, R. (2001). Runaway kids and teenage prostitution: America's lost, abandoned, and sexually exploited children. Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Simons, R., C. Johnson, J. Beaman, and R. Conger. (1993). "Explaining women's double jeopardy: factors that mediate the association between harsh treatment as a child and violence by a husband." Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 55.

"Social learning theory (A. Bandura)." Theory Into Practice Web site. Accessed 11 December 2009. Available at: http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html.

Sommer, R. (1994). "Male and female perpetrated partner abuse: Testing a diathesis-stress model." Fathers for Life Web site. Available at: http://fathersforlife.org/reena_sommer/reena_sommer_DV_2c.htm

Tremblay, R., W. Hartup and J. Archer. (2005). Development Origins of Aggression. NY: Guilford Press......

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