Developmental Psychology: Compare & Contrast Term Paper

Total Length: 2058 words ( 7 double-spaced pages)

Total Sources: 3

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It is not possible that the child or adolescent will be positively affected by development that fails to include each of the primary developmental areas and specifically development of the child or adolescent's: (1) cognitive thinking growth; (2) physical growth; or (3) growth as an emotional individual. All of these areas of the individual must experience development in unison in order that the child or adolescent develop in a normal and health manner. In order that the child reach their full potential in terms of development, the normal child or adolescent must be assisted in the individual development of each of these aspects of human growth which are (1) gaining cognition in terms of their thinking processes; (2) physical development at a normal rate and in a positive manner; and (3) individual emotional development. Developmental delays in the child's development caused by disease, mental disabilities, injuries, environmental causes and other trauma or causes that are unknown hinders children in proper development.

The integration of these different developmental aspects is illustrated in the 'Life Skills Approach' which is a theory presented in the work of Mangrulkar, Whitman and Posner (2001) entitled: 'Life Skills Approach to Child and Adolescent Healthy Human Development" which has as its basis that the foundation of the development and growth of the individual is affected by several areas of development which include: (1) biological changes factors; (2) social cognition impacts in individual development; (3) individual cognitive development; and (4) social/family context development. The theoretical framework of the development of 'life skills' is one which places social context, cognition, and concept development on a four-stage developmental age scale including the four of: (1) early childhood (4-6); (2) Middle Childhood (7-10); (3) Early Adolescence (11-14); and (4) Middle adolescence (15-17) and posits that each developmental stage builds one upon the other and relates the progressing complexities of the thinking utilized by the individual across the three aspects of the individual's three learning aspects until finally, in Middle Adolescence, ages 15-17, the individual has gained autonomy from parents and uses problem-solving processes and is capable of speculation in relation to best alternatives.
Uncontrollable factors are readily identified by the individual by Middle Adolescence and external standards of fairness are readily identified by the individual as well. The individual in Middle Adolescence is in the ongoing process of development of a sense of self as an autonomous individual still developing and growing in this developmental phase, which last throughout the life of the individual.


Jean Piaget and Child Development (2008) Child & Adolescent Development. Mercy Behavioral Health. Online available at

Urie Bronfenbrenner and Child Development (2008) Child & Adolescent Development. Mercy Behavioral Health. Online available at

Lawrence Kohlberg and Child Development (2008) Child & Adolescent Development. Mercy Behavioral Health. Online available at

Mangrulkar, Leena; Whitman, Cheryl Vince; and Posner, Marc (2001) Life Skills Approach to Child and Adolescent Health Human Development. Health and Human Development programs, Education Development Center, Inc. EDC Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) W.K. Kellogg Foundation September 2001. Online available at

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